Diseases of Aquatic Organisms (DIS AQUAT ORGAN )


Diseases affect all facets of life - at the cell, tissue, organ, individual, population and ecosystem level. Since life originated in an aquatic medium, studies of disease phenomena in the wide array of aquatic taxa contribute significantly to the analysis, comprehension, prevention and treatment of diseases in general, including those of organisms now inhabiting terrestrial environments and of humans. DAO aims to fully cover these important research areas

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and its ornamental koi varieties can induce the severe systemic disease known as Koi Herpesvirus Disease. It is characterised by a rapid replication and spreading of the virus through multiple organs and results in a fast onset of mortality (starting at day 6 post infection) in up to 100% of infected fish. During the first phase of viral infections, type I interferons (IFNs) have generally been proven to be essential in inducing an innate immune response, however very little is known about the type I IFN response to herpesviruses in fish. The aim of this work was to study the type I IFN responses during CyHV-3 infection in two genetically divergent lines of common carp which presented differing survival rates. Our results show that CyHV-3 induced a systemic type I IFN response in carp and the magnitude of type I IFN expression is correlated with the virus load found in skin and head kidney. In this in vivo experimental setup, the level of type I IFN response cannot be linked with higher survival of carp during CyHV-3 infection.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a population of the European common toad Bufo bufo from a rural pond in the region of Lake Glubokoe Regional Reserve in Moscow province, Russia, unexplained mass mortality events involving larvae and metamorphs have been observed over a monitoring period of >20 yr. We tested toads from this and a nearby site for the emerging amphibian pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranavirus (Rv). Both pathogens were detected, and at the rural pond site, with the above-noted losses and decline in toad breeding success, 40% of B. bufo metamorphs were Bd positive, 46% were Rv positive and 20% were co-infected with both pathogens. Toad metamorphs from a neighbouring water body were also Bd and Rv positive (25 and 55%, respectively). This is the first confirmation of these pathogens in Russia. Questions remain as to the origins of these pathogens in Russia and their roles in documented mass mortality events.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 08/2014; 110(3):235-40.
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    ABSTRACT: Bonamiosis constrains the flat oyster industry worldwide. The protistan species Bonamia ostreae had been considered solely responsible for this disease in Europe, but the report of B. exitiosa infecting Ostrea edulis 5 yr ago in Galicia (NW Spain), and subsequently in other European countries, raised the question of the relevance of each species in bonamiosis. The spatial distribution of B. exitiosa and B. ostreae in Galicia was addressed by sampling 7 natural O. edulis beds and 3 culture raft areas, up to 3 times in the period 2009 to 2010. B. ostreae infected flat oysters in every natural bed and every raft culture area. True B. exitiosa infections (histological diagnosis) were detected in every raft culture area but only in 2 natural beds, i.e. in 4 rías. PCR-positive results for B. exitiosa were recorded in 4 out of 5 beds where true infections were not found, thus the occurrence of B. exitiosa in those 4 beds cannot be ruled out. Additionally, 4 cohorts of hatchery-produced oyster spat were transferred to a raft to analyse Bonamia spp. infection dynamics through oyster on-growing. The highest percentages of oysters PCR-positive for both Bonamia spp. were recorded in the first months of on-growing; other peaks of PCR-positive diagnosis were successively lower. Differences in the percentage of PCR-positive cases and in the prevalence of true infection between B. exitiosa and B. ostreae through on-growing were not significant. Our results support that B. exitiosa is adapted to infect O. edulis in the Galician marine ecosystem.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 07/2014; 110(1-2):123-133.
