Spatial Vision (SPATIAL VISION )

Publisher: Brill Academic Publishers


Spatial Vision is a quarterly interdisciplinary journal which specifically encourages communication between researchers on all aspects of spatial vision, from mathematical modelling, through biophysics and the psychophysical analysis of visual processing, to the study of cognitive aspects of perception and computer vision. Spatial Vision publishes both theoretical and empirical papers, reviews of major topics in the field, invited articles by leading figures and, from time to time, issues on special topics.

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  • Website
    Spatial Vision website
  • Other titles
    Spatial vision (Online)
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Brill Academic Publishers

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print can only be deposited after acceptance for peer-review
    • Author's Post-print on author's personal website, institutional website or institutional repository
    • Publisher version may be posted on author's personal website only
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used in institutional repository
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Published source must be acknowledged
  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metacontrast masking is by no means a unitary phenomenon, as is evidenced in recent studies showing differences between masking of surface- and contour properties of target stimuli (Breitmeyer et al., 2006; Ishikawa et al., 2006). Optima of masking appear earlier for contour processing and feature-specific operations compared to the variety of brightness processing that shows up in area filling-in phenomena. The present study explored whether this rule of processing - contours first and area filling-in afterwards - will be sustained if target and mask are, respectively, a central and a peripheral part of a coherent or incoherent meaningful visual object. Observers were presented with gray-level targets (images of the central part of a visual object) that were masked by a following, spatially surrounding mask, which was a complementary part of that object. Consistently with earlier findings, it appeared that salient visibility of contours which belonged to the internal spatial area of the target part of the object was established earlier and the whole-surface brightness quality (i.e. gray level) later in the course of target microgenesis. The unexpected facilitative effect of within-object coherence on target visibility which appeared at longer stimuli onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask parts of the object and only with large target and mask supports either some bias effects or lateral facilitatory interaction between iso-oriented parts of target-mask configuration having long time constants. The absence of the effects of coherence and inversion of target-plus-mask composite with small stimuli does not support the reentrant, top-down accounts of object processing in the context of metacontrast interactions.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(2):127-46.
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    ABSTRACT: Contrast sensitivity for a Gabor target can be increased by a factor of two when identical patches are separated by about three wavelengths (lambda) and positioned collinearly (Polat and Sagi, 1993, 1994a, 1994b). The facilitation effect was found for a wide range of spatial frequencies but was tested with well-experienced observers. Since practice modifies the range of lateral interactions, in this study naive observers were tested in order to document the initial stage of collinear facilitation. Surprisingly, we found that facilitation is maximal for the high spatial frequencies and minimal for the low spatial frequencies. We also found that when experienced observers were tested, facilitation at the low spatial frequencies was evident, suggesting that the initially reduced facilitation was due to inefficient lateral interactions. We suggest that the absence of facilitation for low spatial frequencies is due to the slow propagation velocity of the remote input, resulting in a mismatch between the flanker's input and the target's integration time.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(2):179-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the great heterogeneity of subjects and styles, esthetic perception delineates a special and elusive field of research in vision, which represents an interesting challenge for cognitive science tools. With specific regard to the role of visual complexity, in this paper we present an experiment aimed to measure this dimension in a heterogeneous set of paintings. We compared perceived time complexity measures - based on a temporal estimation paradigm - with physical and statistical properties of the paintings, obtaining a strong correlation between psychological and computational results.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(3):195-209.
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    ABSTRACT: While repetition of a feature (position) unrelated to a response is acknowledged to be facilitatory, there is disagreement on whether priming for response-defining feature or spatial position is facilitatory or inhibitory. To address this question, we used simple feature targets to analyze the interactions between facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms associated to the repetition of features and position, for responses given either to the feature or to the position. We were able to reproduce the general facilitatory effect when a feature was repeated, and the inhibitory effect when it was changed, although these feature priming effects were always in interaction with repetition effects of spatial position. The most interesting finding, however, was that repetition of spatial position showed facilitation when non-response-defining, and inhibition when coincident with the response (response-defining); that is, repetition effects of spatial position are strictly dependent on the object of the motor response (a feature vs the position itself), whereas repetition priming for features is not, suggesting the involvement of a different mechanism and different neural substrate in the two cases. These effects interact, resulting in an ecologically plausible heuristic of visual discrimination that facilitates recently viewed features appearing in recently visited positions, but inhibits recently visited positions containing features recently associated with a distractor.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(4):325-38.
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the relationship between Art, as painting or sculpture, and a new theory of perceptual meaning, which builds on and now further develops the Gestalt principles. A key new idea in the theory is that higher-order groupings principles exist which, like the spatial grouping articulated by the principle of Prägnanz, helps to associate and combine stimuli, but which, unlike the Gestalt laws, can explain combinations of dissimilar as well as similar forms of visual information in a lawful manner. Similarities and dissimilarities are put together again by virtue of another and more global grouping factor that overcomes the dissimilarities of the components: it is some kind of meaning principle that perceptually solves the differences among whole and elements at a higher level, making them appear strongly linked just by virtue of the differences. In this way, similarities and dissimilarities complement and do not exclude each other. Such higher-order principles of grouping-by-meaning are articulated and illustrated using Art, from prehistoric to modern.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(3):225-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Recent discussion regarding whether the noise that limits 2AFC discrimination performance is fixed or variable has focused either on describing experimental methods that presumably dissociate the effects of response mean and variance or on reanalyzing a published data set with the aim of determining how to solve the question through goodness-of-fit statistics. This paper illustrates that the question cannot be solved by fitting models to data and assessing goodness-of-fit because data on detection and discrimination performance can be indistinguishably fitted by models that assume either type of noise when each is coupled with a convenient form for the transducer function. Thus, success or failure at fitting a transducer model merely illustrates the capability (or lack thereof) of some particular combination of transducer function and variance function to account for the data, but it cannot disclose the nature of the noise. We also comment on some of the issues that have been raised in recent exchange on the topic, namely, the existence of additional constraints for the models, the presence of asymmetric asymptotes, the likelihood of history-dependent noise, and the potential of certain experimental methods to dissociate the effects of response mean and variance.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(4):273-300.
