Reviews in Chemical Engineering (REV CHEM ENG )


The main aim of Reviews in Chemical Engineering is to develop new insights and to promote interest and research activity in chemical engineering and applied chemistry, as well as the application of new developments in these areas. The journal publishes authoritative articles of limited scope by leading chemical engineers, applied scientists and mathematicians.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vinyl ester resins (VERs) are high-performance unsaturated resins derived by the addition reaction of various epoxide resins with α - β unsaturated carboxylic acids. These resins have always been classified under unsaturated polyester resins. However, VERs have remarkable corrosion resistance and superior physical properties as compared with these conventional polyester resins, which make VERs a class of their own and hallmark of today ’ s resin industries. Hence, there is a need to review the available literature on this important class of thermosetting resins separately. In this article, an attempt is made to review the state of the art of VERs, including synthesis, characterization, curing, thermal, chemical, oxidative properties, and applications. The main focus is on the latest developments in this area.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 09/2014; 30(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Fossil fuels are the major contributors to the emission of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, rendering global warming a challenging issue to the researchers and industries. Although natural gas has been recommended as a clean fuel compared to other fossil fuels, geological sources of natural gas are not free of impurities. Economical commercialization of natural gas with high sour gas contents as well as facilitating the geosequestration of sour gases for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) need several environmentally sound and cost-effective gas separation methods. Moreover, stringent restrictions should be drawn to mitigate the unfettered greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. In the present study, existing low-temperature conventional CO2 capture methods, namely, cryogenic distillation process along with emerging nonconventional and hybrid methods, have been demonstrated. Also, the limitations and operational conditions during the application of these processes have been mentioned. The future prospects of the emerging technologies have been compared with conventional methods. Hybrid cryogenic distillation networks for multiproduct industrial production of different hydrocarbons and CO2 products at higher pressures of 40 bar and above showed promising potentials. A concise classification and summary of innovative emerging technologies along with conventional methods has been presented in this paper for possible future commercial exploitation.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 08/2014; 30(5):453-477.
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    ABSTRACT: An increased interest in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media is encountered due to their toxicity and negative impacts on ecosystems, human health and economic activities. A variety of processes may be used for the removal of heavy metal ions from water and wastewater, such as chemical precipitation, ion exchange, adsorption, membrane processes, etc. However, the removal efficiencies of heavy metals by adsorption depend on several factors such as: initial loads of heavy metals in the influent, purpose of treatment (drinking/industrial water production, wastewater treatment for disposal or recycling), costs of the overall process, and properties and conditions for regeneration of the sorbent materials. In this context, the use of polyurethane foams as heavy metal ion sorbents is of a special interest because they provide versatile applications in heavy metal effluent management. This study reviews relevant published researches that are concerned with new sorbents based on polyurethane foams applied in batch and dynamic systems for separation and/or preconcentration of heavy metal ions in environmental aqueous media. This review is divided into the following sections: synthesis of polyurethane foams; physical and chemical properties of polyurethane foams; preconcentration of pollutant metal ions from environmental aqueous media by different types of polyurethane foam (untreated, loaded, reacted and composite polyurethane foams); the applicability of sorbents based on polyurethane foams for water and wastewater treatment; comparison of sorbents based on polyurethane foam with other sorbents for heavy metal ion removal.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 08/2014; 30(4):403-420.
