Mycotoxin Research

Publisher: Springer Verlag

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Other titles Mycotoxin research
ISSN 0178-7888
OCLC 13977773
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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Springer Verlag

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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mycotoxin ochratoxin A is a secondary metabolite occurring in a wide range of commodities. During the exposure of ochratoxin A to white and blue light, a cleavage between the carbon atom C-14 and the nitrogen atom was described. As a reaction product, the new compound ochratoxin α amide has been proposed based on mass spectrometry (MS) experiments. In the following study, we observed that this compound is also formed at high temperatures such as used for example during coffee roasting and therefore represents a further thermal ochratoxin A degradation product. To confirm the structure of ochratoxin α amide, the compound was prepared in large scale and complete structure elucidation via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and MS was performed. Additionally, first studies on the toxicity of ochratoxin α amide were performed using immortalized human kidney epithelial (IHKE) cells, a cell line known to be sensitive against ochratoxin A with an IC50 value of 0.5 μM. Using this system, ochratoxin α amide revealed no cytotoxicity up to concentrations of 50 μM. Thus, these results propose that the thermal degradation of ochratoxin A to ochratoxin α amide might be a detoxification process. Finally, we present a sample preparation and a HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the analysis of ochratoxin α amide in extrudates and checked its formation during the extrusion of artificially contaminated wheat grits at 150 and 180 °C, whereas no ochratoxin α amide was detectable under these conditions.
    Mycotoxin Research 01/2015; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s12550-014-0218-y
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    ABSTRACT: Like other forms of maize, popcorn is subject to increased levels of contamination by a variety of different mycotoxins under stress conditions, although levels generally are less than dent maize under comparable stress. Gene array analysis was used to determine expression differences of disease resistance-associated genes in milk stage kernels from commercial popcorn fields over 3 years. Relatively lower expression of resistance gene types was noted in years with higher temperatures and lower rainfall, which was consistent with prior results for many previously identified resistance response-associated genes. The lower rates of expression occurred for genes such as chitinases, protease inhibitors, and peroxidases; enzymes involved in the synthesis of cell wall barriers and secondary metabolites; and regulatory proteins. However, expression of several specific resistance genes previously associated with mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin in dent maize, was not affected. Insect damage altered the spectrum of resistance gene expression differences compared to undamaged ears. Correlation analyses showed expression differences of some previously reported resistance genes that were highly associated with mycotoxin levels and included glucanases, protease inhibitors, peroxidases, and thionins.
    Mycotoxin Research 12/2014; 31(2). DOI:10.1007/s12550-014-0215-1

  • Mycotoxin Research 07/2014; 7(3):321-328. DOI:10.3920/WMJ2013.1619
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Toxinogenic Fusarium species were identified on grape berries from Slovak vineyards, and their toxic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS. F. subglutinans, F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. solani, F. subglutinans, and F. verticillioides were found with varying frequency. F. oxysporum and F. proliferatum, cultured in vitro on Czapek yeast autolysate agar and yeast extract sucrose agar, produced beauvericin, in the range from 3,265 to 13,400 μg/kg, and fusaproliferin in high concentration, ranging from 49,850 to 259,500 μg/kg. A maximum value of 2.24 μg/kg has been observed for beauvericin in dried grape berries. Fumonisin B1, and fumonisin B2 were also identified, and the observed levels ranged from 500 to 2,040 μg/kg. Over 2 years (namely 2008 and 2009) many other metabolites have been identified and analysed in grape berries, in particular: avenacein Y, apicidin, aurofusarin, chlamydosporol, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B2, enniatin B3, and
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2013; 1(2).