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    ABSTRACT: Several unresolved issues in stereopsis are discussed that are related to the visual processing of dynamic disparity information. These unresolved issues include: (1) how well does the visual system compute temporal change in disparity and what kind of computation is used; (2) what is the neurophysiological basis of such processing in humans; and (3) how is the information gleaned from such processing used for guiding human action. The resolution of these issues will likely involve an adoption of a philosophical perspective in which dynamic disparity is viewed as playing an important role in the control of behavior and in which stereopsis is studied within the context of control-systems analysis.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(1):83-90.
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined whether filling-in occurred at the blind spot when a line segment was presented on only one side of the blind spot. We used static and dynamic stimuli: a static test line segment and a pair of probe line segments were presented in Experiment 1 and a moving test line segment was presented in Experiment 2. We compared the probability that the proximal end was perceived to be on the blind spot side when the test line segment came into contact with the blind spot (blind spot condition) with that when the test line segment was outside the blind spot (control condition). The results of the two experiments showed that the proximal end was perceived to be more on the blind spot side in the blind spot condition than in the control condition. Notably, when a dynamic stimulus was presented below the blind spot, the mean amount of filling-in reached 2.84 degrees. Therefore, filling-in occurred at the blind spot even when a line segment was presented on only one side of the blind spot.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(4):339-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Repeating the same target's features or spatial position, as well as repeating the same context (e.g. distractor sets) in visual search leads to a decrease of reaction times. This modulation can occur on a trial by trial basis (the previous trial primes the following one), but can also occur across multiple trials (i.e. performance in the current trial can benefit from features, position or context seen several trials earlier), and includes inhibition of different features, position or contexts besides facilitation of the same ones. Here we asked whether a similar implicit memory mechanism exists for the size of the attentional focus. By manipulating the size of the attentional focus with the repetition of search arrays with the same vs. different size, we found both facilitation for the same array size and inhibition for a different array size, as well as a progressive improvement in performance with increasing the number of repetition of search arrays with the same size. These results show that implicit memory for the size of the attentional focus can guide visual search even in the absence of feature or position priming, or distractor's contextual effects.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(2):147-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Recovering shape in three dimensions has obvious importance for visual perception. Hence one principal goal for stereopsis should be to recover good estimates of 3D shape. But this is impossible if disparity processing is hardwired, because at different fixation distances a fixed angular disparity will correspond to quite different distance increments. An experiment confirms previous evidence that the disparity computation is not hardwired. Specifically, as fixation distance changes, the perceived relation between depth and disparity changes. The changes are consistent with a remapping that partially preserves the constancy of 3D shape over a wide range of fixation distances.
    Spatial Vision 02/2009; 22(1):91-103.
  • Spatial Vision 01/2009; 22(5):357-9.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major difficulties in graph classification is the lack of mathematical structure in the space of graphs. The use of kernel machines allows us to overcome this fundamental limitation in an elegant manner by addressing the pattern recognition problem in an implicitly existing feature vector space instead of the original space of graphs. In this paper we propose three novel error-tolerant graph kernels -- a diffusion kernel, a convolution kernel, and a random walk kernel. The kernels are closely related to one of the most flexible graph matching methods, graph edit distance. Consequently, our kernels are applicable to virtually any kind of graph. They also show a high degree of robustness against various types of distortion. In an experimental evaluation involving the classification of line drawings, images, diatoms, fingerprints, and molecules, we demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed kernels in conjunction with support vector machines over a standard nearest-neighbor reference method and several other graph kernels including a standard random walk kernel.
    Spatial Vision 01/2009; 22(5):425-41.
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    ABSTRACT: In three texture segmentation experiments a target patch had to be detected. We studied the impact of a task-irrelevant patch in the backward mask on detection performance, and especially the modulating effects of its spatial distance to the target. It was assumed that the signals of the two texture irregularities interact as a function of their spatial distance. Experiment 1 revealed that the task-irrelevant patch impaired target detection only when the distance was small. In Experiments 2 and 3 with systematically varying distances, detection performance increased linearly with distance until a maximum point. If the task-irrelevant patch appeared outside of a critical distance, performance did not increase further with increasing distance. Our findings are discussed in terms of the biased competition account. It is proposed that the critical distance may correspond to the average receptive field size of a cortical area that is critical for target detection.
    Spatial Vision 01/2009; 22(6):511-27.
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    ABSTRACT: We deal with the analysis of eye movements made on natural movies in free-viewing conditions. Saccades are detected and used to label two classes of movie patches as attended and non-attended. Machine learning techniques are then used to determine how well the two classes can be separated, i.e., how predictable saccade targets are. Although very simple saliency measures are used and then averaged to obtain just one average value per scale, the two classes can be separated with an ROC score of around 0.7, which is higher than previously reported results. Moreover, predictability is analysed for different representations to obtain indirect evidence for the likelihood of a particular representation. It is shown that the predictability correlates with the local intrinsic dimension in a movie.
    Spatial Vision 01/2009; 22(5):397-408.