Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (METEOROL ATMOS PHYS )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics will accept original research papers for publication following the recommendations of a review panel. The emphasis lies with the following topic areas: atmospheric dynamics and general circulation; synoptic meteorology; weather systems in specific regions such as the tropics the polar caps the oceans; atmospheric energetics; numerical modeling and forecasting; physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere including radiation optical effects electricity and atmospheric turbulence and transport processes: mathematical and statistical techniques applied to meteorological data sets Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics discusses physical and chemical processes - in both clear and cloudy atmospheres - including radiation optical and electrical effects precipitation and cloud microphysics.

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    Meteorology and atmospheric physics (Online)
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Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Wind-caused undercatch is an important factor among types of systematic errors in point measurements of rainfall. The daily amount of rainfall measured by a MR3H tipping-bucket rain gauge (TBR-MR3H), which is elevated above the ground surface, was considerably underestimated on average by 46 % when compared with the corre- sponding measurements done by a pair of ground-level manual gauges (M-Rs). The undercatch was also confirmed by the measurements using a set of microlysimeters (MLs). The daily rainfall totals measured by the manual rain gauge were used as a reference in adjusting the rainfall under- catch with the tipping-bucket rain gauge. A simplified equation, developed based on the relationship between logarithmic wind profile and its effect on the catch ratio (CR) of the two gauges, was used to calculate the correc- tion factor on a daily basis. The effect of wind speed depends on the intensity of rainfall. Parameters were optimized, and the proposed equation was validated. The calculated and measured daily rainfall amounts were in good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.99, and overall deviation of 0.04.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Hijikawa-arashi, a gap wind occurring in Ozu City, Ehime Prefecture, Japan, was investigated through in situ observations of horizontal and vertical directions. Analysis of surface air temperature data revealed that the inland Ozu Basin was radiatively cooled on the days on which the Hijikawa-arashi events occurred. This induced a greater difference in air temperature between the basin and the estuary of the Hijikawa River in comparison to days that no basin cooling occurred. In addition, the wind speeds of the Hijikawa-arashi observed at the estuary of the Hijikawa River were strongly proportional to the sea-level pressure difference between the inland Ozu Basin and the estuary. Theoretical calculations indicated that this pressure gradient force was sufficient for driving the strong wind of the Hijikawa-arashi. Moreover, calculation of the Froude number using vertical meteorological data revealed that the Hijikawa-arashi developed as a supercritical flow. That is, the flow was intensified at the exit of the gap, in accordance with the hydraulic theory. The vertical observations detected the inversion layer over the Hijikawa-arashi and suggested an application of the shallow water theory to this gap wind. The Hijikawa-arashi is an interesting gap flow with a strong wind, despite its small-scale geography relative to other gap winds worldwide. There is an important trigger getting higher basin pressure upstream due to the radiative cooling of the atmosphere and formation of a cold pool at the basin.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Iran enjoys a variety of climatological conditions. Moreover, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are not assimilated with the meteorological data in Iran, the country suffering from poor spatial and temporal resolution of radiosonde measurements. These facts make modeling of troposphere impossible using the measurements and NWP. On the other hand, the global positioning system (GPS) has been emerged as a valuable tool for modeling and remote sensing of Earth’s atmosphere. This research is the first attempt to address the tropospheric wet refractivity modeling by GPS measurements in Iran. Changes of topography in the study area are taken into account. As a leading work, virtual reference stations (VRS) are used to fix the rank deficiency of the problem. The model space resolution matrix is used to achieve the optimum spatial resolution of the tomographic model and the optimum number of VRS stations. The accuracy of the developed model (KNTU1) is investigated by deploying radiosonde measurements.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 09/2014; 125(3-4).
