Preventive Veterinary Medicine (PREV VET MED )

Publisher: Elsevier

Description

This journal is the leading resource for international reports on animal health programs and preventive veterinary medicine. Published 20 times a year, the journal focuses on the epidemiology of domestic and wild animals, costs of epidemic and endemic diseases of animals, the latest methods in veterinary epidemiology, disease control or eradication by public veterinary services, relationships between veterinary medicine and animal production, and development of new techniques in diagnosing, recording, evaluating and controlling diseases in animal populations.

Impact factor 2.51

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    2.57
  • Cited half-life
    7.10
  • Immediacy index
    0.45
  • Eigenfactor
    0.01
  • Article influence
    0.64
  • Website
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine website
  • Other titles
    Preventive veterinary medicine (Online)
  • ISSN
    0167-5877
  • OCLC
    39183545
  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Elsevier

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, arXiv.org or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data f'rom surveys should be weighted using expansion weights to avoid biased estimates for the inference population. Calculation of expansion weights is a stepwise procedure that can be thought of as allowing respondents to represent all eligibles from the population. Design will have an impact on the variance of the estimates. Furthermore, the impact may be to inflate or deflate the variance and is often variable-dependent. Accounting for the design in estimating the variance will require specialized analysis procedures and often specialized software.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2019; 28:225-237.
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), a viral disease of swine, has major economic impacts on the swine industry. The North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM) is a spatial, stochastic, farm level state-transition modeling framework originally developed to simulate highly contagious and foreign livestock diseases. The objectives of this study were to develop a model to simulate between-farm spread of a homologous strain of PRRS virus in Ontario swine farms via direct (animal movement) and indirect (sharing of trucks between farms) contacts using the NAADSM and to compare the patterns and extent of outbreak under different simulated conditions. A total of 2552 swine farms in Ontario province were allocated to each census division of Ontario and geo-locations of the farms were randomly generated within the agriculture land of each Census Division. Contact rates among different production types were obtained using pig movement information from four regions in Canada. A total of 24 scenarios were developed involving various direct (movement of infected animals) and indirect (pig transportation trucks) contact parameters in combination with alternating the production type of the farm in which the infection was seeded. Outbreaks were simulated for one year with 1000 replications. The median number of farms infected, proportion of farms with multiple outbreaks and time to reach the peak epidemic were used to compare the size, progression and extent of outbreaks. Scenarios involving spread only by direct contact between farms resulted in outbreaks where the median percentage of infected farms ranged from 31.5-37% of all farms. In scenarios with both direct and indirect contact, the median percentage of infected farms increased to a range from 41.6-48.6%. Furthermore, scenarios with both direct and indirect contact resulted in a 44% increase in median epidemic size when compared to the direct contact scenarios. Incorporation of both animal movements and the sharing of trucks within the model indicated that the effect of direct and indirect contact may be nonlinear on outbreak progression. The increase of 44% in epidemic size when indirect contact, via sharing of trucks, was incorporated into the model highlights the importance of proper biosecurity measures in preventing transmission of the PRRS virus. Simulation of between-farm spread of the PRRS virus in swine farms has highlighted the relative importance of direct and indirect contact and provides important insights regarding the possible patterns and extent of spread of the PRRS virus in a completely susceptible population with herd demographics similar to those found in Ontario, Canada.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of the bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) vaccination on herd health and production in BHV-1 infected Estonian dairy cattle herds. Seven herds vaccinated with inactivated gE-negative BHV-1 marker vaccines and seven matched non-vaccinated herds were selected. In vaccinated herds the calving interval was on average 7.01 days shorter compared to that in the non-vaccinated herds (coef = -7.01, 95% CI = -11.98, -2.03, p = 0.008) during the study period (2007-2012). In non-vaccinated herds the insemination index had an increasing trend (coef(log scale) = 0.03, 95% CI = -0.003, 0.06, p = 0.054) and the first service conception rate decreased (coef = -2.19, 95% CI= -3.91, -0.47, p = 0.015), whereas no significant changes occurred in vaccinated herds. Average yearly milk yield per cow increased (coef = 145.30, 95% CI = -6.11, 296.71, p = 0.065) and length of the dry period decreased in BHV-1 vaccinated herds (coef(log scale) = -0.02, 95% CI = -0.04, 0.004, p = 0.056) compared to non-vaccinated herds during the study years. Youngstock and the cow culling rate due to respiratory disease was significantly lower in vaccinated herds compared to non-vaccinated herds (coef = -0.29, 95% CI = -0.47, -0.11, p = 0.003 and coef = -0.15, 95% CI = -0.29, -0.007, p = 0.043, respectively). These results suggest that vaccination against BHV-1 is associated with herd health and productivity.