Personality and Individual Differences (PERS INDIV DIFFER)

Publisher: International Society for the Study of Individual Differences, Elsevier

Journal description

Personality and Individual Differences is devoted to the publication of articles (experimental, theoretical, review) which aim to integrate as far as possible the major factors of personality with empirical paradigms from experimental, physiological, animal, clinical, educational, criminological or industrial psychology or to seek an explanation for the causes and major determinants of individual differences in concepts derived from these disciplines. The editors are concerned with both genetic and environmental causes, and they are particularly interested in possible interaction effects. Ultimately they believe that human beings are bio-social organisms and that work on individual differences can be most fruitfully pursued by paying attention to both these aspects of our nature. They believe that advances are more likely to be made by the use of the hypothetical-deductive method, though empirical data based on sound research and providing interesting new findings, would of course not be rejected simply because they might not have a good theoretical underpinning. All in all, the traditional type of work on traits, abilities, attitudes, types and other latent structures underlying consistencies in behavior has in recent years been receiving rather short shrift in traditional journals of personality; Personality and Individual Differences aims to reinstate it to its proper place in psychology, equal in importance with general experimental work, and interacting with it to make up a unitary science of psychology. The Second International Conference on Child & Adolescent Mental Health takes place in Kuala Lumpur, 6-10 June 2000. Topics include: Assessment, diagnosis, education and treatment of children and adolescents, Child and adolescent psychopathology/social and emotional development, Cross cultural differences, Mental health issues, Model service delivery programs, Educational practices.

