Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER )

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier


Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

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  • Article influence
  • Website
    Personality and Individual Differences website
  • Other titles
    Personality and individual differences
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  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
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    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) measures transient feelings of self-worth. The SSES has been hypothesized to possess a number of latent structures, ranging from one to three factors. The present study compared these putative structures along with a newly hypothesized bifactor structure (i.e., one global factor, three subfactors). Results offered greatest support for the bifactor model. A secondary goal was to further assess the nomological network surrounding state self-esteem by examining correlations involving an expanded measure of basic personality (i.e., the HEXACO), Dark Triad traits, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. In general, these correlations were consistent with the theoretical portrait of state self-esteem and were also consistent with correlations involving trait-level self-esteem. Most notably, however, scores on the SSES consistently correlated negatively with measures of the Dark Triad traits, suggesting a possible theoretical distinction between state- and trait-level self-esteem.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:1–6.
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    ABSTRACT: This research aimed to investigate the relationship between the habitual use of expressive suppression, a type of emotion regulation strategy, and risk taking in the financial domain. It also attempted to further examine gender as a possible moderator of this relationship and to explore the anticipated emotion related to negative potential outcomes as the mechanism behind this moderated effect. Two studies were conducted for these purposes. In Study 1, a total of 657 college students completed a test battery, including both the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and the Grable and Lytton Risk Tolerance Scale. The results showed that expressive suppression was negatively related to financial risk taking, and gender moderated this relationship. In Study 2, 441 college students took a test battery including both the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and a financial investment allocation task. The results replicated the findings in Study 1 and indicated that the anticipated emotion related to negative potential outcomes fully mediated the moderated effect of gender in the suppression-financial risk taking association. These findings implied the importance of considering gender differences in the prediction of financial choices from the perspective of emotion regulation.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:35–40.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify the relevance of social information-processing (SIP) models in the study of impulsivity. 170 undergraduates completed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale relevant to negative urgency, the SIP–AEQ and control measures. The SIP–AEQ consists of eight vignettes featuring a social situation measuring hostile attributional bias (HAB), emotional responses and impulsive behaviors in response to an ambiguous social provocation. Regression analyses showed negative urgency’s unique contribution to indirect HAB after controlling for the effects of aggressiveness, negative emotions and lack of perseverance, another UPPS dimension of impulsivity. Analyses also revealed that indirect HAB mediates the relationship between negative urgency and impulsive behaviors, after controlling for the effects of aggressiveness and negative emotions. Results suggest that SIP models are relevant to study the active social cognitive processes in impulsive behaviors of high-urgency individuals.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:18–23.
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined whether two adaptive emotion regulation strategies, mindfulness and acceptance, moderate the relationship between Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity and psychological distress. Participants were 467 students at a large Midwestern university. Data were collected with paper-and-pencil questionnaires and analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses. A significant positive association was observed between Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity and psychological distress, with acceptance and mindfulness facets (Nonreactivity and Observing) significantly moderating this association. Findings suggest mindfulness- and acceptance-based strategies may buffer the influence of Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity on the development and maintenance of psychological distress in nonclinical populations.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:24–29.
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    ABSTRACT: Morning and evening types (“larks” and “owls”) are most alert in the morning and in the evening, respectively. Because they are also characterized by preference for early awakening–early bedtime and late awakening–late bedtime, respectively, two questions arise: Is it possible to distinguish two additional types preferring early awakening–late bedtime and late awakening–early bedtime? If yes, are they similar to the types of habitual short and long sleepers? One hundred and thirty healthy participants of sleep deprivation experiments were subdivided into four (2 × 2) types depending upon self-assessed preferences for morning and evening earliness/lateness. The differences between these types in self-assessed morning/evening earliness/lateness were associated with the differences in levels of morning/evening–early night sleepiness. However, self-reports on their pre-experimental wakeups/bedtimes showed that the two additional types were not identical to the types of short and long sleepers. It seems that the four-type classification of morning/evening preference represents pairwise combinations of low/high levels of waking ability during the morning/evening–early night hours, and that such variation in waking ability is irrelevant to individual differences in sleep ability, i.e., variation in sleep need, sleep capacity, sleep quality, napping propensity, etc.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:12–17.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has focused on how happiness is independently associated with political orientation and religiosity. The current study instead explored how political orientation and religiosity interact in establishing levels of happiness. Data from both the 2012 General Social Survey and the 2005 World Values Survey were used. Results from both data sets support prior research by showing a positive association between happiness and both political conservatism and religiosity. Importantly, it was found that political conservatism and religiosity interact in predicting happiness levels. Specifically, the current results suggest that religiosity has a greater effect on happiness for more politically conservative individuals compared to more politically liberal individuals.