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    ABSTRACT: In einem in-vitro-Pansenmodell (RUSITEC) wurde die Reaktion der Protozoenpoplation auf mit Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Mucor racemosus bzw. Ulocladium chartarum verschimmeltem Heu jeweils mit und ohne Zusatz von Vitamin B1 überprüft. Dabei wurden drei Protozoenfraktionen untersucht: a) kleine Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 81 – 93% an der Gesamtpopulation, b) mittelgroße Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 6 – 18% an der Gesamtpopulation c) große Protozoen mit einem Anteil von 0 – 3% an der Gesamtpopulation. Die Verwendung von havariertem Futter brachte folgende Ergebnisse: Schadfuttermittel beeinflußte die mittelgroße Protozoenfraktion in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß. Die Zulage von Vitamin B1 zeigte bei Mucor racemosus und Ulocladium chartarum positive Effekte. The influence of moulded hay (Alternaria alternata, Epicoccum nigrum, Mucor racemosus, Ulocladium chartarum) and the efficiency of Vitamin B1 substitution to cope these effects on rumen protozoa was investigated using the longterm rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC) for about 25 days. Moulded hay affected medium-sized protozoa to a different extent (Alternaria alternata: −16 %, Epicoccum nigrum: −27 %, Mucor racemosus: −9 %, Ulocladium chartarum: +2 %). The vitamin B1 substitution had positive effects during the feeding of Mucor racemosus and Ulocladium chartarum.
    Mycotoxin Research 05/2012; 16:179-182. DOI:10.1007/BF02940031
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    ABSTRACT: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is an important food and feed contaminant with potential adverse effects in humans and animals. In view of present discussions on limit values for OTA in foods, essential elements of a toxicological risk assessment are outlined. The exposure situation in Europe is now well documented. The data base, with respect to a characterization of hazard and dose-response relationships, allowed to calculate a provisional tolerable daily intake for OTA suited to protect the consumer against undesirable toxic effects. Nonetheless, further research on OTA is indicated in view of unresolved issues regarding the following points: 1. mechanisms of action (mode of genotoxicity, role of bioactivation/metabolism, identification of DNA-adducts and dose-dependency); 2. combinations of OTA and other mycotoxins (studies of relevant mixtures/conditions); 3. individual susceptibility and/or situation-based vulnerability. Better information on mechanistic aspects of mycotoxin-induced toxicities will further improve our knowledge on the “margin of safety” between a given exposure and a potential impairment of human health.
    Mycotoxin Research 04/2012; 16:117-122. DOI:10.1007/BF02942997
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    ABSTRACT: Für den gleichzeitigen Nachweis von sieben Mykotoxinen, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), Fumonisin B1 (FB1), Ochratoxin A (OA), Deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 Toxin (T-2), Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) und Roridin A (RoA), wurde ein immunchemischer Schnelltest (Immunfiltrationstest, flow-through testA) entwickelt. Dazu wurde ein wiederverwendbares Testtablett mit sieben Probenfeldern und einem Kontrollfeld hergestellt. Zur Testdurchführung wurde Probenextraktlösung auf die Probenfelder sowie das Kontrollfeld aufgetropft, gefolgt von Toxin-Enzymkonjugat-Lösung, Waschlösung und Farbentwickler-Lösung. Die Testauswertung erfolgt durch visuellen Vergleich der Farbintensität der Probenfelder mit derjenigen des Kontrollfeldes. Die Nachweisgrenzen für Toxin-Standardlösungen lagen bei 0,5 ng/ml (AFB1), 5 ng/ml (FB1), 5 ng/ml (OA), 500 ng/ml (DON), 10 ng/ml (T-2), 0,5 ng/ml (DAS) bzw. 25 ng/ml (RoA). Nach Untersuchung künstlich kontaminierter Getreideproben, kombiniert mit einer einfachen Extraktionsmethode, wurden folgende Nachweisgrenzen ermittelt: 10 ng/g (AFB1), 50 ng/g (FB1), 50 ng/g (OA), 3500 ng/g (DON), 100 ng/g (T-2), 5 ng/g (DAS) bzw. 250 ng/g (RoA). A rapid immunochemical test system (immunofiltration, flow-through test) was developed for the simultaneous detection of seven mycotoxins, namely aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OA), deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), and roridin A (RoA), respectively. A reusable test device, containing seven sample wells and one control well was produced. Sample extract solutions were dropped onto each sample well and the controll well, followed by toxin-enzyme conjugate solution, wash solution and colour delevoper solution. The test results were evaluated by visual comparison of colour intensity of sample wells and control well. The detection limits in buffer solution were at 0.5 ng/ml (AFB1), 5 ng/ml (FB1), 5 ng/ml (OA), 500 ng/ml (DON), 10 ng/ml (T-2), 0.5 ng/ml (DAS), and 25 ng/ml (RoA), respectively. Employing a simple extraction procedure, artificially contaminated cereal samples (wheat, maize) were analysed, with detection limits of 10 ng/g (AFB1), 50 ng/g (FB1), 50 ng/g (OA), 3500 ng/g (DON), 100 ng/g (T-2), 5 ng/g (DAS), and 250 ng/g (RoA), respectively.