Current impact factor: 1.86

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2009 Impact Factor 1.878

Additional details

5-year impact 2.31
Cited half-life 8.10
Immediacy index 0.26
Eigenfactor 0.02
Article influence 0.78
Website Personality and Individual Differences website
Other titles Personality and individual differences
ISSN 0191-8869
OCLC 4965018
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The field of personality psychology offers a wealth of robust empirical research and a successful descriptive taxonomy, but neither explains the origins of the structure of human personality nor elaborates a generative framework for predicting the specific conditions that evoke the development of distinct personality traits. Exploration of traditional personality constructs within an evolutionary adaptive individual differences framework may help fill this explanatory gap. Personality traits exhibit functional features and patterns of variation expected from psychological adaptations designed to solve survival- and reproduction-related challenges recurrently faced during our species’ evolutionary history. Condition- dependent evolutionary models of personality have been proposed for decades, but only recently have begun to see empirical investigation. These models posit that species-typical psychological mechanisms take as input cues from the individual’s phenotype that would have been ancestrally linked to differential cost–benefit tradeoffs of alternative personality strategies, and produce as output personality trait levels with the greatest probabilistic net benefit for the individual. This paper elaborates a more nuanced conceptual framework that builds on earlier conceptualizations of condition-dependent traits to yield new and untested hypotheses about personality trait variation and covariation. It then describes clear future research directions for empirically investigating these readily testable hypotheses.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886914005741. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.10.013
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that (1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and (2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated Openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.030
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypotheses that 1) psychological adaptations calibrate Openness to Experience to facilitate or deter pursuit of short-term mating, and 2) this calibration varies as a function of mating strategy, physical attractiveness, and sex—individual differences that shift the costs and benefits of alternative personality strategies. Participants completed a personality inventory before and after reading vignettes describing mating opportunities of different durations (short- and long-term) with individuals of differing levels of attractiveness. Among study findings, participants presented with short-term mating opportunities with individuals of average attractiveness exhibited down-regulated openness relative to those presented with highly attractive mates. Moreover, these effects varied as a function of the interaction between participants’ sex, mating strategy, and attractiveness. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that evolved psychological mechanisms adaptively calibrate Openness levels in response to short-term mating opportunities. More broadly, they highlight the heuristic value of an evolutionary framework for the study of personality and individual differences.
    Personality and Individual Differences 12/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Gratitude is a positive disposition that is connected to well-being. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of self-esteem in the association between gratitude and well-being among undergraduate students. Two hundred and thirty-five participants completed measures of dispositional gratitude, self-esteem, and several indices of well-being. The results indicated that higher levels of dispositional gratitude were associated with greater self-esteem and indices of well-being. Moreover, higher levels of self-esteem were also associated with indices of well-being. Path analyses showed that self-esteem acted as a partial mediator of the association between gratitude and well-being. These results provide information regarding a possible process through which dispositional gratitude has beneficial effects.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.045
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    ABSTRACT: Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND's American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18-93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonallyoriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.034
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    ABSTRACT: This paper provides a theoretical overview and empirical demonstration of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS) comparing it to Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The two data analysis techniques share historical origins but differ in terms of underlying algorithms, which gives rise to other key differences: (a) the treatment of unexplained indicator variance; (b) the specification of formative constructs; (c) the availability of model fit estimates; and (d) sample size requirements. We conduct secondary analyses of an existing data set from MacCann, Fogarty, and Roberts (2012) as an empirical demonstration of the utility of PLS in psychology research. The first analysis shows PLS will produce results similar to those of SEM for a simple mediation model. The second analysis shows that PLS can produce results for a complex model for which SEM would require a prohibitively large sample. We conclude that: (1) under common constraints of differential psychology research settings, sample size requirements of PLS may be substantially smaller than those of SEM; (2) PLS is a useful tool for differential psychology research in scenarios where sample size constrains the use of robust SEM; and (3) that PLS offers a viable means to explore and text complex models beyond current limits.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.008
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    ABSTRACT: Although random responding is prevalent and increases Type II errors, most psychologists avoid trying to identify it because the means to do so are extremely limited. We propose the inter-item standard deviation (ISD), a statistical index of response variance, is suited for this task. We hypothesized that random responders produce large ISDs because they respond to items all over a measure’s response range, whereas conscientious responders produce small ISDs because they respond to items more consistently. We administered a questionnaire containing the NEO-FFI-3 and an embedded validity scale to 134 university students. Another 134 responders were created using a random number generator. For all 268 responders, the ISD was calculated for each of the NEO-FFI-3′s five subscales and an aggregated ISD was calculated by averaging the five ISD indexes. Results showed that (1) random responders produce significantly larger ISDs than conscientious responders, (2) the ISDs were strongly correlated with the embedded validity scale and with one another, and (3) the ISDs correctly identified responders with greater than 80% classification accuracy. The mean ISD yielded greater than 95% classification accuracy. This study shows that responders can be identified by quantifying inter-item response variance.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 84. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.021
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to test depressive symptoms as a mediator between social difficulties and hostility in young adults. Hostility is often a reaction to both intrinsic and extrinsic factors; therefore a greater understanding of contributing factors is needed, especially among emerging adults. College students (n = 608; 408 females, 200 males) self-reported on social difficulties, depression, and hostility. Via exploratory factor analyses, two latent constructs related to social difficulty were identified: social performance and social motivation. Using structural equation modeling, the direct effects found that poor social performance was significantly positively associated with BPAQ Total (β = .44, p < .01). Social motivation was not associated with BPAQ Total (β = −.07, p = .21). Further, depression scores were found to partially mediate the relationship between social performance deficits (β = .34, p < .01; 95% CI = .05–.16), but not social motivation (β = −.06, p > .05; 95% CI = −.04 to .04), and overall aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of negative affect and impaired emotion regulatory processes on hostility as a consequence of social performance deficits.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.003
