Preventive Veterinary Medicine (PREV VET MED )

Publisher: Elsevier


This journal is the leading resource for international reports on animal health programs and preventive veterinary medicine. Published 20 times a year, the journal focuses on the epidemiology of domestic and wild animals, costs of epidemic and endemic diseases of animals, the latest methods in veterinary epidemiology, disease control or eradication by public veterinary services, relationships between veterinary medicine and animal production, and development of new techniques in diagnosing, recording, evaluating and controlling diseases in animal populations.

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    Preventive Veterinary Medicine website
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    Preventive veterinary medicine (Online)
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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data f'rom surveys should be weighted using expansion weights to avoid biased estimates for the inference population. Calculation of expansion weights is a stepwise procedure that can be thought of as allowing respondents to represent all eligibles from the population. Design will have an impact on the variance of the estimates. Furthermore, the impact may be to inflate or deflate the variance and is often variable-dependent. Accounting for the design in estimating the variance will require specialized analysis procedures and often specialized software.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2019; 28:225-237.
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    ABSTRACT: A cross sectional survey was conducted involving 354 farm poultry workers on 85 randomly selected commercial poultry farms in high density poultry farm areas in Pakistan to estimate the sero-prevalence of H5, H7 and H9 and to identify the potential risk factors for infection with the avian influenza virus. A haemagglutination inhibition test titre at 1:160 dilution was considered positive, based on WHO guidelines. The estimated sero-prevalence was 0% for H5, 21.2% for H7 and 47.8% for H9. Based on a generalized linear mixed model, the significant risk factors for H7 infection were area, type of farm and age of poultry worker. Risk of infection increased with the age of poultry workers. Compared with broiler farms, breeder farms presented a greater risk of infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4, 10.1). Compared with the combined Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and Federal area, North Punjab had higher observed biosecurity measures and presented a lesser risk of infection (OR = 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Biosecurity should therefore be enhanced (especially in breeder farms) to reduce the occupational risks in poultry farm workers and to decrease the risk of emergent human-adapted strains of AI H7 and H9 viruses.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 10/2014; 117:610-614.
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    ABSTRACT: The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV or IHHNV) is the smallest of the known shrimp viruses. It causes severe mortalities in juveniles and sub-adults of the blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris, while specimens of the white shrimp P. vannamei infected by this virus exhibit reduced growth rates and negative effects on the feed-conversion rate (FCR). To date, no descriptive epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of this virus in shrimp broodstock have been performed. In this study, the prevalence of IHHNV in broodstock of the white shrimp P. vannamei from hatcheries on the northwest of Mexico region was estimated. Prevalence vary across different regions from high (63%) to low (6%) in shrimp broodstock. Several factors, as transport of pathogens by human activities, or the absence or implementation of ineffective biosecurity measures, may explain the observed differences. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the prevalence of IHHNV on broodstock.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection as determined by faecal examination was conducted among domestic and wild birds in Bangladesh. Birds were sampled from households, wet markets and wetlands in Chittagong and Greater Sylhet districts during April 2012 to February 2013. Mist nets were used to catch resident wild and migratory birds. The overall prevalence of parasite infection ranged among locations from 25-55% in indigenous domestic ducks (live bird samples = 304), 20% in resident wild birds (environmental fecal samples = 40) and 40% in migratory birds (live bird samples = 35). The prevalence of parasite infection was significantly higher in indigenous domestic ducks collected during summer (39%) than winter (22%) (p = 0.04). In domestic indigenous ducks and Muscovy ducks, both single and multiple types of parasite infections were found. However, other domestic birds and wild birds often had a single type of parasitic egg infection. Ascaridia spp. with an average egg load of 50-900, was commonly detected in fecal samples of domestic and wild birds in this study. Other identified parasites were Capillaria spp. and Heterakis spp. both in domestic and wild birds. Improvement of biosecurity measures for household duck farms through educating and motivating household farmers could help mitigate the effects of parasitic infection on production.