    Mycotoxin Research 04/2012; 16:227-230. DOI:10.1007/BF02940044
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    ABSTRACT: Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that the most common contaminating fungi on different types of cheese are;Penicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum andAspergillus versicolor. On blue cheese a new speciesP. caseifulvum has been discovered as a surface contaminant. A large number of known and unknown metabolites have been described from the above mentioned cheese associated fungi from both synthetic media and real samples. Based on chemotaxonomy our laboratory has discovered thatP. roqueforti should be divided into three species:P. roqueforti (from cheese),P. carneum (from meat) andP. paneum (from bread). SimilarlyP. verrucosum should be divided intoP. verrucosum (from cereals) andP. nordicum (from cheese and meat products). Both species produce ochratoxins, however, only the former species produce citrinin. Unsere jüngsten Arbeiten zeigten, dass hauptsächlichPenicillium commune, P. nalgiovense, P. solitum, P. discolor, P. roqueforti, P. crustosum, P. nordicum undAspergillus versicolor verschiedene Käsesorten kontaminieren. Eine neue Art,P. caseifulvum, wurde jetzt als Oberflächenkontamination entdeckt. Eine Vielzahl bekannter und unbekannter Stoffwechselprodukte wurden sowohl in synthetischem Medium als auch in Käseproben gefunden. Basierend auf taxonomischen Untersuchungen fand unser Labor heraus, dassP. roqueforti in drei Arten unterteilt werden sollte:P. roqueforti (Käse),P. carneum (Fleisch) andP. paneum (Brot). Gleichermassen sollteP. verrucosum inP. verrucosum (Getreide) und inP. nordicum (Käse- und Fleischprodukte) unterteilt werden. Beide Arten produzieren Ochratoxine. Allerdings wird Citrinin nur vonP. verrucosum produziert.
