Archives of Medical Research (ARCH MED RES )

Publisher: Elsevier


Archives of Medical Research publishes original peer-reviewed medical research in an attempt to bridge the gaps created by medical specialization. Contributions are grouped into three main categories - biomedical, clinical, and epidemiological. Review articles, outstanding case reports, and preliminary communications will also be considered. As an international publication, the study of diseases is presented from various perspectives to provide the medical community with original investigation from molecular biology to clinical epidemiology within a single publication.

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    Archives of medical research (Online)
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), its recruitment and the conditioning effects of weak stimuli in Parkinson’s disease (PD) have shown contradictory results based on limited use and analysis of existing TMS paradigms. We undertook this study to provide definitive data of MEP physiology in PD. Methods. We investigated resting and active motor thresholds (RMT/AMT), resting and active recruitment curves, and short-interval intracortical inhibition (ICI) and facilitation (ICF) in 39 PD patients and 40 healthy individuals. MEP was log transformed prior to analysis. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scale was used as clinical measure. Results. MEPs to single pulses were slightly, but significantly, larger in the patients at rest, but increased much less with voluntary muscle activation. PD patients also showed clearly and consistently less ICI and ICF by the conditioning pulse. Both facilitation and inhibition correlated with MEP threshold in healthy subjects, but not in patients. No phys- iological measures correlated with the UPDRS score. Conclusions. These findings are compatible with a decreased evoked and spontaneous thalamocortical drive by disturbed signal-noise ratio of pyramidal neuron responses to unbalanced excitatory/inhibitory input. More importantly, they probably represent a complex combination of disturbed presynaptic and surround inhibition, as consequence of aberrant oscillatory neural transmission due to dysfunctional neurotransmitter activity.
    Archives of Medical Research 01/2012; N/A(N/A-N/A):N/A.
  • Archives of Medical Research 01/2010; 41(4):261-268.
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    ABSTRACT: Infants from neonatal intensive care units (NICU) are at high risk for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); however, risk factors may change from NICU to NICU and from country to country. Our objective was to describe the main causes associated with SNHL in infants from a tertiary level NICU in Mexico City and to show the associated audiometric profiles. We performed a comparison of follow-up of infants from NICU with SNHL and a control group with the same history but with normal hearing. Infants were examined at birth by brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and followed by audiometric tests. Hearing loss was associated with clinical variables. SNHL group had 146 children and the control group had 272 children. Mean weight at birth in the SNHL group was 1530+/-581 g and in the control group, 1723+/-805 g (p<0.01). Days spent at the NICU and under mechanical ventilation were higher in the SNHL group (p<0.001). In addition, serum bilirubin levels were higher in the SNHL group than in the control group (p<0.001). Blood exchange, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal meningitis comprised the main SNHL-associated variables. Use of prenatal steroids and pulmonary surfactant demonstrates protection against SNHL. Audiometric profiles disclosed mainly severe SNHL. Low birth weight, longer stay in NICU and under mechanical ventilation, higher serum bilirubin levels, prevalence of blood exchange, intraventricular hemorrhage, and meningitis in high-risk newborns were the main risk factors associated with SNHL and merit hearing screening and early intervention in high-risk infants.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):686-94.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve the clinical status and survival in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, but little is known about its influence on neurohormonal profile. Heart failure patients treated with CRT for moderate/severe heart failure were studied with echocardiography, cardiopulmonary test, and neurohormonal profile [brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), endothelin (END), big endothelin (big-END), epinephrine (EPI), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] at baseline and after 1 year from the pacemaker implantation. 120 NYHA II-IV patients entered this study, all with an indication to CRT; 100 agreed to be implanted (group A), whereas 20 refused, identifying a control group (group B). In group A NYHA class (from 3.15+/-0.49-1.15+/-0.49, p=0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (from 19.6+/-4.95-35.6+/-5.95%, p=0.001), severity of mitral regurgitation (from 13.3+/-4.19-6.09+/-4.11 cmq, p=0.001), and peak VO(2) (from 9.68+/-4.61-13.35+/-3.32 mL/kg/min, p=0.001) improved at 1-year follow-up. In the neurohormonal profile only plasma BNP (from 185.1+/-185.9-110.2+/-137.5 pg/mL, p=0.03) and big-END (from 1.8+/-1.5-0.87+/-0.7 fmol/mL, p=0.007) were reduced significantly. None of these parameters significantly changed in the control group at 1-year follow-up. In patients with moderate/severe heart failure, CRT improved clinical status and the functional parameters modifying the neurohormonal profile at 1-year follow-up.