African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines (AFR J TRADIT COMPLEM )

Description

The African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines (AJTCAM), a new broad-based journal, is founded on two key tenets: To publish exciting research in all areas of applied medicinal plants, Traditional medicines, Complementary Alternative Medicines, food and agricultural technologies, and promotion of healthy use of medicinal products. Secondly, to provide the most rapid turn-around time possible for reviewing and publishing, and to disseminate the articles freely for teaching and reference purposes. All articles published in AJTCAM are peer-reviewed.

Publications in this journal

  • African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: There is a great need for novel strategies to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in immunocompromised patients. To evaluate the antifungal and antihepatotoxic potentials of Sepia ink extract, its effect on liver oxidative stress levels was analyzed against IPA in neutropenic mice using amphotercin B as a reference drug. Materials and Methods: Eighty neutropenic infected mice were randomly assigned into four main groups. The 1st group was treated with saline, neutropenic infected (NI), the 2nd group was treated with ink extract (200 mg/kg) (IE) and the 3rd group was treated with amphotericin B (150 mg/kg) (AMB) and 4th group was treated with IE plus AMB. Treatment was started at 24 h after fungal inoculation (1×109 conidia/ml). Results: The present study revealed good in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of IE against A. fumigatus. IE significantly reduced hepatic fungal burden and returns liver function and histology to normal levels. Compared with the untreated infected group, mice in the IE, AMB, and IE+ AMB groups had increased glutathione reduced (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at 24 and 72 h after inoculation with A. fumigatus conidia. Conclusion: It is then concluded that in combination with antifungal therapy (AMB), IE treatment can reduce hepatic fungal burden, alleviate hepatic granulomatous lesions and oxidative stress associated with IPA in neutropenic mice
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 03/2014; 11(3):148-159.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Traditional Chinese medicine (CM) appears to be used worldwide, especially by cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to explore CM uses and CM non-users by patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted using registration and claims data sets for 2007 from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients with colorectal cancer were identified from the Registry for Catastrophic illness Patients. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios as the measure of association with the use of CM. Results: A total of 61,211 CRC patients diagnosed in 2007 were analysis. Most CM users preferred to visit private clinics (46.9%) with 306,599 visits. In contrast, the majority of CM non-users preferred to visit private hospitals (42.2%) with 538,769 visits. Among all 176,707 cancer-specific CM visit, there were 66.6% visits to CM outpatient department (OPD) of private hospitals, while in 477,612 non-cancer-specific CM visits, 62.0% was for private clinics. The proportion of expenses for diagnostic fees for CM user in CM visits was much less than that for WM visits and CM non-users (US$4.6 vs. 29.3 vs. 33.5). The average cost for CM user in CM was less than that for WM visits and CM non-users (US$6.3 vs. 25.9 vs. 30.3). Female patients, younger age, and patients not living in the northern region, with higher EC or more comorbidities were more likely to receive CM treatment. Conclusion: The prevalence and costs of insurance-covered CM among CRC patients were low. Further longer longitudinal study is needed to follow up this trend.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 02/2014; 11(2):343-349.
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    ABSTRACT: Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Ee) and Pentanisia prunelloides (Pp) are two medicinal plants which are widely used to remedy various ailments including diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation, fever, rheumatism, heartburn, tuberculosis, haemorrhoids, skin diseases, perforated peptic ulcers and sore joints in southern Africa (South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana and Zimbabwe). The following study was conducted to explore the in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant properties and phytochemical profile of the two medicinal plants. The cytotoxicity of the aqueous and methanol extracts and fractions of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. The results demonstrated that the lethality (LC50) for crude extracts for both plants ranged between 1.8 and 5.8 ppm and was relatively greater than that for the methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of the extracts which ranged between 2.1 ppm and 27 ppm. This suggested that crude extracts were more potent than their respective fractions, further explaining that the different fractions of phytochemicals in these plant species work jointly (in synergy) to exert their therapeutic efficacy. Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants demonstrated a high degree of antioxidant capacity against the DPPH radical with the Duh and Yen inhibition percentage ranging between 4.5% and 72%. Phytochemical studies of the rhizome extracts showed that the major compounds present include flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, triterpenoids (oleanolic acid), the steroidal saponin Diosgenin, the sugars, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, Arabinose and hexoses. This is the first report of the detection and isolation of diosgenin and oleanolic acid from the rhizome extracts of Ee and Pp. All structures were determined using spectroscopic/spectrometric techniques (1H NMR and 13C and LC-ESI-MS) and by comparison with literature data.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):34-52.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):103-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Vietnamese Sophora Root mainly contains active constituents such as alkaloids, and it has anti-tumour, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of the paper was to study the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root on growth, adhesion, invasion and motility of mouse melanoma B16BL6 cells, and to preliminarily explore its mechanism of action. MTT assay was used to detect the effect of Vietnamese Sophora Root aqueous extract on B16BL6 cell proliferation. Cell adhesion assay, reconstituted basement membrane invasion assay and chemotactic motility assay were used to observe the effects of Vietnamese Sophora Root aqueous extract on adhesion, invasion and motility of B16BL6 cells. Different concentrations of Vietnamese Sophora Root aqueous extracts had different degrees of inhibitory effects on B16BL6 proliferation. With the decrease of concentration, the proliferation inhibitory effect decreased and even turned to promoting effect. The extract significantly inhibited the adhesion of B16BL6 cells to the basement membrane component LN, and had a significant effect on both the invasive and migratory capacities of B16BL6 cells through the basement membrane. We concluded that the aqueous extract of Vietnamese Sophora Root can inhibit the proliferation of melanoma cells, as well as their adhesion and movement.