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to systematically review the efficacy of topically applied insecticide treatments of dogs (impregnated collars, spot-ons), and prophylactic medications to prevent natural L. infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated preventive efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria and independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search yielded 937 articles, from which 84 full text articles for second stage screening. Eleven eligible studies were included; four on collars (two RCTs), three on spot-ons (two RCTs – one looking at two different dosing regimens), three on prophylactic medications (all RCTs) and one on both collars and spot-ons summarized in this paper. All of the studies were considered to be at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, with the exception of one spot-on study which was considered to be at an unclear risk of methodological shortcomings. Deltamethrin collars, 65% permethrin, 10% imidacloprid with 50% permethrin spot-ons and domperidone prophylactic medication tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional, behavioral, and health benefits of gentle stroking and vocalizations, otherwise known as gentling, have been documented for several species, but little is known about the effect of gentling on cats in stressful situations. In this study, 139 cats rated as anxious upon admission to an animal shelter were allocated to either a Gentled or Control group. Cats were gentled four times daily for 10 mins over a period of 10 days, with the aid of a tool for cats that were too aggressive to handle. The cats’ mood, or persistent emotional state, was rated daily for 10 d as Anxious, Frustrated or Content. Gentled cats were less likely to have negatively valenced moods (Anxious or Frustrated) than Control cats (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] =0.61 CI 0.42-0.88, P =0.007). Total secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) was quantified from faeces by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gentled cats had increased S-IgA (6.9 ±0.7 loge μg/g) compared to Control cats (5.9 ±0.5 loge μg/g) (P <0.0001). Within the Gentled group of cats, S-IgA values were higher for cats that responded positively to gentling (7.03 ±0.6, loge μg/g), compared with those that responded negatively (6.14 ±0.8, loge μg/g). Combined conjunctival and oropharyngeal swab specimens were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (rPCR) for feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV), Mycoplasma felis, Chlamydophila felis, and Bordetella bronchiseptica. There was a significant increase in shedding over time in Control cats (23%, 35%, 52% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively), but not in gentled cats (32%, 26%, 30% on days 1, 4 and 10, respectively) (P =0.001). Onset of upper respiratory disease was determined by veterinary staff based on clinical signs, in particular ocular and/or nasal discharge. Control cats were 2.4 (CI: 1.35-4.15) times more likely to develop upper respiratory disease over time than gentled cats (P <0.0001). It is concluded that gentling anxious cats in animal shelters can induce positive affect (contentment), increase production of S-IgA, and reduce the incidence of upper respiratory disease.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A cross sectional survey was conducted involving 354 farm poultry workers on 85 randomly selected commercial poultry farms in high density poultry farm areas in Pakistan to estimate the sero-prevalence of H5, H7 and H9 and to identify the potential risk factors for infection with the avian influenza virus. A haemagglutination inhibition test titre at 1:160 dilution was considered positive, based on WHO guidelines. The estimated sero-prevalence was 0% for H5, 21.2% for H7 and 47.8% for H9. Based on a generalized linear mixed model, the significant risk factors for H7 infection were area, type of farm and age of poultry worker. Risk of infection increased with the age of poultry workers. Compared with broiler farms, breeder farms presented a greater risk of infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 10.1). Compared with the combined Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and Federal area, North Punjab had higher observed biosecurity measures and presented a lesser risk of infection (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Biosecurity should therefore be enhanced (especially in breeder farms) to reduce the occupational risks in poultry farm workers and to decrease the risk of emergent human-adapted strains of AI H7 and H9 viruses.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 10/2014; 117:610-614.
