Preventive Veterinary Medicine (PREV VET MED )

Publisher: Elsevier


This journal is the leading resource for international reports on animal health programs and preventive veterinary medicine. Published 20 times a year, the journal focuses on the epidemiology of domestic and wild animals, costs of epidemic and endemic diseases of animals, the latest methods in veterinary epidemiology, disease control or eradication by public veterinary services, relationships between veterinary medicine and animal production, and development of new techniques in diagnosing, recording, evaluating and controlling diseases in animal populations.

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    Preventive Veterinary Medicine website
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    Preventive veterinary medicine (Online)
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 are important foodborne pathogens whose major reservoir are asymptomatic cattle. There is evidence suggesting that nonpathogenic E. coli and bacteriophages in the gastro-intestinal tract can influence the pathogenicity of EHEC O157. The factors contributing to the onset and persistence of shedding EHEC O157 in cattle are not completely elucidated. This study used Bayesian network analysis to identify genetic markers of generic E. coli associated with shedding of EHEC O157 in cattle from data generated during an oral experimental challenge study in 4 groups of 6 steers inoculated with three different EHEC O157 strains. The quantification of these associations was accomplished using mixed effects logistic regression. The results showed that the concurrent presence of generic E. coli carrying the prophage marker R4-N and the virulence marker stx2 increased the odds of the onset of EHEC O157 shedding. The presence of prophage markers z2322 and X011C increased, while C1.N decreased the odds of shedding EHEC O157 two days later. A significant antagonist interaction effect between the presence of the virulence marker stx2 on the day of shedding EHEC O157 and two days before shedding was also found. In terms of the persistence of EHEC O157 shedding, the presence of prophage marker R4-N (OR=16, and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 252) was found to increase the odds of stopping EHEC O157 shedding, whereas prophage marker C1.N (OR=0.16, CI: 0.03, 0.7) and the enterohemolysin gene hly (OR=0.03, CI: 0.001, 0.8) were found to significantly decrease the odds of stopping EHEC O157 shedding. In conclusion, the study found that the presence of certain genetic markers in the generic E. coli genome can influence the pathogenicity of EHEC O157.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introducing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester, respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitigation measures and sources of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment. Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports of live cattle, as well as use of vaccines were analyzed. Information regarding the application of biosecurity measures, by veterinarians and hoof trimmers practicing in Denmark and in other countries, was obtained by contacting several stakeholders, public institutions and experts. Stochastic scenario trees were made to evaluate the importance of the various BVDV introduction routes. With the current surveillance system, the risk of BVDV introduction was estimated to one or more introductions within a median of nine years (3-59). However, if all imported animals were tested and hoof trimmers always disinfected the tools used abroad, the risk could be reduced to one or more introductions within 33 years (8-200). Results of this study can be used to improve measures of BVD surveillance and prophylaxis in Danish dairy herds.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program is yet to be implemented.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0 to 10% (n = 879) and 50 to 60% (n = 667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n = 7) and 85-90% (n = 16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014; 113(1):157–158.
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective Sero-prevalence analysis was conducted in 2012 in order to find out whether Contagious Caprine Pleuro-pneumonia (CCPP) and Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) had already been introduced in Mtwara and Lindi regions of Southern Tanzania by 2007 and 2009. A total of 477 randomly selected sera from a bank of 3500 small ruminant samples that were collected as part of Rift Valley Fever surveillance of 2007 in Mtwara and Lindi regions were used in this study. Seroconversion was also evaluated in the 504 sera that were collected in 2009 as part of disease outbreak investigations in Tandahimba and Newala districts of Mtwara region. Seroconversions to CCPP and PPR were tested using competitive ELISA. In addition, information on different variables available in the existing surveillance forms gathered during sampling was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with seropositivity to the two diseases. The overall seroprevalence of CCPP for the sera of 2007 and 2009 in goats was 52.1% (n = 447) and 35.5% (n = 434) respectively; while in sheep the seroprevalence was 36.7% (n = 30) and 22.9% (n = 70) respectively. Seroconversion to PPR in goats and sheep was 28.7% (n = 434) and 35.7% (n = 70) respectively based on the sera of 2009. However, no antibodies were detected in the 2007 sera. Mixed infections were detected in 7.4% (n = 434) of the goat and 12.9% (n = 70) of sheep samples. Significant risk factors associated with seropositivity to CCPP in 2007 included introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 3.94; 95% CI 1.86-8.36; p < 0.001) and raising animals in government farms (OR = 4.92; 95% CI 1.57-15.76; p = 0.02); whereas, seropositivity to CCPP in 2009 increased with introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 18.82; 95% CI 8.06-43.96; p < 0.001), raising animals in government farms (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 2.69-6.42; p < 0.001) and raising animals in Newala district (OR = 2.35; 95% CI 1.53-3.62; p < 0.001). On the other hand, predictors for seropositivity to PPR in 2009 were introduction of new animals in flocks (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.73-4.62; p= p < 0.001) and communal grazing of animals (OR = 7.60; 95% CI 1.77-32.58; p = 0.01). Therefore, these results show that CCPP was already circulating in goats in the southern zone by 2007 and that PPR was probably introduced thereafter. Their presence in this emerging animal keeping area in Tanzania calls for improved surveillance and control systems.