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/2015; 72:7–11.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study (N = 462) examined the relationship between the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) and deception in domain-general and domain-specific contexts. As predicted, psychopathy and Machiavellianism were linked to the propensity to lie in different contexts, including mating and academic dishonesty. Psychopathy was related to experiencing more positive emotions associated with lying and Machiavellianism was associated with increased amount of cognitive effort associated with deception. Sex differences in deception were partially mediated by individual differences in the Dark Triad traits. Our findings have important implications for the interpersonal strategies employed by those high on the Dark Triad.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2014; 71:35-38.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present paper was to test the cross-cultural validity of the Positivity-Scale (P-Scale), a new questionnaire designed for the measurement of positivity (i.e., general tendency to evaluate self, life, and future in a positive way). Participants (N = 3544) from Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, and Serbia answered eight items of the P-Scale and responded to items from other well-validated measures. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the assumed one-factor structure of the P-Scale and demonstrated its gender invariance in each country and cross-cultural validity. Correlation analyses revealed significant and positive associations of the P-Scale with self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, and a latent factor variable of positivity, and a negative relation to depression. The findings provided support for the convergent validity of the P-Scale across countries. Possible applications of the P-Scale are suggested. Implications for further research on conditions and outcomes of positivity in different cultural contexts are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2014; 71:140–145.
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    ABSTRACT: Examining the relation between ideological variables and climate change denial, we found social dominance orientation (SDO) to outperform right-wing authoritarianism and left–right political orientation in predicting denial (Study 1 and 2). In Study 2, where we experimentally altered the level of denial by a newscast communicating supporting evidence for climate change, we demonstrated that the relation between the ideology variables and denial remains stable across conditions (newscast vs. control). Thus, the results showed that denial can be altered by communicating climate change evidence regardless of peoples’ position on ideology variables, in particular social dominance. We discuss the outcome in terms of core elements of SDO – dominance and system-justification motives – and encourage researchers on climate change denial to focus on these elements.
    Personality and Individual Differences 11/2014; 70:62–65.
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    ABSTRACT: Sociosexual orientation is a construct describing the propensity to engage in casual sex and sexual activity in uncommitted relationships, varying from restricted to unrestricted orientation. The personality profile of people exhibiting unrestricted sociosexuality matches a personality profile related to eveningness. Previous research on sociosexuality and morningness-eveningness is scarce, however, and conducted only with male participants. The present study aimed at testing whether eveningness is related to unrestricted sociosexuality in both genders. Participants were 352 (62.8% female) Poles aged between 17 and 57. They completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory, consisting of three facets: behavior, attitude, and desire. The results revealed that females were more restricted than males in all facets of sociosexuality. Moreover, in both genders older age was related to less restricted behavior and attitude. Analyses showed that morningness-eveningness was unrelated to sociosexuality in males, but in females eveningness was linked to less restricted global sociosexuality (ρ = -0.272), and to less restricted sociosexual behavior (ρ = -0.182), attitude (ρ = -0.275) and desire (ρ = -0.151). Eveningness in females could be regarded as a contributory factor to the instability of romantic relationships and high-risk sexual behaviors.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2014; 68:13-17.
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2014; 69:81-86.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has shown that adult attachment-related anxiety is associated with the explicit self-concept of neuroticism. It remains to be clarified whether attachment anxiety is related to the implicit self-concept of neuroticism. There is evidence that gender can moderate the strength of correlation between implicit and explicit measures. The Experiences in Close Relationships scale and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) were administered to 106 healthy adults along with an Implicit Association Test assessing neuroticism. Attachment anxiety correlated with NEO-FFI neuroticism, regardless of gender. Attachment anxiety was correlated with neuroticism as measured by the IAT in women but not men. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that gender was a moderator of the relationship between attachment anxiety and implicit neuroticism. Our data suggest that in the associative Network of women with high attachment anxiety associative representations of the self are more strongly linked to attributes of neuroticism compared to women with low attachment anxiety.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The construct of psychopathy has been comparatively understudied in women, and to date there has been no attempt to systematically review the literature related to psychopathy in women. This review assimilates the existing evidence in relation to the prevalence and factor structure of psychopathy in women within secure settings. An extensive systematic search was performed using 11 electronic databases and four search engines; citation, author and reference list searching was also performed. After removing duplicates and appraising the study’s eligibility by title, 261 publications were appraised against minimum quality and eligibility threshold criteria, resulting in 28 remaining publications with data on 2545 participants. Quality appraisal was conducted by two raters, with excellent inter-rater reliability (kappas = .7−.9). A narrative synthesis was then performed. PCL-R based prevalence rates ranged from 1.05% to 31% (with a cut-off criterion of 30), with variations in multiple factors, such as geographical location and type of sample setting. The factor model with the most support from the reviewed studies was Cooke & Michie’s (2001) 3-Factor model. The apparent gender differences in the prevalence rates, factor structure and item expression of psychopathy, presents implications for the assessment and general conceptualisation of the construct in women within secure settings.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2014;

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