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    ABSTRACT: Between 1995 and 1996, Bonamia exitiosa caused an epizootic in San Matías Gulf, Argentina, that spread from a commercial culture site of Ostrea puelchana to natural beds located at the northeastern coast of the gulf. A mortality rate of 95% was registered in cultured oysters, and oysters from natural beds were also affected. The aims of this study were to assess the parasite prevalence in oyster beds and the demographic structure 14 yr after the epizootic. Two different oyster beds were studied during 2009 and 2010. Parasite prevalence was studied related to oyster aggregation, density, sex, and oyster size. Prevalence reached 35.3% at Las Grutas and 18.9% at Banco Reparo and was proportionally associated with density. Prevalence was also associated with the type of aggregation in Banco Reparo, where carrier oysters were more infected. Infection was independent of sex category, and infected oysters were larger than the non-infected ones. Oyster density decreased markedly compared to previous studies in both beds and mean sizes were lower, while prevalence doubled. Because of the persistence of the beds in this period, disease seems to control the population structure.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 07/2014; 110:135 - 142.
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    ABSTRACT: Aplasia of the septum transversum (AST) is a malformation that results in alterations in ventricle morphology. The condition has been linked to increased mortality during periods of increased cardiac demand in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The blood plasma biochemical response to an acute hypoxic event (1 h at 31–39% O2 saturation) was investigated in fish with and without a septum transversum to assess levels of anaerobic respiration (lactate) and the stress response (cortisol, glucose, osmolality, Na+, Cl–, and K+). AST had no effect on body size parameters or relative ventricular mass. The hypoxic event increased the levels of anaerobic respiration and induced a typical stress response. Contrary to our expectations, AST had no effect on any plasma parameter in normoxia or following severe acute hypoxia. We conclude that in the current scenario AST does not affect the levels of anaerobic respiration or the plasma stress response in Atlantic salmon.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):127-137.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucus-derived nucleosides serve as key host cues for myxozoan actinospore fish host recognition, but to date their use for experimental actinospore activation in the laboratory or application in disease prevention has not progressed very far. One obstacle has been the low solubility of pure inosine and guanosine. To overcome this, we used inosine-arginine salt (ino-arg), which incorporates both high activation properties and high solubility. We tested its efficacy both in microassays directly observing reactions of actinospores of 2 distantly related myxozoan species, Myxobolus cerebralis and M. pseudodispar in comparison to inosine, as well as its actinospore-inactivation properties by premature polar capsule discharge in an infection experiment. Ino-arg was considerably more effective in eliciting polar capsule discharge and sporoplasm emission at much lower concentrations than pure inosine and, in contrast to the latter, remained dissolved in aqueous solution. Ino-arg exposure of M. pseudodispar actinospores resulted in polar capsule discharge and sporoplasm emission before host contact and subsequently in a lower infection rate in roach Rutilus rutilus.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):149-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of yersiniosis, a disease reported in a number of fish species, especially rainbow trout. This study was undertaken to describe the phenotypes of Y. ruckeri on French rainbow trout farms. More than 100 isolates, collected during recent outbreaks on trout farms, were characterized by phenotypic tests, namely using biochemical tests of the API 20E system, serotyping, biotyping (tests for motility and lipase activity) and by describing the pattern of susceptibility to several antibiotics. The isolates showed a low phenotypic diversity with a prevalent serotype (O1) and API 20E profile 5 1(3)07 100. As in other European countries, Biotype 2 (BT2), which lacks both motility and secreted lipase activity, was found to be present in France. The emergence of 'French' BT2 was different than that observed for other European countries (Finland, Spain, Denmark and the UK). The antibiotic pattern was uniform for all isolates, regardless of the geographical area studied. The results indicate that no resistance has yet emerged, and the efficacy of the antibiotic generally used against yersiniosis in France, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxasol, is not compromised (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] of between 0.016 and 0.128 µg ml-1). Enrofloxacin and doxycycline, not used as a first-line treatment in fish diseases, have reasonably good efficacies (with MICs ≤0.128 and 0.256, respectively).
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):117-126.