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):702-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Interindividual heterogeneity in expression of ABCB1 gene has been suspected to be one of the factors resulting in cyclosporin (CsA) pharmacokinetic variation. The present study explored the association of ABCB1 SNPs on CsA dose requirements and dose-adjusted C2 levels (CsA level/daily dose requirement) in renal allograft recipients. Daily doses (mg/kg/day) and dose-adjusted C2 levels (microg/mL per mg/kg/day) at 1 and 3 months for 155 recipients on CsA therapy were compared according to allelic status of ABCB1 c.1236C>T, c. 2064-76T>A, c.2677G>T and c.3435C>T. Dose-adjusted C2 levels were lower in ABCB1 c.2677G>T GG genotype as compared to GT/TT genotypes at 1 and 3 months, suggesting that for a given dose their CsA blood concentration is lower (p=0.009 and p=0.043). GG genotype was further associated with lower allograft survival as revealed by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p=0.021). Identification of ABCB12677GG patients may have a clinically significant impact on allograft outcome and may be helpful in providing pre-transplant pharmacogenetic information to individualize CsA dosing.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):695-701.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased cardiac sympathetic nerve activity is thought to contribute to ventricular tachyarrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia (MI). However, the mechanism is not completely understood. This study investigated the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on ventricular tachyarrhythmias and connexin43 (Cx43) during acute MI in rats. Ninety five male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups receiving the following treatments: myocardial ischemia with sympathetic nerve stimulation (MI-SNS, n=25), sham-operation treated with sham stimulation (SO, n=20), myocardial ischemia with sham stimulation (MI, n=25), myocardial ischemia pretreated with sympathetic nerve stimulation (pSNS-MI, n=25). During the 30-min ischemia, the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, i.e., ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) was increased in the MI-SNS group and decreased in the pSNS-MI group compared to that in the MI group (p<0.05 for both). The total amount of Cx43 protein was significantly decreased in the MI-SNS group but not in the MI group and the pSNS-MI group. The amount of phosphorylated Cx43 in the MI-SNS group was significantly lower compared to that in the SO group and the MI group (p<0.05). However, the amount of phosphorylated Cx43 was significantly increased in the pSNS-MI group compared to that in the MI group and the MI-SNS group (p<0.05). SNS promoted the degradation of Cx43 protein, especially the phosphorylated Cx43 protein, whereas pSNS inhibited the ischemia-induced loss of phosphorylated Cx43 during acute MI. These changes may be related to the pro- or anti-arrhythmic effect of SNS or pSNS during acute MI.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):647-54.
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    ABSTRACT: There have been few studies in the literature evaluating the effect of Behçet's disease (BD) on tendons. Thus, we planned to search for the involvement of hand and foot tendons in BD by using ultrasonography and to determine the relation of tendon involvement with clinical measurements. The study consisted of 33 randomly selected BD patients and 36 voluntary healthy controls matched by age and body mass index. Sonographic evaluations were performed from hands (flexor digitorum süperficialis (2-5), flexor digitorum profundus (2-5), flexor carpi radialis) and Achilles tendons of the nondominant extremities using an 8-10 MHz linear array probe. Grip strength and crepitation were also measured on the nondominant side. Mean hand and foot tendon thickness values of BD patients were significantly higher than in control group (p=0.00). Disease duration, age, and presence of crepitation were not correlated with tendon thickness in the BD group (all p values>0.05). Grip strength values were lower in the BD group than in control group but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.344). Grip strength values were not correlated with hand tendon thicknesses in BD groups (all p values>0.05). Because tendons tears and thicknesses are associated with inflammation, awareness of tendon pathologies is very important in rheumatic diseases. It would be of value to investigate this relationship in future studies in order to determine if this increment in tendon thickness is an indicator of disease activity and affects prognosis. The physician should be on alert about tendon involvement even if the patient has no complaints.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):709-13.
