Diseases of Aquatic Organisms (DIS AQUAT ORGAN )


Diseases affect all facets of life - at the cell, tissue, organ, individual, population and ecosystem level. Since life originated in an aquatic medium, studies of disease phenomena in the wide array of aquatic taxa contribute significantly to the analysis, comprehension, prevention and treatment of diseases in general, including those of organisms now inhabiting terrestrial environments and of humans. DAO aims to fully cover these important research areas

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    Diseases of aquatic organisms, DAO
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bonamiosis constrains the flat oyster industry worldwide. The protistan species Bonamia ostreae had been considered solely responsible for this disease in Europe, but the report of B. exitiosa infecting Ostrea edulis 5 yr ago in Galicia (NW Spain), and subsequently in other European countries, raised the question of the relevance of each species in bonamiosis. The spatial distribution of B. exitiosa and B. ostreae in Galicia was addressed by sampling 7 natural O. edulis beds and 3 culture raft areas, up to 3 times in the period 2009 to 2010. B. ostreae infected flat oysters in every natural bed and every raft culture area. True B. exitiosa infections (histological diagnosis) were detected in every raft culture area but only in 2 natural beds, i.e. in 4 rías. PCR-positive results for B. exitiosa were recorded in 4 out of 5 beds where true infections were not found, thus the occurrence of B. exitiosa in those 4 beds cannot be ruled out. Additionally, 4 cohorts of hatchery-produced oyster spat were transferred to a raft to analyse Bonamia spp. infection dynamics through oyster on-growing. The highest percentages of oysters PCR-positive for both Bonamia spp. were recorded in the first months of on-growing; other peaks of PCR-positive diagnosis were successively lower. Differences in the percentage of PCR-positive cases and in the prevalence of true infection between B. exitiosa and B. ostreae through on-growing were not significant. Our results support that B. exitiosa is adapted to infect O. edulis in the Galician marine ecosystem.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 07/2014; 110(1-2):123-133.
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 74 phenotypically identified presumptive motile Aeromonas isolates recovered from septicaemic freshwater ornamental fish in Sri Lanka were genetically characterized by sequencing of rpoD and gyrB genes. rpoD/gyrB phylogeny confirmed only 53 isolates as Aeromonas, among which A. veronii was the predominant species (79.2%), followed by A. hydrophila (7.5%), A. caviae (5.7%), A. jandaei (1.9%), A. dhakensis (3.8%) and A. entero pelogenes (1.9%). The aeromonads confirmed by sequencing were further subjected to 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP which substantiated sequencing results for 83% of isolates. Fingerprinting of A. enteropelogenes (n = 42) using ERIC-PCR revealed no dominant clones, and the majority were genetically distinct. All isolates were screened by PCR for 7 virulence determinant genes (aer, act, ast, alt, fla, ser, exu) and 2 integrase encoding genes (intI1, intI2). Each isolate contained ≥3 of the virulence genes tested for, with a heterogeneous distribution. Of the isolates, 77% harboured the intI1 gene, while none had intI2. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed highest resistances towards tetracycline (58.5%) and erythromycin (54.7%). Our results indicate the diverse range of aeromonads that could potentially be associated with motile aeromonad septicaemia in ornamental fish. This is the first isolation of A. dhakensis from a septicaemic ornamental fish since its original description from the same host.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):127-137.
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    ABSTRACT: The bitterness of racemic praziquantel (PZQ) currently constrains its use as an in-feed treatment against monogenean flukes in finfish aquaculture. In an effort to increase the palatability of diets containing racemic PZQ for yellowtail kingfish, the palatability and efficacy of 2 forms of racemic PZQ (powder or powder within microcapsules) against natural infestations of skin and gill flukes were compared using 2 different dietary application methods (incorporated within the pellet mash prior to extrusion or surface-coated after extrusion) at active dietary inclusion levels of 8, 16 and 25 g kg-1 in large (3.5-4 kg) yellowtail kingfish. There was no clear benefit of incorporating PZQ into diets prior to extrusion. PZQ microcapsules improved the palatability of PZQ-containing diets but did not completely mask the bitter flavour. At the lowest active dietary inclusion level of 8 g kg-1, ingestion of the diet containing PZQ microcapsules was equal to the control and significantly better than that containing PZQ powder. At an inclusion level of 16 g kg-1, ingestion of the PZQ microcapsule diet was significantly better than that containing the same inclusion of PZQ powder but significantly lower than the control. Consumption of the diet containing 25 g kg-1 of PZQ microcapsules was poor. All fish consuming medicated feeds had a significant reduction in flukes relative to control fish; however, efficacy data and blood serum analysis suggested that diets containing PZQ microcapsules had lower bioavailability than those containing PZQ powder.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):155-163.