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 are important foodborne pathogens whose major reservoir are asymptomatic cattle. There is evidence suggesting that nonpathogenic E. coli and bacteriophages in the gastro-intestinal tract can influence the pathogenicity of EHEC O157. The factors contributing to the onset and persistence of shedding EHEC O157 in cattle are not completely elucidated. This study used Bayesian network analysis to identify genetic markers of generic E. coli associated with shedding of EHEC O157 in cattle from data generated during an oral experimental challenge study in 4 groups of 6 steers inoculated with three different EHEC O157 strains. The quantification of these associations was accomplished using mixed effects logistic regression. The results showed that the concurrent presence of generic E. coli carrying the prophage marker R4-N and the virulence marker stx2 increased the odds of the onset of EHEC O157 shedding. The presence of prophage markers z2322 and X011C increased, while C1.N decreased the odds of shedding EHEC O157 two days later. A significant antagonist interaction effect between the presence of the virulence marker stx2 on the day of shedding EHEC O157 and two days before shedding was also found. In terms of the persistence of EHEC O157 shedding, the presence of prophage marker R4-N (OR=16, and 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 252) was found to increase the odds of stopping EHEC O157 shedding, whereas prophage marker C1.N (OR=0.16, CI: 0.03, 0.7) and the enterohemolysin gene hly (OR=0.03, CI: 0.001, 0.8) were found to significantly decrease the odds of stopping EHEC O157 shedding. In conclusion, the study found that the presence of certain genetic markers in the generic E. coli genome can influence the pathogenicity of EHEC O157.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this review was to describe, compare and evaluate agreement, reliability, and validity of manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems (MLSSs and ALSSs, respectively) used in dairy cattle lameness research. There are many different types of MLSSs and ALSSs. Twenty-five MLSSs were found in 244 articles. MLSSs use different types of scale (ordinal or continuous) and different gait and posture traits need to be observed. The most used MLSS (used in 28% of the references) is based on asymmetric gait, reluctance to bear weight, and arched back, and is scored on a five-level scale. Fifteen ALSSs were found that could be categorized according to three approaches: a) the kinetic approach measures forces involved in locomotion, b) the kinematic approach measures time and distance of variables associated to limb movement and some specific posture variables, and c) the indirect approach uses behavioural variables or production variables as indicators for impaired locomotion. Agreement and reliability estimates were scarcely reported in articles related to MLSSs. When reported, inappropriate statistical methods such as PABAK and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were commonly used. Some of the most frequently used MLSSs were poorly evaluated for agreement and reliability. Agreement and reliability estimates for the original four-, five- or nine-level MLSS, expressed in percentage of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa, showed large ranges among and sometimes also within articles. After the transformation into a two-level scale, agreement and reliability estimates showed acceptable estimates (percentage of agreement ≥ 75%; kappa and weighted kappa ≥ 0.6), but still estimates showed a large variation between articles. Agreement and reliability estimates for ALSSs were not reported in any article. Several ALSSs use MLSSs as a reference for model calibration and validation. However, varying agreement and reliability estimates of MLSSs make a clear definition of a lameness case difficult, and thus affect the validity of ALSSs. MLSSs and ALSSs showed limited validity for hoof lesion detection and pain assessment. The utilization of MLSSs and ALSSs should aim to the prevention and efficient management of conditions that induce impaired locomotion. Long-term studies comparing MLSSs and ALSSs while applying various strategies to prevent and control unfavourable conditions leading to impaired locomotion are required to determine the usefulness for securing optimal production and animal welfare in practice.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 06/2014; 116:12-25.
