Archives of Medical Research (ARCH MED RES )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

Archives of Medical Research publishes original peer-reviewed medical research in an attempt to bridge the gaps created by medical specialization. Contributions are grouped into three main categories - biomedical, clinical, and epidemiological. Review articles, outstanding case reports, and preliminary communications will also be considered. As an international publication, the study of diseases is presented from various perspectives to provide the medical community with original investigation from molecular biology to clinical epidemiology within a single publication.

Impact factor 2.41

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.13
  • Cited half-life
    6.40
  • Immediacy index
    0.21
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.51
  • Website
    Archives of Medical Research website
  • Other titles
    Archives of medical research (Online)
  • ISSN
    0188-4409
  • OCLC
    43351379
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants. We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to 916 men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1) ability to detect an odor, 2) discriminate between odors, and 3) identify odors. We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers. In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants. The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been reported as an important molecule in various types of cancers. The biological function of COMT in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not yet been fully investigated. We constructed a transient transfection of a CRC cell lines to up- and downregulate COMT expression level and test the proliferative, invasion ability in vitro. We also constructed a stable transduced CRC cell line and conducted tumor-forming capacity experiment in mouse xenograft model in vivo. In vitro experiment showed that COMT inhibited the cell proliferation by regulating p-Akt, PTEN and inhibited G1 to S phase transition by regulating p53, p27, and cyclinD1. COMT inhibited invasion by regulating E-cadherin. In vivo experiment showed decrease tumor growth in COMT overexpressing cell line. COMT has tumor-suppressive functions for CRC cell lines in vitro and in vivo experiments. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The SNP rs662 in the paraoxonase 1 gene (PON1 Q192R) has been associated with obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular risk. In this study, DNA samples of 117 children aged 6 to 12 years from San Luis Potosí, México were genotyped for Q192R polymorphism of the PON1 gene. Genotypic frequencies were determined by allelic discrimination assay by real-time PCR using TaqMan fluorogenic probes. Anthropometry, lipid profile, glucose and insulin were analyzed by genotype. The distribution of allele frequency in the population was Q = 65 and R = 35 following the Hardy Weinberg equilibrium (χ(2) = 3.15, p = 0.076). The Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index showed statistically significant differences among QQ/QR/RR genotypes (p = 0.032). The odds ratio for the carriers of the RR genotype was associated with HOMA-IR corresponding to the 95(th) percentile or higher for Mexican children based on sex and age (OR = 4.68; 95% confidence intervals, 1.23-17.8; p = 0.016). When the absolute mean of HOMAR-IR was set as the cutoff, an increased odds was observed (OR = 6.52; 95% confidence intervals, 1.68-25.3; p = 0.008). According to our results, PON1 Q192R polymorphism is a risk marker for insulin resistance, a pathological factor involved in the development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Biological barriers are the main defense systems of the homeostasis of the organism and protected organs. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the endothelial cells of brain capillaries, not only provides nutrients and protection to the central nervous system but also restricts the entry of drugs, emphasizing its importance in the treatment of neurological diseases. Cyclodextrins are increasingly used in human pharmacotherapy. Due to their favorable profile to form hydrophilic inclusion complexes with poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients, they are present as excipients in many marketed drugs. Application of cyclodextrins is widespread in formulations for oral, parenteral, nasal, pulmonary, and skin delivery of drugs. Experimental and clinical data suggest that cyclodextrins can be used not only as excipients for centrally acting marketed drugs like antiepileptics, but also as active pharmaceutical ingredients to treat neurological diseases. Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin received orphan drug designation for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C disease. In addition to this rare lysosomal storage disease with neurological symptoms, experimental research revealed the potential therapeutic use of cyclodextrins and cyclodextrin nanoparticles in neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, neuroinfections and brain tumors. In this context, the biological effects of cyclodextrins, their interaction with plasma membranes and extraction of different lipids are highly relevant at the level of the BBB. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic and complex interface between the blood and the central nervous system regulating brain homeostasis. Major functions of the BBB include the transport of nutrients and protection of the brain from toxic compounds. This review summarizes the most important transport pathways contributing to the nutrition of the brain. Carrier-mediated transport selectively delivers small molecules like sugars, amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements. Large biomolecules, lipoproteins, peptide and protein hormones cross the BBB by receptor-mediated transport. Active efflux transporters participate in the brain efflux of endogenous metabolites as well as toxins, xenobiotics and drugs. Dysfunction in the transport of nutrients at the BBB is described in several neurological disorders and diseases. The BBB penetration of neuroprotective nutrients, especially plant polyphenols and alkaloids, their potential protective effect on brain endothelium and the interaction of nutraceuticals with active efflux transporters at the BBB are discussed. In vitro BBB models to examine nutrient transport are also presented. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The genes encoding adipose-derived hormone leptin and its receptor (LEPR) are increasingly deemed as hypertension-susceptibility genes. In this meta-analysis, we summarized the association of the II/I polymorphism in leptin gene and Gln223Arg polymorphism in LEPR gene with hypertension and circulating leptin. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched. Data extraction and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Statistical analyses were carried out with the STATA software (v. 11.2). A total of 11 articles written in English were eligible. Overall analysis identified a significant association between II/I polymorphism I allele and increased risk of hypertension under allelic (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval; P: 1.48; 1.06-2.08; 0.022) and homozygous genotypic (2.27; 1.20-4.29; 0.012) models. The magnitude of the association for II/I polymorphism I allele with hypertension was substantiated in Asians and for essential hypertension under both genetic models. Overall and subgroup analyses failed to reveal any significance for the association between the Gln223Arg polymorphism and hypertension risk. Carriers of Gln223Arg polymorphism Gln/Gln genotype had significantly higher circulating leptin than the Arg/Arg genotype carriers (weighted mean difference; 95% confidence interval; P: 1.61 ng/mL; 0.02-3.20; 0.047), and this significance persisted in essential hypertension subgroup (1.69 ng/mL; 0.02-3.35; 0.047). There were low probabilities of publication bias for the above comparisons. Our findings support the contributory role of the II/I polymorphism in leptin gene in the pathogenesis of hypertension, and this role was more evident in Asians and for essential hypertension. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex and dynamic structure that plays a key role in central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis. It strictly regulates the entrance of molecules into the brain parenchyma and prevents the access of neurotoxins and pathogens while promoting the efflux of several molecules. The brain microvascular endothelial cells are the anatomical basis of the BBB, which has unique characteristics such as the elaborate junctional complexes that nearly obliterate the intercellular space as well as the presence of influx and efflux transporters. Endothelial cells establish important interactions with glial cells, neurons, and perivascular pericytes as well as with the acellular components of the basement membrane, which together constitute the neurovascular unit. BBB disruption has been reported in a wide range of CNS pathologies, with an emerging role in the onset and disease progression. Accordingly, recent studies revealed vascular dysfunction in neonatal jaundice, a common pathology in the early neonatal period affecting 1/10 children presenting values of total bilirubin >17 mg/dL (291 μM). Here we summarize the clinical aspects of moderate to severe neonatal jaundice and provide a comprehensive review of the literature regarding bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity from a vascular-centered approach. The collected evidence place endothelial dysfunction and pericyte demise as key players in the disruption of CNS homeostasis, mainly in cases of lasting hyperbilirubinemia, thus pointing to novel targets to prevent neurological dysfunction due to severe neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for normal function of the brain, and its role in many brain pathologies has been the focus of numerous studies during the last decades. Dysfunction of the BBB is not only being shown in numerous brain diseases, but animal studies have indicated that it plays a direct key role in the genesis of neurovascular dysfunction and associated neurodegeneration. As such evidence accumulates, the need for robust and clinically applicable methods for minimally invasive assessment of BBB integrity is becoming urgent. This review provides an introduction to BBB imaging methods in