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals who are high in rejection sensitivity are vigilant toward social cues that signal rejection, and they exhibit attention biases towards information that confirms expectations of rejection. Little is known, however, about the neural correlates of rejection sensitivity. The present study examined whether rejection sensitivity is associated with individuals’ neural responses to rejection-relevant information. Female participants, classified as high or average in rejection sensitivity, completed a modified dot-probe task in which a neutral face was paired with either another neutral face or a gaze-averted (“rejecting”) face while EEG was collected and ERP components were computed. Behavioral results indicated that average rejection sensitive participants showed an attention bias away from rejecting faces, while high rejection sensitive participants were equally vigilant to neutral and rejecting faces. High rejection sensitivity was associated with ERP components signaling elevated attention and arousal to faces. These findings suggest that rejection sensitivity shapes behavioral and neurocognitive responses to faces.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.023
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether optimism is a mediator between sense of coherence, subjective well-being and psychological well-being among late adolescents. Two hundred and eleven participants completed the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Life Orientation Test-Revised, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Results of path analysis revealed both direct and indirect effects of sense of coherence on subjective and psychological well-being measures, suggesting that optimism served as a partial mediator. The mediating role of optimism may be more fully understood within the framework of the self-concordance model. Consistent with the model, individuals who have formed meaningful goals tend to experience more positive affective states, which in turn enhances well-being. The findings also suggest that sense of coherence should not be interpreted as an autonomous resource contributing to a favorable development of late adolescents’ well-being, but as a factor that works in connection with dispositional optimism.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.006
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    ABSTRACT: While both shame and guilt are described as self-conscious emotions, they differ in many ways, including their contextual antecedents and their associations with mental health. A measure that distinguishes proneness to experience shame and guilt is crucial.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.028
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested four predictions derived from (evolutionary) sexual conflict theory. The central hypothesis was that men and women possess different emotional mechanisms that motivate and evaluate sexual activities. Women’s mechanisms are associated with their perception of partners’ ability and willingness to invest. For men these associations are weaker or inverse. Regression analyses of survey data from 194 college students revealed the following. As incidence of casual sexual relations increased (SOI Behavior), men reported less concern about partners’ intentions and less Worry–Vulnerability in response to casual sexual relations than women did; these gender interactions were significant. Regular sexual relations with partners with whom they did not desire emotional involvement showed the same pattern of gender differences. The Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) measured the incidence of sexual coercion in casual sexual relations. For women, but not for men, SOI Behavior was associated with all levels of sexual coercion. Limitations and implications are discussed.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.031
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    ABSTRACT: Past literature has suggested a dual nature of trait based narcissism, comprising overt and covert forms. While several studies have examined the two subtypes in relation to self-esteem, very few studies have examined narcissistic subtypes and self-efficacy. 115 Psychology undergraduates filled in self-report measures of overt narcissism, covert narcissism, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Results demonstrated no significant relationship between overt and covert narcissism, suggesting two distinct subtypes. Overt and covert forms of narcissism were found to significantly contribute to self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Further, overt narcissism positively predicted both self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Conversely, covert narcissism was found to negatively predict self-esteem and self-efficacy beyond self-esteem. Overt narcissism subscale associations were also computed, with Power being associated with higher self-efficacy but not self-esteem, suggesting Power to be a more adaptive subscale. The Special Person subscale was associated with higher self-esteem but not self-efficacy, suggesting it forms the maladaptive core of overt narcissism. Exhibitionism was not associated with either self-esteem or self-efficacy. Results appear congruent with past literature, and have given an additional insight into the implications of trait based narcissism regarding self-efficacy. Findings appear to suggest trait based overt narcissism is a more adaptive construct to individual self-concept than covert narcissism.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.013
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    ABSTRACT: Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five personality traits and facets was found between different academic majors; R2 varied from .05 to .15 for the Big Five personality traits and from .16 to .57 for the Big Five facets. Complex patterns emerged; several Conscientiousness and Openness facets were good predictors of GPA in some majors, but not in others. The findings call for new directions in personality–performance research with broader sampling strategies and exploration of predictive validity of the Big Five facets.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.030
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to analyse hardiness as a moderator variable among personality traits, assessed using the Big-Five or Five Factor Model (FFM) and responses in work effort of workers confronted with stress. Using a multi-occupational sample of 403 subjects, statistically significant correlations between the factors of the FFM and work effort were found, as well as between hardiness and effort, as predicted by the theoretical model. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that hardiness performs a moderating role between the factors of FFM and effort displayed, in the sense that hardiness (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between the structure of personality (predictor variable) and work effort (criterion variable), that is, even taking into account that personality structure affects work effort, people who score high in hardiness will show more effort.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.044
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    ABSTRACT: Little research has explored infidelity relationships from the perspective of the infidelity partner (i.e. the other man/woman to an exclusive romantic relationship) or explored the personality profiles of these individuals. Participants (n = 180) completed an online survey. Our findings indicate that most infidelity partners initially do not know they are engaging in infidelity but less than half ended the relationship upon learning of the infidelity. Low agreeableness appears to be a core trait to help explain why some individuals are willing to be an infidelity partner and conceal the transgression. Individuals higher on anxious attachment and an unrestricted sociosexual orientation appear to be more likely to be infidelity partners, although this finding must be cautiously interpreted. As a third party is necessary to engage in infidelity, knowing more about the infidelity partner is essential to furthering the infidelity literature.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.05.014
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effect of a mismatch between trait dominance and induced status on cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from a dyadic interaction task. Eighty normotensive men characterized as either high or low in trait dominance engaged in a discussion requiring persuasive behavior either in the context of a high or low induced status position. The outcome of a rigged competition was used as a marker of status. Induced status was found to moderate cardiovascular recovery of dominance groups. High dominant individuals exhibited less complete recovery of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) when placed in a low compared to high status position, whereas recovery of low dominant individuals tended to show greater impairment in a high status position. Results for changes in emotional states also indicate a detrimental effect of incongruous status positions, particularly for high dominant individuals. Subjective experiences did not mediate cardiovascular effects, though.
    Personality and Individual Differences 10/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.04.040