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    ABSTRACT: Petroleum resources are limited and stringent environmental concerns are increasing; biodegradable materials made from renewable agricultural resources such as carbohydrates, starch and proteins are attracting much attention for sustainable development and environmental conservation. As per the annual production of wheat in India, it is the second largest producer in the world after China. In this paper, we explore the possibility of wheat protein known as gluten as a promising substitute for petroleum-based plastics and environment-friendly thermosetting composites. Plant proteins from wheat show an advantage for use as films and plastics because of their abundant resources, low cost, good biodegradability and suitable properties like rheological properties, water sensitivity, sound absorption and thermal behavior. The paper aims to explain the extraction of gluten and to review the blending of gluten with different plasticizers such as glycerol, water and some cross-linking agents to enhance the above-mentioned properties. An extensive review of the existing literature reveals that wheat gluten (WG)-based bioplastics are nontoxic and fully biodegradable, whatever the technological process is applied; thus, the paper also discusses the biodegradability of WG-based bioplastics. We conclude the paper by incorporating a critical summary of the various parameters and chemicals used to enhance the properties of gluten-based composites.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-impeller stirred vessels are widely used for industrial applications. Based on the numerous studies that reported the motivation and importance of studies on multi-impeller systems, a systematic study was conducted to identify the focus and objectives of research and types of experiments conducted using multi-impeller systems. Researchers mainly focused on the effects of impeller spacing, off-bottom clearance, and type of impeller combinations. Most experiments were conducted on power number, power consumption, gas hold-up, and gas-liquid mass transfer. Research works have not exhausted all impeller-type combinations and there are still opportunities for future work. Computational fluid dynamics studies involving multi-impeller systems are also still lacking owing to flow complexities. This work can serve as a roadmap for future study themes.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The public awareness on environmental odors emitted from industrial, municipal, and agricultural sources has increased over the last decade. Odor regulations continue to be formulated and updated worldwide, and many emitting facilities have been required to address and minimize nuisance odors. The main challenge in the field of odor management is that the measured response is a perception. Nevertheless, it is necessary to quantify the problem in an objective manner using the best available approaches. While the field of odor cience has evolved considerably in recent years, there are still different viewpoints and approaches with regard to proper methodologies for measuring and predicting environmental odors. This review aims at providing scientists, engineers, and regulators a balanced and critical understanding of how to respect odor assessments and predictions based on currently existing methodologies and the uncertainties associated with them. Approaches to odor measurement and regulation have varied greatly among local jurisdictions, states, provinces, and countries. Regulatory tools have ranged from relatively simple quantitative measurements of odor and/or specific chemicals to the more complex use of electronic noses and atmospheric dispersion models to predict real-time odor impact on neighboring receptors. Odor measurements are commonly done by means of olfactometry using human panelists. However, as human responses to odor can be subjective and vary among individuals, multiple panelists with tested sensitivities within a controlled range are typically used. Both field and laboratory olfactometry measurements have been used to quantify odors, as each of these is appropriate for different odor magnitudes. Alternatively, odors have been monitored in real time by means of electronic noses, which are arrays of sensors that are correlated based on laboratory olfactometry measurements. Atmospheric dispersion models are often used to predict odor impacts at downwind receptors. Inputs to these dispersion models include odor concentrations measured using olfactometry or electronic noses. Several of the tools used in the field of environmental odors have been adapted from earlier studies on air pollution, but challenges still exist with regard to odor sampling, analyses, and use of prediction models developed for air contaminants. Sampling matters include the use of polymeric bags for sample containment which may release odorous chemicals and may not maintain fully the sample integrity during storage. In addition, sampling protocols vary around the world. Specifically, the sampling of passive area sources with a liquid-gas or solid-gas interface (such as lagoons, manure pits, or compost piles) raises fundamental questions related to the effect of the device used (flux chamber, FC or wind tunnel, WT) on measured odor emission rates. Uncertainties are associated with olfactometry results because of the variability among human panelists. This uncertainty is partly defined by international standards and may be minimized with good laboratory practices. All such uncertainties related to sampling and olfactometry are passed on to real-time monitoring by means of electronic noses, as such noses are calibrated based on olfactometry. While dispersion models of specific air pollutants are based on conservation of mass, the use of these dispersion models for odors merely predicts the number of dilutions needed to reach the perception threshold at a certain distance from the emission source. Such predictions cannot entirely predict odor annoyance unless the relationships between odor concentration and perceived intensity and offensiveness are determined at suprathreshold concentrations. Thus, while great strides have been made in past decades with regard to odor science, there is a need for continued research and an increased understanding of the uncertainties associated with odor monitoring and prediction. Nevertheless, substantial standardization progress has been accomplished that enables researchers and practitioners to address the complex issues related to environmental odor pollution. Best available practices of field sampling, laboratory olfactometry, and modeling can be applied to odor quantification tools and thus minimize and/or account for the uncertainties intrinsic to each tool. The applications of measurement, prediction, and monitoring of odors in the environment are broad, and require effective methodologies to quantify and remediate odor problems in an objective manner. Areas of application include policy development, odor regulation, complaint assessment, odor impact assessment, odor master planning, odor control efficiency assessment, process design, land use policies, and urban planning.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 01/2014; 30(2):139-166.