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    ABSTRACT: Trends in air temperature and precipitation data are investigated for linkages to global warming and climate change. After checking for serial correlation with trend-free pre-whitening procedure, the Mann–Kendall test is used to detect monotonic trends and the Mann–Whitney test is used for trend step change. The case study is Maharlo watershed, Southwestern Iran, representing a semi-arid environment. Data are for the 1951–2011 period, from four temperature sites and seven precipitation sites. A homogeneity test investigates regional similarity of the time series data. The results include mean annual, mean annual maximum and minimum and seasonal analysis of air temperature and precipitation data. Mean annual temperature results indicate an increasing trend, while a non-significant trend in precipitation is observed in all the stations. Furthermore, significant phase change was detected in mean annual air temperature trend of Shiraz station in 1977, indicating decreasing trend during 1951–1976 and increasing trend during 1977–2011. The annual precipitation analysis for Shiraz shows a non-significant decrease during 1951–1976 and 1977–2011. The result of homogeneity test reveals that the studied stations form one homogeneous region. While air temperature trends appear as regional linkage to global warming/global climate change, more definite outcome requires analysis of longer time series data on precipitation and air temperature.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Surface ozone is mainly produced by the photodissociation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by solar UV radiation. Subsequently, solar eclipses provide one of the unique occasions to explore the variations in the photolysis rate of NO2 and their significant impact on the production of ozone at a location. This study aims to examine the diurnal variations in the photodissociation rate coefficient of NO2, (j(NO2*)), and mixing ratios of surface ozone and NO X * (NO+NO2*) during the solar eclipse that occurred on 15 January 2010 at Kannur (11.9°N, 75.4°E, 5m amsl), a tropical coastal site on the Arabian Sea in South India. This investigation was carried out on the basis of the ground level observations of surface ozone and its prominent precursor NO2*. The j(NO2*) values were estimated from the observed solar UV-A flux data. A sharp decline in j(NO2*) and surface ozone was observed during the eclipse phase because of the decreased efficiency of the ozone formation from NO2. The NO2* levels were found to increase during this episode, whereas the NO levels remained unchanged. The surface ozone concentration was reduced by 57.5%, whereas, on the other hand, that of NO X * increased by 62.5% during the solar eclipse. Subsequently a reduction of *% in the magnitude of j(NO2*) was found here during the maximum obscuration. Reductions in solar insolation, air temperature and wind speed were also observed during the solar eclipse event. The relative humidity showed a 6.4% decrease during the eclipse phase, which was a unique observation at this site.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 07/2014; 113(1):67-73.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examine the mass distributions, direct and semi-direct effects of different biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) over South Africa using the 12-year runs of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4). The results were analyzed and presented for the main BB season (July–October). The results show that Mpumalanga, KwaZulu Natal and the eastern parts of Limpopo are the main local source areas of BBAs in South Africa. In comparison to carbonaceous aerosols, BB-induced sulfate aerosol mass loading and climatic effects were found to be negligible. All carbonaceous aerosols reduce solar radiation at the surface by enhancing local atmospheric radiative heating. The climatic feedback caused by BBAs, resulted in changes in background aerosol concentrations. Thus, on a regional scale, climatic effects of BBAs were also found in areas far away from the BBA loading zones. The feedback mechanisms of the climate system to the aerosol radiative effects resulted in both positive and negative changes to the low-level columnar averaged net atmospheric radiative heating rate (NAHR). Areas that experienced an NAHR reduction showed an increase in cloud cover (CC). During the NAHR enhancement, CC over arid areas decreased; whereas CC over the wet/semi-wet regions increased. The changes in surface temperature (ST) and surface sensible heat flux are more closely correlated with BBA semi-direct effects induced CC alteration than their direct radiative forcing. Furthermore, decreases (or increases) in ST, respectively, lead to the reductions (and enhancements) in boundary layer height and the vice versa on surface pressure. The direct and semi-direct effects of BBAs also jointly promoted a reduction and rise in surface wind speed that was spatially highly variable. Overall, the results suggest that the CC change induced by the presence of radiatively interactive BBAs is important to determine alterations in other climatic variables.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Following a description of the climatology of the boreal summer persistent low temperature (LT) events of the Northeast (NE) China, this paper explores the synoptic characteristics of these events by decomposing atmospheric variables into three components: the daily climate, the zonal-averaged anomaly and the synoptic-scale anomaly. The synoptic-scale anomaly is used to construct the anomalous synoptic charts which tend to perform better compared to traditionally defined synoptic charts in terms of revealing synoptic characteristics of these LT events. Based on the analysis of 21 persistent LT events occurring during summers of 1961-2008 in NE China, we show that temperature anomaly at 850 hPa and geopotential height anomaly at 300 hPa were two critical early signals prior to the occurrences of these persistent LT events.
    Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 03/2014; 124(1-2).