    Mycotoxin Research 04/2012; 16:109-112. DOI:10.1007/BF02942995
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    ABSTRACT: The sclerotia of the fungus Claviceps sp. are still a challenge for the milling industry. Ergot sclerotia are a constant contamination of the rye crop and have to be removed by modern milling technologies. Changing sizes and coloration of the sclerotia make it difficult to separate them from the grain. Ergot sclerotia are a problem when cleaning is insufficient and non-separated specimens or sclerotia fragments get into the milling stream and thus ergot alkaloids are distributed into the different cereal fractions. In model milling experiments, the residues of ergot in rye flour and the distribution of ergot into different milling fractions were investigated. Rye grains were mixed with whole ergot sclerotia and in another experiment with ergot powder and cleaned afterwards before milling. The ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergosine, ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristineand their related isomeric forms (-inine-forms), and additionally ricinoleic acid as a characteristic component of ergot, were quantified in the different milling fractions. From the first experiment, it can be shown that after harvesting even simple contact of sclerotia with bulk grains during ordinary handling or movement of bulk grain in the granary is sufficient to contaminate all the healthy or sound rye grains with ergot alkaloids. Thereby, the amount of ergot residue correlates with the amount of peripheral layers of rye grains in the flour. In an additional experiment without sclerotia specimens, bulk rye grains were loaded with powder of sclerotia. After subsequent cleaning, aconcentration of ergot alkaloids was detected, which was tenfold higher than the ergot alkaloidconcentration of the experiment with intact ergot sclerotia.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):13-21. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0070-7
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    ABSTRACT: The Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. Up to now, different abbreviations and counting systems for the numerous positions of this macrocyclic ß-resorcylic acid lactone and its metabolites have been used. As the number of identified fungal and mammalian metabolites of zearalenone is still growing, the lack of a uniform designation makes the literature on these important toxins confusing and complicated. Here, we propose a logical set of abbreviations and a simple counting system, in order to facilitate future research communications on zearalenone and its congeners.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):1-3. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0075-2
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    ABSTRACT: Cereal, fruit and vegetable products were analyzed for contamination with the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs). Both toxins were practically not detected in cereals and cereal products: AOH-one out of 13 samples at a content of 4.1 μg/kg; AME-two out of 13 samples at contents ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 μg/kg. However, if cereals for animal nutrition were analyzed, much higher values were found: AOH-five out of six samples (13-250 μg/kg); AME-six out of six samples (3-100 μg/kg). This finding may pose a potential problem concerning animal health. AOH and AME were frequently detected in vegetable products: AOH-5 out of 10 samples (2.6-25 μg/kg); AME-6 out of 10 samples (0.1-5 μg/kg). Tomato products were affected, especially. The highest content of AOH (25 μg/kg) and AME (5 μg/kg) were found in triple concentrated tomato paste. Special wines like "Trockenbeerenauslese" or "Spätlese" (affected by noble rot in the vineyard) contained AOH (4/6 samples; 1.2-4.9 μg/kg) and AME (4/6 samples; 0.1-0.3 μg/kg), but the values did not exceed the values of both toxins that were found generally in wines.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):23-8. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0071-6
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    ABSTRACT: Deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium fungi as secondary metabolites. Both compounds have the immunotoxic effects that the productions of inflammatory mediators by activated macrophages is disturbed. Co-contamination with DON and NIV can occur; however, the effects of simultaneous contamination are not well known. The present study investigated the combined effects of DON and NIV on nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse macrophages stimulated with lipopolisaccharide (LPS). The inhibitory effect of DON and NIV on NO release from activated macrophages has already been reported as an appropriate indicator of immunotoxic effect of the both compounds. LPS-induced NO production in macrophages was inhibited by both of these toxins individually in a dose-dependent manner, and toxin mixtures at the same concentration inhibited NO production in the same manner. In addition, there were no unique inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production in macrophages in the presence of mixtures of various molar ratios. These results suggest that the combined effects of DON and NIV can be predicted based on addition of each compound alone.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):57-62. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0076-1