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    ABSTRACT: Mucus-derived nucleosides serve as key host cues for myxozoan actinospore fish host recognition, but to date their use for experimental actinospore activation in the laboratory or application in disease prevention has not progressed very far. One obstacle has been the low solubility of pure inosine and guanosine. To overcome this, we used inosine-arginine salt (ino-arg), which incorporates both high activation properties and high solubility. We tested its efficacy both in microassays directly observing reactions of actinospores of 2 distantly related myxozoan species, Myxobolus cerebralis and M. pseudodispar in comparison to inosine, as well as its actinospore-inactivation properties by premature polar capsule discharge in an infection experiment. Ino-arg was considerably more effective in eliciting polar capsule discharge and sporoplasm emission at much lower concentrations than pure inosine and, in contrast to the latter, remained dissolved in aqueous solution. Ino-arg exposure of M. pseudodispar actinospores resulted in polar capsule discharge and sporoplasm emission before host contact and subsequently in a lower infection rate in roach Rutilus rutilus.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):149-54.
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    ABSTRACT: Yersinia ruckeri is the causative agent of yersiniosis, a disease reported in a number of fish species, especially rainbow trout. This study was undertaken to describe the phenotypes of Y. ruckeri on French rainbow trout farms. More than 100 isolates, collected during recent outbreaks on trout farms, were characterized by phenotypic tests, namely using biochemical tests of the API 20E system, serotyping, biotyping (tests for motility and lipase activity) and by describing the pattern of susceptibility to several antibiotics. The isolates showed a low phenotypic diversity with a prevalent serotype (O1) and API 20E profile 5 1(3)07 100. As in other European countries, Biotype 2 (BT2), which lacks both motility and secreted lipase activity, was found to be present in France. The emergence of 'French' BT2 was different than that observed for other European countries (Finland, Spain, Denmark and the UK). The antibiotic pattern was uniform for all isolates, regardless of the geographical area studied. The results indicate that no resistance has yet emerged, and the efficacy of the antibiotic generally used against yersiniosis in France, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxasol, is not compromised (minimum inhibitory concentrations [MIC] of between 0.016 and 0.128 µg ml-1). Enrofloxacin and doxycycline, not used as a first-line treatment in fish diseases, have reasonably good efficacies (with MICs ≤0.128 and 0.256, respectively).
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 05/2014; 109(2):117-126.
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    ABSTRACT: A gonadotropic microsporidian parasite, Obruspora papernae gen. et sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae), is described from Callionymus filamentosus (Teleostei: Callionymidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. The host, a Red Sea invasive species which entered the Mediterranean through the Suez Canal, was first collected in the Levant Basin in 1953, whereas its parasite went unobserved until 2008. Analysis of partial small subunit ribosomal gene sequences (SSU rDNA) placed the new species within the Nucleospora, Desmozoon, and Paranucleospora clade, and as it differs from each of them, it is assigned to a new genus. The development of the parasite is described, and the biological mechanisms underlying this parasite-host system are analyzed. Prevalence of infection approached 80% in female samples throughout most of the year. Males showed no signs of infection, but parasite rDNA was detected in male internal organs. The parasite-induced xenomas progressively occupied and eventually replaced much of the ovary, in some cases producing effective castration. Despite high levels of parasite infection, current trawl fishery statistics indicate that the abundance of Mediterranean populations of the host remains high. The parasite impact on the host population dynamics is unclear. Possible effects of the new microsporidian parasite on the reproductive effort of C. filamentosus and the potential role of another parasite, the ectoparasitic copepod Lernanthropus callionymicola, as an additional host in the life cycle of O. papernae, require further investigation.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 04/2014; 109(1):35-54.