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):62-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The content of resveratrol is relatively high in Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et Zucc., and the resveratrol has the effect of blood vessel dilating, microcirculation improving, platelet aggregation inhibiting and anti-cancer. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of resveratrol on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemia mice. Through the establishment of an experimental mouse model of hyperlipidemia, the effect of resveratrol on change in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels in mouse serum were determined. Resveratrol group can apparently reduce TC, TG, LDL-c and AI of hyperlipidemic mice in a dose effect manner. We concluded that resveratrol can effectively reduce blood lipid levels of hyperlipidemic mice.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):209-12.
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that various polysaccharides present anti-tumour effects by inducing cell apoptosis and immunomodulation. However, it is still unclear about the roles of polysaccharides isolated from Artemisia apiacea (HQG) to hepatoma and its underlying mechanism. The objective of the study was to examine the anti-hepatoma effects of HQG and its related mechanism. HQG was prepared in house and the quality and purity were confirmed by infra-red spectrum and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Tumour-bearing mice induced by injection of mouse hepatoma H22 cells were used to evaluate the tumour growth inhibition by HQG administration. Cell immunostaining, JC1 staining and flow cytometer were performed to examine the cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential change and immunomodulation in response to HQG treatment. HQG treatment inhibited hepatoma growth in tumour-bearing mice. Cell apoptosis rate of human hepatoma 7402 cells and of the cells from ascites in tumour-bearing mice was increased after HQG treatment. Mitochondrial membrane potential in human hepatoma 7402 cells was decreased after HQG treatment. CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes subpopulation was increased while the ratio of CD4+/ CD8+ decreased in tumour-bearing mice after HQG administration. IFN-γ and IL-4 secretion was increased in spleen lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice after HQG administration. The study concluded that polysaccharides isolated from Artemisia apiacea (HQG) can inhibit hepatoma cell growths by facilitating cell apoptosis and immuno-defence.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):15-22.
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    ABSTRACT: There are strong beliefs in the efficacy of traditional medical systems worldwide. Many herbs have been acclaimed to possess antiulcer effects and could be unexplored sources of new lead compounds. Sida corymbosa R. E. Fries (Malvaceae) is used in Northern Nigeria to treat ulcers and wounds. This work aimed to investigate the usefulness of Sida corymbosa in treatments of stomach ulcers and wounds in traditional medicine. Effect of the aqueous extract was determined on gastric ulceration, rate of wound healing and inflammation using ethanol-induced and diclofenac-induced ulceration, wound excision model and albumin-induced inflammation respectively in rats. The study demonstrated the anti-ulcer activity of Sida corymbosa as the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) showed a dose-dependent, significant (P<0.05) reduction of ulcer indices against gastric ulcers induced by both ethanol and diclofenac. Topical application of a formulation prepared with the extract of Sida corymbosa on surgically created incisions produced an increase in the rate of healing of the wounds. The extract of Sida corymbosa exhibited a significant (P < 0.05), dose-related decrease in inflammation induced by fresh egg albumin. This study showed that Sida corymbosa has constituents with the ability to reduce the severity of haemorrhagic gastric lesions, promote wound healing and reduce inflammation. These actions may be attributed to any one of the active constituents or as a result of synergistic effects of these phytoconstituents. This study validates the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of stomach ulcers and wounds.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):87-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg-1 b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg-1 b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations. Results: C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (p<0.05), in the elevated levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, TB, and MDA in serum and liver homogenates; increase in TP and GSH levels in serum and liver homogenates; and improvement of liver histo-pathological changes. These effects of the extract were similar to that of vitamin C which used as antioxidant reference. Conclusion: C. citratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(2):447-451.
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    ABSTRACT: Suxiao Jiuxin Pill is composed of Ligusticum wallichii, Borneolum Syntheticum and other drugs; it has qi promoting and blood circulation activating, meridian dredging and pain relieving efficacies. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of Suxiao Jiuxin Pill (quick-acting heart reliever), in atherosclerosis (AS) rat model and explore the mechanism for its prevention and treatment of AS. AS rat model was established by high cholesterol diet and single intra-peritoneal injection of increased dose of vitamin D3. Compared with the model group, Suxiao Jiuxin Pill medium-and high-dose groups and atorvastatin group can effectively regulate lipid metabolism. We conclude that Suxiao Jiuxin Pill has a good hypo-lipidemic effect, and can inhibit the occurrence and development of AS.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):97-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Ku Dou Zi is the dried whole plant, roots and seeds of Sophora alopecuroides L. in the genus Sophora of family Leguminosae. The entire plant is bitter in taste, cold in nature, and has the heat clearing, detoxifying, pathogenic wind dispelling dampness, analgesic, and insecticidal effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved that TASA has pharmacological activities of anti-cancer. The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total alkaloids of Sophora alopecuroides (TASA), on osteosarcoma cell growth and its mechanism. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to study the inhibitory effect of TASA on human osteosarcoma cell line OS732. The results showed that the inhibition rates of different concentrations of TASA (1.5, 3, and 4.5g/kg), against human osteosarcoma cell line OS732, were: 18.4%, 27.4% and 52.8%, respectively. TASA has an inhibitory effect on osteosarcoma cell growth.
    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 01/2014; 11(1):172-5.

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