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    ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene expression and protein concentration are increased in resectable non-small cell lung cancer tissue and that these apo E tissue estimations may be beneficially used in clinical assessment of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Paired samples of lung cancer and adjacent, apparently healthy, non-cancer lung tissue were collected from 42 patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Apo E gene expression in tissue was measured by quantitative PCR. Apo E protein in tissue and serum was quantified by a nephelometric method. Patients were followed for 3 years. Apo E gene expression and protein concentration were 1.6 and 4.1-fold higher in the cancer tissue than in the adjacent non-cancer tissue (p<0.0001 in both cases). Increase of apo E protein concentration in the cancer tissue (relative to the non-cancer tissue) correlated with the decrease of apo E protein concentration in the serum (p=0.021). However, none of these apo E estimations related to stage of cancer or histological type of tumor and do not predict patient survival. Our preliminary study shows that despite the distinct increase of apo E gene expression and protein concentration in the cancer tissue and the concurrent decrease of apo E protein concentration in the serum, the measured apo E values have limited usefulness in clinical assessment of patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):663-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Brain stem tumors (BST) constitute 20% of all intracranial tumors. Survival for these patients has been very poor worldwide. Four different treatment schemes have been evaluated at our institution, with only a discrete increment in survival when treated with carboplatin-vincristine and fluvastatin (CVF). Low-dose, continuous antiangiogenic treatment has been recently introduced in the treatment of cancer. Our objective was to determine tumor response to metronomic chemotherapy combined with an antiangiogenic drug and fluvastatin and to calculate the survival of pediatric patients with brain stem tumors. This was a phase II study. A magnetic resonance (MRI) study was made at inclusion and after the fourth course. Routine laboratory analyses were performed prior to each treatment scheme. Patients received four courses of chemotherapy every 28 days consisting of thalidomide alternating with fluvastatin every 14 days and combined with carboplatin and vincristine every 14 days followed by radiotherapy (56 cGy) and four more courses of the same chemotherapy. Toxicity was evaluated according to Miller criteria. Nine recently diagnosed BST patients were included. Five patients had low-grade astrocytomas, three patients had glioblastoma multiforme, and one patient presented high-grade astrocytoma. There was a significant reduction in tumor volume and a significant increase in survival at 24 months. Two patients died. Toxicity included carboplatin allergy in one patient, grades 1 and 3 neutropenia in two patients, and grade 4 thrombocytopenia in two patients. Metronomic treatment with carboplatin and vincristine associated with fluvastatin and thalidomide significantly increased survival of pediatric brain stem tumor patients. Tumor volume showed a significant reduction. Quality of life was also increased. Sample size must be increased in order to make final conclusions.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):655-62.
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    ABSTRACT: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) develops predominantly in sun-exposed skin in fair-skinned individuals prone to sunburn. BCC typically occurs in adults. High exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases rate of developing BCC, a slowly growing tumor that occurs in hair-growing squamous epithelium and rarely metastasizes. In genetic studies, BCC patients have cell-cycle abnormalities of different parts of the signaling pathway. Retinoblastoma regulatory pathway is important in cell cycle arrest. In this pathway, p16INK4a, an inhibitor of Rb pathway, binds to CDK4 and CDK6 competitively with cyclin D1 to prevent phosphorylation of tumor suppressor pRB gene. Alteration of this pathway contributes to development of human cancers and also is effective in skin cancers. In this study, we analyzed mRNA expression using in situ RT-PCR and the role of immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a in BCC. Expression of p16 in ten samples of Iranian paraffin-embedded skin BCC were studied using in situ RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry on p16INK4a gene. Nuclear and cytoplasmic staining intensity of samples within tumor cells and normal skin tissue illustrates different mRNA and protein expression of p16 gene. mRNA of p16 gene and the expressed protein induce cell cycle proliferation and involve both tumor tissue as well as normal skin tissue. However, in this study it was found that there is significant protein and mRNA expression in BCC cells when compared to normal skin tissue (p<0.05). p16 gene is involved in the pathogenesis of human skin BCC in view of increased p16 mRNA and expressed protein within tumor cells.