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    ABSTRACT: This study is the first report of applying an ultra high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) multi-mycotoxin method to identify and quantify the mycotoxins produced by pure fungal isolates grown on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) agar. The method developed concerns a triple extraction procedure based on methanol, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate. The total extract was chromatographically separated on an UHPLC BEH C18 column and analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Performance characteristics (specificity, linearity, possible matrix effects, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limit of detection) were evaluated by spiking experiments with blank agar plugs and the analytes. Verrucarol was used as internal standard. Recovery percentages varied between 56 and 125%, whereas the limit of detection ranged from 1 to 1,500 ng g(-1) with the exception of NIV, PAT and ZEA. The method was successfully applied for examining the in vitro mycotoxin production by Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger. The mobile phases used for chromatographic separation were slightly modified when studying patulin-producing molds due to signal interference between this mycotoxin and an unknown metabolite. This modified method was successfully applied for Penicillium roqueforti, P. paneum and P. carneum grown on YES agar medium. Application of the multi-mycotoxin UHPLC-MS/MS method developed may be of great importance for studying the mycotoxin capacity of fungal isolates under varying growth conditions, in order to obtain a better insight into the conditions which induce or suppress mycotoxin production by pure fungal isolates or from a chemotaxonomic point of view.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):37-47. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0073-4
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    ABSTRACT: The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) often co-occurs along with the acetylated derivatives 3-acetyl-DON and 15-acetyl-DON in diets for ruminants. De-epoxy-DON is formed by rumen micro-organisms, while the acetylated DON derivatives might also undergo ruminal metabolism with de-epoxy-DON as an end product. However, despite the fact that de-epoxy-DON is the predominant substance finally absorbed, a complete degradation of the mother compounds can not be assumed for all feeding and metabolic situations of the cow, and thus raising the question of their possible post-absorptive effects. Hence, the aim of the study was to examine the effects of all four compounds on the concanavalin A stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) as indicator in vitro and ex vivo. Among the DON-related compounds, DON and 15-acetyl-DON resulted in a similar IC50 (i.e. the concentration where the proliferation was inhibited by 50%) of 0.5 μM, whereas 3-acetyl-DON was less toxic (IC50 = 2.6 μM), while actually no IC50 could be estimated for de-epoxy-DON which was characterized by a maximum inhibition of approximately 24% at the highest tested in vitro concentration of 18.29 μM. For the in vivo experiment, 14 Holstein cows were used and fed either an uncontaminated control diet (CON) or a diet contaminated with Fusarium toxins, with DON being the predominating toxin for 18 weeks when blood was collected for PBMC isolation and subsequent proliferation/viability assay. The complete diets for the CON and FUS group contained 0.4 and 4.6 mg DON/kg DM, respectively, at that time. Exposure of dairy cows to the FUS diet resulted in maximum serum de-epoxy-DON levels of 52 ng/ml (0.19 μM), while levels of the unmetabolized DON reached maximum levels of 9 ng/ml (0.03 μM). The PBMC of these cows were slightly less viable, by approximately 18% (p = 0.057), while stimulation capability was not decreased at the same time. Although de-epoxy-DON was characterized by the lowest in vitro toxicity among the tested DON-related compounds, there appeared to be a lower viability of the PBMC isolated from cows fed the FUS diet, which had nearly exclusively de-epoxy DON in serum beside slight traces of unmetabolized DON. Thus, the factors responsible for these apparent discrepancies need to be clarified.
    Mycotoxin Research 02/2011; 27(1):49-55. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0074-3
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    ABSTRACT: Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were used to evaluate the effect of dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, on growth, haematological and serum biochemical parameters. The fingerlings were sorted, weighed and randomly stocked in 16 plastic tanks at the rate of 20 fingerlings per tank. Fusarium-cultured maize grains containing FB1 were used to formulate three diets containing approximately 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mg FB1/kg, constituting diets 2, 3, and 4 respectively. These three diets, plus diet 1, which contained non-Fusarium cultured maize grains that served as the control, were used in a 6-week feeding trial. The final weight gains by the fingerlings were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by FB1. The final weights of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 ranged from 70.07 to 87.10% of the controls. The haematocrit, erythrocytes, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and the serum protein constituents (total protein, albumin and globulin) values significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, while the leucocytes, MCV and MCH increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increase in the dietary FB1. The total serum protein values of the fingerlings fed diets 2, 3 and 4 were 34.53, 39.42 and 50.17% lower than the total serum protein values of those fed the control diet. These results indicate that Fusarium-contaminated diets containing about 5.0 mg or more FB1/kg reduced weight gain and significantly altered haematological parameters and serum protein constituents in the fingerlings. These may have a significant impact on physiological activities and may be vital in immunosuppression in the fingerlings with a strong negative impact on subsequent performance of the fish.
    Mycotoxin Research 11/2010; 26(4):221-7. DOI:10.1007/s12550-010-0059-2