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    ABSTRACT: This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results were analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha > 0.70.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Movement of animals from one farm to another is a potential risk and can lead to the spreading of livestock diseases. Therefore, in order to implement effective control measures, it is important to understand the movement network in a given area. Using the SANITEL data from 2005 to 2009, around 2 million cattle movements in Belgium were traced. Exploratory analysis revealed different spatial structures for the movement of different cattle types: fattening calves are mostly moved to the Antwerp region, adult cattle are moved to different parts in Belgium. Based on these differences, movement of cattle would more likely cause a spread of disease to a larger number of areas in Belgium as compared to the fattening calves. A closer inspection of the spatial and temporal patterns of cattle movement using a weighted negative binomial model, revealed a significant short-distance movement of bovine which could be an important factor contributing to the local spreading of a disease. The model however revealed hot spot areas of movement in Belgium; four areas in the Walloon region (Luxembourg, Hainaut, Namur and Liege) were found as hot spot areas while East and West Flanders are important “receivers” of movement. This implies that an introduction of a disease to these Walloon regions could result in a spread towards the East and West Flanders regions, as what happened in the case of Bluetongue BTV-8 outbreak in 2006. The temporal component in the model also revealed a linear trend and short- and long-term seasonality in the cattle movement with a peak around spring and autumn. The result of this explorative analysis enabled the identification of “hot spots” in time and space which is important in enhancing any existing monitoring and surveillance system.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks every year. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming systems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment of the clinical and direct economic impacts of foot and mouth disease on household level in smallholder livestock farming systems. Impacts were assessed based on data obtained from case outbreaks in cattle in crop-livestock mixed and pastoral smallholder farming systems that occurred in 2012 and 2013. Data were collected by using questionnaires administered to 512 smallholder farmers in six districts within two administrate zones that represent the two smallholder farming systems. Foot and mouth disease morbidity rates of 85.2% and 94.9% at herd level; and 74.3% and 60.8% at animal level in the affected herds were determined for crop-livestock mixed system and pastoral system, respectively. The overall and calf specific mortality rates were 2.4% and 9.7% for the crop-livestock mixed system, and 0.7% and 2.6% for the pastoral system, respectively. Herd level morbidity rate was statistically significantly higher in the pastoral system than in the crop-livestock mixed system (P < 0.001). The economic losses of foot and mouth disease due to milk loss, draft power loss and mortality were on average USD 76 per affected herd and USD 10 per head of cattle in the affected herds in crop-livestock mixed system; and USD 174 per affected herd and USD 5 per head of cattle in the affected herds in the pastoral system. The herd level economic losses were statistically significantly higher for the pastoral system than for the crop-livestock mixed system (P < 0.001). The major loss due to the disease occurred as a result of milk losses and draft power losses whereas mortality losses were relatively low. Although the presented estimates on the economic losses accounted only for the visible direct impacts of the disease on herd level, these conservative estimates signify a potential socioeconomic gain from a control intervention.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether Contagious Caprine Pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n = 447) and 35.5% (n = 434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n = 30) and 22.9% (n = 70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n = 434) and 35.7% (n = 70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n = 434) of the goat and 12.9% (n = 70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p < 0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR = 4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p = 0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p < 0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p < 0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR = 2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p < 0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.73-4.62; p= p < 0.001) and communal grazing of animals (OR = 7.60; 95% CI 1.77-32.58; p = 0.01). Therefore, these results show that CCPP was already circulating in goats in the southern zone by 2007 and that PPR was probably introduced thereafter. Their presence in this emerging animal keeping area in Tanzania calls for improved surveillance and control systems.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2014;