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    ABSTRACT: A quantitative risk assessment was carried out to estimate the likelihood of introducing bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in Danish dairy herds per year and per trimester, respectively. The present study gives important information on the impact of risk mitigation measures and sources of uncertainty due to lack of data. As suggested in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement), the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code was followed for a transparent science-based risk assessment. Data from 2010 on imports of live cattle, semen, and embryos, exports of live cattle, as well as use of vaccines were analyzed. Information regarding the application of biosecurity measures, by veterinarians and hoof trimmers practicing in Denmark and in other countries, was obtained by contacting several stakeholders, public institutions and experts. Stochastic scenario trees were made to evaluate the importance of the various BVDV introduction routes. With the current surveillance system, the risk of BVDV introduction was estimated to one or more introductions within a median of nine years (3-59). However, if all imported animals were tested and hoof trimmers always disinfected the tools used abroad, the risk could be reduced to one or more introductions within 33 years (8-200). Results of this study can be used to improve measures of BVD surveillance and prophylaxis in Danish dairy herds.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a disease of zoonotic concern, especially in countries with no control programs in livestock and where routine pasteurization of milk is not practiced. In Tanzania, bTB is widespread in livestock and has been diagnosed in humans; however, herd bTB testing is primarily carried out for bTB-free certification in commercial dairy herds at the expense of the dairy cattle owner. For rural livestock holders, such an expense is prohibitive, and consequently there is no control of bTB in most areas. Although effective long-term solutions to control bTB in livestock are desirable, there is a need to assess the effect of preventive measures on reducing human exposure to bTB in such settings. We utilized locally relevant cattle herd characteristics and management data from the Health for Animals and Livelihood Improvement (HALI) project in south-central Tanzania to build a Reed-Frost model that compared the efficacy of alternative methods aimed at reducing the exposure of humans to infectious milk from a typical pastoralist cattle herd. During a 10-year simulation period, the model showed that boiling milk 80% of the time is necessary to obtain a reduction in liters of infectious milk approximately equivalent to what would be obtained with a standard 2-year testing and removal regimen, and that boiling milk was more effective than animal test and removal early in the time period. In addition, even with testing and removing infected cattle, a residual risk of exposure to infectious milk remained due to imperfect sensitivity of the skin test and a continuous risk of introduction of infectious animals from other herds. The model was sensitive to changes in initial bTB prevalence but not to changes in herd size. In conclusion, continuous complimentary treatment of milk may be an effective strategy to reduce human exposure to M. bovis-infected milk in settings where bTB is endemic and a comprehensive bTB control program is yet to be implemented.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In order to assess risk factors related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) persistence, a case-control study, comparing persistent versus transient bTB infected beef farms from Central and Southern Spain, was conducted. Farms were matched by herd size and geographical location (county). A questionnaire administered by personal interview was conducted on 150 herds (80 controls and 70 cases) from Andalucia and Castilla La Mancha regions. The questionnaire included questions related to the personnel involved in routine diagnostics, structure of the farm and of the herd, management, presence of other domestic species and of wildlife reservoirs. According to the results of our study, farms with large pasture areas and bTB infected neighbors had more difficulties in eradicating the disease, and therefore, were more likely to suffer a persistent bTB infection. The odds of bTB persistence were between 1.2 and 5.1 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher in those herds that had a neighbor infected herd. Farms with large pasture areas had odds between 1.2 and 12.7 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher of having a persistent bTB episode than farms with small pasture areas.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the effect of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection on bulk tank milk somatic cell counts (BMSCC). Twenty nine dairy farms supplying milk to a dairy in Eastern Poland were recruited for the study. Bulk milk ELISA and RT-PCR were used to determine the BVDV infection status and the presence of PI animals in the farms. The BMSCC mean values for the BVDV seronegative (218.7 × 103 cells/ml; SD: 89.8) and seropositive (214.9 × 103 cells/ml; SD: 74.0) herds did not differ significantly. To assess the relationship between BVDV infection and BMSCC a multilevel mixed-effects linear model was used. No statistically significant effect of BVDV infection on BMSCC was found. The mean values of BMSCC for the herds with PI individuals measured before (230.1 × 103 cells/ml, SD: 64.9) and after (223.3 × 103 cells/ml, SD: 62.4) the PI removal were not statistically different. An increase in herd size was associated with a significant decrease in BMSCC. An increase in BMSCC was observed during summer (from May to September) compared to during winter (from October to April).
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
  • Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results were analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha > 0.70.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1,835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02%-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence =>30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis.
    Preventive Veterinary Medicine 01/2014;