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    ABSTRACT: Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is a versatile material that gives extruded and molded components the ability to meet exceptionally demanding criteria. This semicrystalline engineering thermoplastic has outstanding thermal stability, superior toughness, inherent flame resistance, and excellent chemical resistance. It also has high mechanical strength, impact resistance, and dimensional stability as well as good electrical properties. The present review outlines the synthesis methods, characterizations, and electrical and dielectric properties of PPS composite. Its structural and morphological characteristics, studied for advanced applications such as photovoltaic cells, gas sensors, and supercapacitors, are in prospect. In the composite phase, the electric and dielectric properties of PPS are found to be improved.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial neural networks (ANN) provide a range of powerful new techniques for solving problems in sensor data analysis, fault detection, process identification, and control and have been used in a diverse range of chemical engineering applications. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of various ANN applications within the field of chemical engineering (CE). It deals with the significant aspects of ANN (architecture, methods of developing and training, and modeling strategies) in correlation with various types of applications. A systematic classification scheme is also presented, which uncovers, classifies, and interprets the existing works related to the ANN methodologies and applications within the CE domain. Based on this scheme, 717 scholarly papers from 169 journals are categorized into specific application areas and general (other) applications, including the following topics: petrochemicals, oil and gas industry, biotechnology, cellular industry, environment, health and safety, fuel and energy, mineral industry, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and polymer industry. It is hoped that this paper will serve as a comprehensive state-of-the-art reference for chemical engineers besides highlighting the potential applications of ANN in CE-related problems and consequently enhancing the future ANN research in CE field. Keywords: artificial neural networks; chemical engineering applications; modeling; optimization
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 08/2013; 24(9):205-239.
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    ABSTRACT: The syntheses and potential applications of N-substituted carbazole derivatives (NSCbzDs) in developing a wide range of novel materials have been reviewed emphasizing on very recent results in the field.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 01/2013; 29(6):413-437.
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing environmental concern for diesel particulate emissions has led to the development of efficient and robust diesel particulate filters (DPF). Although the main function of a DPF is to filter solid particles, the beneficial effects of applying catalytic coatings in the filter walls have been recognized. The catalyzed DPF technology is a unique type of chemical reactor in which a multitude of physicochemical processes simultaneously take place, thus complicating the tasks of design and optimization. To this end, modeling has contributed considerably in reducing the development effort by offering a better understanding of the underlying phenomena and reducing the excessive experimental efforts associated with experimental testing. A comprehensive review of the evolution and the most recent developments in DPF modeling, covering phenomena such as transport, fluid mechanics, filtration, catalysis, and thermal stresses, is presented in this article. A thorough presentation on the mathematical model formulation is given based on literature references and the differences between modeling approaches are discussed. Selected examples of model application and validation versus the experimental data are presented.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 01/2013; 29:1-61.
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations of metabolic uncouplers in growth systems such as activated sludge treatment are increasing because of their ability to decrease biomass growth. As of 2011, more than 10 metabolic uncouplers were reported to significantly decrease biomass yield by between 21% and 87%. In this paper, we present a detailed review of metabolic uncoupling, different metabolic uncouplers, current applications in waste water treatment systems and their possible use in biological air pollution control systems such as biofiltration in order to improve the substrate degradation rate. This paper will be useful for those who are interested in using metabolic uncouplers to improve the performance of growth or non-growth systems.
    Reviews in Chemical Engineering 10/2012;