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection as determined by faecal examination was conducted among domestic and wild birds in Bangladesh. Birds were sampled from households, wet markets and wetlands in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet districts during April 2012 to February 2013. Mist nets were used to catch resident wild and migratory birds. The overall prevalence of parasite infection ranged among locations from 25-55% in indigenous domestic ducks (live bird samples = 304), 20% in resident wild birds (environmental fecal samples = 40) and 40% in migratory birds (live bird samples = 35). The prevalence of parasite infection was significantly higher in indigenous domestic ducks collected during summer (39%) than winter (22%) (p = 0.04). In domestic indigenous ducks and Muscovy ducks, both single and multiple types of parasite infections were found. However, other domestic birds and wild birds often had a single type of parasitic egg infection. Ascaridia spp. with an average egg load of 50-900, was commonly detected in fecal samples of domestic and wild birds in this study. Other identified parasites were Capillaria spp. and Heterakis spp. both in domestic and wild birds. Improvement of biosecurity measures for household duck farms through educating and motivating household farmers could help mitigate the effects of parasitic infection on production.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess risk factors related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) persistence, a case-control study, comparing persistent versus transient bTB infected beef farms from Central and Southern Spain, was conducted. Farms were matched by herd size and geographical location (county). A questionnaire administered by personal interview was conducted on 150 herds (80 controls and 70 cases) from Andalucia and Castilla La Mancha regions. The questionnaire included questions related to the personnel involved in routine diagnostics, structure of the farm and of the herd, management, presence of other domestic species and of wildlife reservoirs. According to the results of our study, farms with large pasture areas and bTB infected neighbors had more difficulties in eradicating the disease, and therefore, were more likely to suffer a persistent bTB infection. The odds of bTB persistence were between 1.2 and 5.1 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher in those herds that had a neighbor infected herd. Farms with large pasture areas had odds between 1.2 and 12.7 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher of having a persistent bTB episode than farms with small pasture areas.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We estimated the infection prevalence of BSE in Japanese cattle born in the period 2000-2012, using maximum likelihood methods and BSE surveillance data of these birth cohorts. From this, we predicted the number of infected cattle and test positives in years 2004-2020. Assuming that the infection prevalence decayed exponentially over time from 2000, the infection prevalence of the 2000 birth cohort was estimated to be 0.00058 which declined exponentially by 0.115 times per year in the following years. The number of infected cattle was calculated to have peaked in 2005 and would be zero by 2020. The number of test positives was calculated to have peaked in 2005 and would be zero by 2012. The number of BSE cases actually detected was within the 95% confidence interval of the predicted numbers. The detectable prevalence (predicted number of test positives/number of cattle tested) was predicted to be highest in 2005. In this year it was predicted that one animal out of 160,000 tested would test positive. The detectable prevalence would decline exponentially to zero in the subsequent years.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of fipronil (1 mg/kg) against three strains of ivermectin-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (R. (B.) microplus), naturally infesting cattle from different states of Brazil. Three rural properties with a history of macrocyclic lactones ineffectiveness against the cattle tick, and low frequency use of fipronil in the herd, were selected for the study. The animals were randomized according to the mean tick counts, performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into three groups with 10 animals each: T01, control (saline solution); T02, subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) and T03: topical fipronil (1 mg/kg). Treatment was performed on day 0. Counts of partially engorged female ticks were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment (DPT), and then every 7 days until the 49th DPT. In all three experiments, it was possible to diagnose resistance of R. (B.) microplus to ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). The maximum efficacy (arithmetic mean) obtained for ivermectin was 64% in experiment II. On the other hand, the formulation containing fipronil (1 mg/kg) reached high efficacy values (≥97%) in all three experiments. The results from all experiments in this study demonstrate the high efficacy of 1 mg/kg fipronil, administered pour-on in naturally infested cattle, against strains of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus that are resistant to 630 mcg/kg ivermectin.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Compulsory bovine Tuberculosis testing has been implemented since 1959 in Northern Ireland. Initial rapid progress in the eradication of the disease was followed by a situation where disease levels tended to fluctuate around a low level. This study explores recrudescence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Northern Ireland herds by assessing risk factors associated with time from the six-month post-outbreak skin test until a further herd breakdown. Bovine herds (n = 3377) were recruited in 2002 and 2003 and their survival analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and a Cox proportional hazards model, with follow-up extending to August 2008. Exclusion criteria applied for study entry were bTB infection in a contiguous herd, changing of post restriction test to one of a higher risk status or chronic infection. Chronic infection was defined as any situation where disclosure preceded the post-outbreak test by two years or more. The application of these exclusion criteria meant that herds recruited to the study were largely cleared of infection and not directly contiguous to other infected herds. Of the 3377 herds, 1402 (41.5%) suffered a further herd breakdown before the end of follow-up. Median survival time was 582 days (interquartile range = 336–1002 days). Breakdown severity (defined as the number of Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT) reactors at disclosure test), local bTB prevalence, herd size and type were identified as significant risk factors (p < 0.05), as was the purchase of higher numbers (n > 27.38 per year) of cattle. Consistent with other studies this work shows bTB confirmation to not be predictive of a future herd breakdown. This work shows bTB history as not being a risk factor for a future breakdown. This result could be reflective of the exclusion criteria used in the study, which may have selected for incidents where historical status was of less importance.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;

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