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    ABSTRACT: A gonadotropic microsporidian parasite, Obruspora papernae gen. et sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae), is described from Callionymus filamentosus (Teleostei: Callionymidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. The host, a Red Sea invasive species which entered the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal, was first collected in the Levant Basin in 1953, whereas its parasite went unobserved until 2008. Analysis of partial small subunit ribosomal gene sequences (SSU rDNA) placed the new species within the Nucleospora, Desmozoon, and Paranucleospora clade, and as it differs from each of them, it is assigned to a new genus. The development of the parasite is described, and the biological mechanisms underlying this parasite-host system are analyzed. Prevalence of infection approached 80% in female samples throughout most of the year. Males showed no signs of infection, but parasite rDNA was detected in male internal organs. The parasite-induced xenomas progressively occupied and eventually replaced much of the ovary, in some cases producing effective castration. Despite high levels of parasite infection, current trawl fishery statistics indicate that the abundance of Mediterranean populations of the host remains high. The parasite impact on the host population dynamics is unclear. Possible effects of the new microsporidian parasite on the reproductive effort of C. filamentosus and the potential role of another parasite, the ectoparasitic copepod Lernanthropus callionymicola, as an additional host in the life cycle of O. papernae, require further investigation.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 109(1):35-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Hybrid striped bass (HSB) and white bass (WB) were evaluated for their susceptibility to Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease, in 3 fundamental studies. In the first experiment, we determined whether columnaris disease could be developed by experimental challenge in HSB. This challenge consisted of 3 levels of F. columnare (10, 30, and 60 ml volumes) determined to be 2.25 × 107, 6.75 × 107, and 1.35 × 108 CFU ml-1, respectively. Each treatment group exhibited significantly different survival rates: 0, 3.3, and 13.3% in the 60, 30, and 10 ml groups, respectively. In Expt 2, using the 30 ml dose, both HSB and WB had a 0% survival rate, with WB taking significantly longer to reach 100% mortality. In Expt 3, using the 10 ml dose, no HSB survived, whereas 33% of WB survived (p < 0.0001). Compared to controls, HSB treated with 10 ml showed extensive gill damage at 24 h, which could have contributed to the higher mortality observed in HSB; in contrast, WB gills showed noticeably less damage. From these series of experiments, it is clear that HSB are more sensitive to F. columnare, having lower survival and more extensive histological damage compared to WB following challenge.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 109(1):15-22.
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    ABSTRACT: Aquabirnavirus is an epizootic virus in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica farms in Korea, although its origin is unclear. In the present study, nucleotide sequences of the VP2/NS junction region of 9 Korean aquabirnaviruses from cultured eel in various areas of Korea during 2000-2009 were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. The nucleotide sequences showed more than 94.2% identity among the 9 Korean eel isolates, 71.2% identity among 16 Korean isolates from freshwater and marine fish, and 71.1% identity among 25 worldwide isolates. All 9 isolates in this study were phylogenetically classified into genogroup II, including isolates from Denmark, Spain, Taiwan and Japan, and were discrete from salmonid and marine fish isolates (genogroup I and VII) in Korea. These results suggest that the Korean eel isolates have most likely been introduced from outside the country and not from coastal areas of Korea.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 109(1):9-14.
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreas disease (PD) caused by the salmonid alphavirus (SAV) has been the most significant cause of mortalities in Irish farmed salmon Salmo salar L. over the past decade. SAV is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus, originally thought to be unique to salmonids, but has recently been detected using real-time RT-PCR in a number of wild non-salmonid fish. In the present report, 610 wild flatfish (common dab Limanda limanda, plaice Pleuronectes platessa and megrim Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis) were caught from the Irish and Celtic Seas and screened for SAV using real-time RT-PCR and sequencing. In general, a very low prevalence was recorded in common dab and plaice, except for 1 haul in Dublin Bay where 25% of common dab were SAV-positive. SAV sequence analysis supported the fact that real-time RT-PCR detections were specific and further characterised the detected viruses within SAV Subtype I, the predominant subtype found in farmed salmon in Ireland.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 109(1):1-7.

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