the clinical scenario. First, imaging modalities are reviewed, with a focus on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We then proceed to review image analysis methods, including quantitative and semi-quantitative methods. The advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed, and future directions and questions are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI, FokI, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphisms and the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). All eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis of a search of the PubMed, Cochrane and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases according to predefined criteria. The fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Thirteen studies including 1510 patients and 1812 controls were recruited for the analysis of the association between the VDR BsmI, FokI, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphisms and the risk of ESRD.VDR BsmI B allele, BB genotype and bb genotype, FokI F allele, FF genotype and ff genotype, TaqI T allele, TT genotype and tt genotype, ApaI A allele, AA genotype and aa genotype were not associated with ESRD susceptibility for overall populations, Asians and Caucasians. Results from the current study suggest that VDR BsmI, FokI, TaqI and ApaI gene polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of ESRD in the overall populations, Asians and Caucasians. However, more studies should be performed in the future. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system associated with demyelination and axonal loss eventually leading to neurodegeneration. MS exhibits many of the hallmarks of an inflammatory autoimmune disorder including breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is a complex organization of cerebral endothelial cells, pericytes and their basal lamina, which are surrounded and supported by astrocytes and perivascular macrophages. In pathological conditions, lymphocytes activated in the periphery infiltrate the central nervous system to trigger a local immune response that ultimately damages myelin and axons. Cytotoxic factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, proteases, and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species accumulate and may contribute to myelin destruction. Dysregulation of the BBB and transendothelial migration of activated leukocytes are among the earliest cerebrovascular abnormalities seen in MS brains and parallel the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this review we establish the importance of the role of the BBB in MS. Improvements in our understanding of molecular mechanism of BBB functioning in physiological and pathological conditions could lead to improvement in the quality of life of MS patients. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: It is likely that monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the excitotoxin that has been most commonly employed to characterize the process of excitotoxicity and to improve understanding of the ways that this process is related to several pathological conditions of the central nervous system. Excitotoxicity triggered by neonatal MSG treatment produces a significant pathophysiological impact on adulthood, which could be due to modifications in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and vice versa. This mini-review analyzes this topic through brief descriptions about excitotoxicity, BBB structure and function, role of the BBB in the regulation of Glu extracellular levels, conditions that promote breakdown of the BBB, and modifications induced by neonatal MSG treatment that could alter the behavior of the BBB. In conclusion, additional studies to better characterize the effects of neonatal MSG treatment on excitatory amino acids transporters, ionic exchangers, and efflux transporters, as well as the role of the signaling pathways mediated by erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor in the cellular elements of the BBB, should be performed to identify the mechanisms underlying the increase in neurovascular permeability associated with excitotoxicity observed in several diseases and studied using neonatal MSG treatment. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook this study to compare the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) across glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in nondiabetic males and to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance on CAC in relation to HbA1c levels. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18,504 adult males without diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CAC scores were measured by multidetector computed tomography; CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects were grouped by HbA1c quartile (≤5.4%, 5.4-5.6%, 5.7%, 5.8-6.4%). Thirteen percent of subjects (n = 2,406) had a CAC score >0. The prevalence of CAC increased with increasing HbA1c quartile (9.4%, 11.1%, 14.1%, 17.3%). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for CAC were 1.2, 1.58 and 2.01 for the HbA1c quartiles 2, 3, and 4 when compared with the first quartile. Mean HOMA-IR levels were different among HbA1C categories and CAC status. HOMA-IR levels were higher in subjects with CAC than in those without, except in the third HbA1c quartile. Stratification by HbA1c showed a significant association between CAC and insulin resistance only in the first (OR 1.67) and fourth (OR 1.33) HbA1c quartile. After adjustment for CV risk factors, insulin resistance remained an independent predictor of CAC only in the first HbA1c quartile. Our study demonstrated that not only glucose status represented by HbA1c but also insulin resistance might be associated with CAC in non-diabetic Korean men. The magnitude of association of CAC with insulin resistance was greater in the lowest HbA1c quartile group. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most frequent causes of death in the young population. Several clinical trials have unsuccessfully focused on direct neuroprotective therapies. Recently immunotherapeutic strategies shifted into focus of translational research in acute CNS diseases. Cross-talk between activated microglia and blood-brain barrier (BBB) could initiate opening of the BBB and subsequent recruitment of systemic immune cells and mediators into the brain. Stabilization of the BBB after TBI could be a promising strategy to limit neuronal inflammation, secondary brain damage and acute neurodegeneration. This review provides an overview on the pathophysiology of TBI and brain edema formation including definitions and classification of TBI, current clinical treatment strategies, as well as current understanding on the underlying cellular processes. A summary of in vivo and in vitro models to study different aspects of TBI is presented. Three mechanisms proposed for stabilization of the BBB, myosin light chain kinases, glucocorticoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are reviewed for their influence on barrier-integrity and outcome after TBI. In conclusion, the BBB is recommended as a promising target for the treatment of traumatic brain injury, and it is suggested that a combination of BBB stabilization and neuroprotectants may improve therapeutic success. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption has been associated with several acute and chronic brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. This represents a critical situation because damaged integrity of the BBB is related to the influx of immune mediators, plasma proteins and other outside elements from blood to the central nervous system (CNS) that may trigger a cascade of events that leads to neuroinflammation. In this review, evidence that mast cells and the release of factors such as histamine play an important role in the neuroinflammatory process associated with brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy is presented. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: L-Glutamate is considered the most important excitatory amino acid in the mammalian brain. Strict control of its concentration in the brain interstitial fluid is important to maintain neurotransmission and avoid excitotoxicity. The role of astrocytes in handling L-glutamate transport and metabolism is well known, however endothelial cells may also play an important role through mediating brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux. Expression of excitatory amino acid transporters has been demonstrated in brain endothelial cells of bovine, human, murine, rat and porcine origin. These can account for high affinity concentrative uptake of L-glutamate from the brain interstitial fluid into the capillary endothelial cells. The mechanisms in between L-glutamate uptake in the endothelial cells and L-glutamate appearing in the blood are still unclear and may involve a luminal transporter for L-glutamate, metabolism of L-glutamate and transport of metabolites or a combination of the two. However, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated blood-to-brain transport of L-glutamate, at least during pathological events. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the brain-to-blood L-glutamate efflux hypothesis including possible mechanisms to account for the transport, in vivo studies on blood glutamate scavenging and potential clinical relevance of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of reactive carbonyl species such as methylglyoxal triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Carbonyl stress is implicated in conditions and diseases like aging, diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to examine the effects of methylglyoxal on human hCMEC/D3 brain endothelial cells and search for protective molecules to prevent endothelial damage. Methylglyoxal-induced modification of albumin was tested in a cell-free assay. Endothelial cell viability was monitored by impedance measurement in real-time. The following compounds were tested in cell-free and viability assays: β-alanine, all-trans-retinoic acid, aminoguanidine, ascorbic acid, l-carnosine, GW-3333, indapamide, piracetam, γ-tocopherol, U0126, verapamil. Barrier function of brain endothelial monolayers was characterized by resistance and permeability measurements and visualized by immunohistochemistry for β-catenin. mRNA expression level of 60 selected blood-brain barrier-related genes in hCMEC/D3 cells was investigated by a custom Taqman gene array. Methylglyoxal treatment significantly elevated protein modification, exerted toxicity, reduced barrier integrity, increased permeability for markers FITC-dextran and albumin and caused higher production of reactive oxygen species in hCMEC/D3 endothelial cells. Changes in the mRNA expression of 30 genes coding tight junction proteins, transporters and enzymes were observed in methylglyoxal-treated hCMEC/D3 cells. From the tested 11 compounds only all-trans-retinoic acid, an antioxidant and anti-glycation agent, U0126, a MAP/ERK kinase inhibitor and aminoguanidine attenuated methylglyoxal-induced damage in hCMEC/D3 cells. All-trans-retinoic acid and inhibition of the MAP/ERK signaling pathway may be protective in carbonyl stress induced brain endothelial damage. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic value of serum GPC3 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. Thus, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum GPC3 for HCC. A systematic search was performed for the related studies. Sensitivity, specificity and other measures regarding the accuracy of serum GPC3 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis of HCC were pooled using random-effects models. Summary receiver operating characteristic curve (sROC) analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Nineteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and 95% confidence interval (CI) of serum GPC3 for the diagnosis of HCC were 55.2% (52.9-57.4%) and 84.2% (82.2-86.0%), respectively. When combining GPC3 with AFP, pooled sensitivity, specificity, and 95% CI were 75.7% (71.8-79.4%) and 83.3% (79.6-86.6%), respectively. The area under sROC (AUC) and 95% CI for AFP combined with GPC3 were 0.762 (0.649-0.875). For diagnosis of early HCC, pooled sensitivity and specificity of serum GPC3 were 55.1% (47.9-66.2%) and 97.0% (95.2-98.2%), respectively. The AUC of GPC3 for early HCC was 0.793 (0.668-0.917). This meta-analysis indicates that serum GPC3 has a comparable accuracy to AFP for the diagnosis of HCC, and there is an elevation in the sensitivity of diagnosis when GPC3 was combined with AFP. Diagnostic accuracy of serum GPC3 for early HCC is still unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Increased amyloid deposition in HIV-infected brains may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurocognitive dysfunction in infected patients. We have previously shown that exposure to HIV results in enhanced amyloid β (Aβ) levels in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, suggesting that brain endothelial cells contribute to accumulation of Aβ in HIV-infected brains. Importantly, Aβ not only accumulates in the cytoplasm of HIV-exposed cells but also enters the nuclei of brain endothelial cells. cDNA microarray analysis was performed in order to examine changes in the transcriptional profile associated with Aβ nuclear entry in the presence of HIV-1. Gene network analysis indicated that inhibition of nuclear entry of Aβ resulted in enrichment in gene sets involved in apoptosis and survival, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, immune response, cell cycle, DNA damage, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton remodeling and transforming growth factor b (TGFβ) receptor signaling. The obtained data indicate that HIV-induced Aβ nuclear uptake affects several cellular stress-related pathways relevant for HIV-induced Aβ pathology. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A recrudescent wave of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 affected Mexico during the winter of 2013-2014 following a mild 2012-2013 A/H3N2 influenza season. We compared the demographic and geographic characteristics of hospitalizations and inpatient deaths for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2013-2014 influenza season compared to previous influenza seasons, based on a large prospective surveillance system maintained by the Mexican Social Security health care system. A total of 14,236 SARI hospitalizations and 1,163 inpatient deaths (8.2%) were reported between October 1, 2013 and March 31, 2014. Rates of laboratory-confirmed A/H1N1 hospitalizations and deaths were significantly higher among individuals aged 30-59 years and lower among younger age groups for the 2013-2014 A/H1N1 season compared to the previous A/H1N1 season in 2011-2012 (χ(2) test, p <0.001). The reproduction number for the winter 2013-2014 influenza season in central Mexico was estimated at 1.3-1.4, in line with that reported for the 2011-2012 A/H1N1 season but lower than during the initial waves of pandemic A/H1N1 activity in 2009. We documented a substantial increase in the number of A/H1N1-related hospitalizations and deaths during the period from October 2013-March 2014 in Mexico and a proportionate shift of severe disease to middle-aged adults, relative to the preceding A/H1N1 2011-2012 season. In the absence of clear antigenic drift in globally circulating A/H1N1 viruses in the post-2009 pandemic period, the gradual change in the age distribution of A/H1N1 infections observed in Mexico suggests a slow build-up of immunity among younger populations, reminiscent of the age profile of past pandemics. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Archives of Medical Research 11/2014;