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):668-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Pilot findings seem to suggest a potential beneficial effect of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation on behavioral alterations in children with autism. However, data on the potential benefits of omega-3 supplements in young adults with severe autism are lacking. In the present study, we sought to explore this issue in an open label study. Nineteen young adults with severe autism (CARS >40), aged 18-40 years, received two fish oil capsules per day [0.93 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus 5 mg of vitamin E to avoid lipid peroxidation] for 6 weeks. Subjects were assessed with an ad hoc caregiver questionnaire, the Rossago Behavioral Checklist, for the assessment of behavioral anomalies. No significant improvements were observed with regard to the severity and frequency of problematic behaviors either during the active treatment period or during the post-treatment 6-week observation period. Moreover, no effect on the number of episodes and severity of behavior aberrations was observed. Our negative findings do not point toward a major effect of omega-3 FA supplementation on behavioral abnormalities in adults with severe autism. Further studies on larger sample sizes are warranted to shed more light on this important issue.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):682-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A recent revelation about increased susceptibility to HIV by use of nonoxynol-9 (N-9) has called for identification of novel molecules with potent sperm-attenuating activity and lower side-effect profile, as suitable alternatives. The present study was designed to investigate spermicidal activity in Bohadschia vitiensis whole-body extracts followed by isolation and characterization of bioactive molecule. Bohadschia vitiensis (Semper) was collected from the Southern Andaman coast of India. Freshly collected marine animals were extracted with methanol. A portion of the crude extract was fractionated into four fractions by macerating with hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol successively. All fractions were evaluated for spermicidal activity. Because maximum activity was localized in the n-butanol soluble fraction, it was chromatographed over a silica gel column, and elution with chloroform-methanol-water (35:10:2, v/v) yielded the major compound bivittoside D (400 mg). Bivittoside D [molecular weight (MW) 1426] is a lanostane triterpenoid with six monosaccharide units. The structure of the compound was established on the basis of physicochemical data, acid hydrolysis of saponin, identification of sugar units and aglycon, melting point, and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The aqueous methanol extract of the Bohadschia vitiensis caused 100% mortality of human sperm at 0.01% concentration in vitro, whereas N-9 (reference control) exhibited an equivalent activity at 0.05%. On further fractionation, activity was localized in n-butanol soluble fraction from which the major compound purified was a lanostane triterpenoid called bivittoside D. Bivittoside D was found to be a more potent spermicide (approximately 2.3 times) than N-9 and killed 100% human sperm at the concentration of 350 muM in approximately 20 sec in vitro. Supravital staining and hypoosmotic swelling test revealed sperm membrane permeabilization by bivittoside D as the major mode of spermicidal action. However, bivittoside D was much safer than N-9 towards normal vaginal flora (Lactobacillus) in vitro, although it affected the viability of HeLa cells like other surfactants. Bivittoside D from B. vitiensis can adequately replace N-9 in vaginal contraceptives to make them more vaginally safe and ecofriendly.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):631-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Cell surface glycoligands and circulating glycoproteins are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) through cell aggregation/adhesion mechanisms. To characterize the glycobiological status of blood cells from patients with ACS, we used an advanced lectin-mediated aggregation technique allowing for detection of not only conventional lectin-induced cell aggregates but also their fraction resistant to haptenic/inhibitory sugars. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 24 patients with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina and 18 healthy control subjects. Two plant lectins, Viscum album agglutinin (VAA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), were tested as cell aggregation stimuli binding to cell membrane beta-galactosides and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine acid residues, respectively. Two major types of differences were found between the clinical group and control: (1) VAA-induced aggregation of lymphocytes and platelets was decreased in ACS patients in comparison with healthy donors and (2) the stability of the lectin-induced cell aggregates was found to be an independent aggregation index that revealed opposite trends in the resistance of WGA-induced aggregates of platelets and neutrophils from ACS patients to haptenic sugars in comparison with respective controls. Thus, in the ACS group the stability of WGA-induced aggregates of platelets was impaired, whereas WGA-induced aggregates of neutrophils were more stable and their formation was accompanied by increased generation of H(2)O(2). We conclude that (a) glycobiological status of blood cells undergoes a complex remodeling in association with ACS and (b) detection of lectin-induced stable aggregates can serve as a sensitive method for determination of cellular dysfunctions in ACS.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2008; 39(7):674-81.

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