Immunology Letters (IMMUNOL LETT )

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Immunology Letters provides a vehicle for the speedy publication of full-length and short articles, Rapid Notes, (mini)Reviews and Letters to the Editor addressing all aspects of molecular and cellular immunology. The essential criteria for publication will be clarity, experimental soundness and novelty. Results contradictory to current accepted thinking or ideas divergent from actual dogmas will be considered for publication provided that they are based on solid experimental findings. Preference will be given to papers of immediate importance to other investigators, either by their experimental data, new ideas or new methodology. Scientific correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief related to the published papers may also be accepted provided that they are short and scientifically relevant to the papers mentioned, in order to provide a continuing forum for discussion. Within a reference section, new mRNA sequences with unknown function, expressed sequence tags with tissue distribution and novel monoclonal antibody descriptions are considered for publication.

Current impact factor: 2.37

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.367
2012 Impact Factor 2.337
2011 Impact Factor 2.526
2010 Impact Factor 2.511
2009 Impact Factor 2.906
2008 Impact Factor 2.858
2007 Impact Factor 2.628
2006 Impact Factor 2.352
2005 Impact Factor 2.301
2004 Impact Factor 2.136
2003 Impact Factor 1.71
2002 Impact Factor 1.847
2001 Impact Factor 2.009
2000 Impact Factor 1.546
1999 Impact Factor 1.494
1998 Impact Factor 1.485
1997 Impact Factor 1.096
1996 Impact Factor 1.255
1995 Impact Factor 1.241
1994 Impact Factor 1.223
1993 Impact Factor 1.241
1992 Impact Factor 1.559

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.56
Cited half-life 7.00
Immediacy index 0.38
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.87
Website Immunology Letters website
Other titles Immunology letters
ISSN 0165-2478
OCLC 5434613
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-33 signals influence various immune cells during differentiation, immune responses and homeostasis. As discussed in this Review, IL-33 via TI/ST2L regulates the functions of immune cells including T cells, B cells, DCs, macrophages, mast cells, and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Stimulation with IL-33 is crucial for CD4+ T cell polarized into Th2 immunity and for the induction of Treg. CD8+ T cells can also express ST2L and IL-33 promotes features of effector CD8+ T cells. For macrophages and ILCs, ST2L presents on these cells and IL-33 induces Th2 cytokine production. IL-33 modulates adhesion, activation, maturation, and cytokine production by mast cells. ST2 is expressed in B1 and is important for differentiation of IL-10-producing B cells. Understanding the specific role of IL-33/ST2L in different immune cells will help to answer the remaining questions that are important for diseases pathologies and intervention strategies by targeting the IL-33/ST2L signals.
    Immunology Letters 02/2015; 179.
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that a fungal lectin, Rhizoctonia bataticola lectin (RBL), stimulates proliferation and secretion of Th1/Th2 cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the present study, we evaluated the ability of RBL to differentiate human monocytes to macrophages. RBL induced morphological changes indicative of differentiation in primary monocytes and THP-1 cells. Stimulation with RBL resulted in significant up-regulation of differentiation markers- CD54, HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines- IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Functionally, RBL profoundly increased phagocytic activity in monocytes. In THP-1 cells, RBL-induced phagocytosis was higher compared to the effect induced by combination of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RBL induced a significant increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in comparison with a combined treatment of PMA+LPS. Mechanistic studies revealed the involvement of the NF-κb pathway in RBL-induced differentiation of monocytes. The data suggest that RBL mimics the combined action of PMA and LPS to induce morphological and functional differentiation in human monocytes and monocytic cell line- THP-1 to macrophages. Human monocytes differentiated to macrophages with RBL have the potential as an in vitro model to study macrophage biology.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 11.
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    ABSTRACT: This is a prospective cohort study elucidating innate immunity in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF), Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia (COP), Rheumatoid Arthritis-associated Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (RA-UIP) and RA-associated Non Specific Interstitial Pneumonia (RA-NSIP).
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 188.
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    ABSTRACT: Viral microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate the host innate immune response. In particular, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) miRNA hcmv-miR-UL112 evades the host immune system by downregulating host immune gene and immediate-early viral gene expression. Natural killer (NK) cells are important innate immune cells with potent cytotoxicity, and are activated by type I interferons (IFNs) upon infection. It remains unclear how HCMV persists in the host despite the strongly antagonistic host immune system. A lentiviral vector was used to stably express hcmv-miR-UL112 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Hcmv-miR-UL112 expression levels were detected by TaqMan miRNA assay. The effects of hcmv-miR-UL112 on NK cell cytotoxicity were assessed with CD107a mobilization assay and CytoTox 96 non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to detect type I IFNs levels in culture supernatants. To confirm the role of type I IFN in hcmv-miR-UL112-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity, PBMCs were incubated with antagonizing antibodies against IFN receptor (IFNAR) before lenti-hcmv-miR-UL112 treatment and recombinant type I IFN was added back into miR-transduced PBMC. Ectopically expressed hcmv-miR-UL112 functionally attenuated NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, associated with decreased type I IFN expression. Hcmv-miR-UL112-transfected cells did not reduce the CD107-expression further than the IFNAR neutralizing mAbs-treatment alone, and adding back of recombinant type I IFN restored CD107a expression from the miR-transduced PBMC. Taken together, our results suggest that hcmv-miR-UL112 subverts innate immunity by downregulating type I IFN signaling to inhibit NK cell cytotoxicity. These results provide a new miRNA-based immunoevasion mechanism that may be exploited by HCMV.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 299(2).
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    ABSTRACT: TLR7 is a transmembrane endosomal protein that plays an essential role in innate antiviral responses via the recognition of conserved viral molecular patterns. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA of goose TLR7 and carried out a molecular characterization of goose TLR7. The goose TLR7 gene is 3900bp and encodes a 1045 amino acid protein with high homology to poultry (93% to duck and 83% to chicken). Similar conclusions were made by phylogenetic analysis. The predicted protein secondary structure of goose TLR7 contained a conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain and characteristic leucine-rich repeat regions, which has also been reported for duck TLR7. Additionally, the tissue distribution of goose TLR7 suggests that immune-associated tissues, especially the cecal tonsil and bursa of Fabricius, have high goose TLR7 expression levels. Goose TLR7 is abundantly expressed in lung tissues, which is distinct from its expression in chickens. Similar to duck TLR7, goose spleen mononuclear cells (MNCs) exposed to the mammalian TLR7 agonists R848 and Imiquimod showed significant induction of the production of proinflammatory cytokines and IFN-α. New type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) infection resulted in high mRNA expression levels of goose TLR7 in the spleen. By contrast, no direct interaction between NGVEV and goose TLR7 was detected after infecting goose spleen MNCs with NGVEV in vitro. However, triggering of goose TLR7 resulted in the rapid up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and anti-viral molecules, suggesting that goose TLR7 plays an important role in anti-viral defense. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 163(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Regular bathing in the Blue Lagoon in Iceland has beneficial effects on psoriasis. Cyanobacterium aponinum is a dominating member of the Blue Lagoon's microbial ecosystem. The aim of the study was to determine whether exopolysaccharides (EPSs) secreted by C. aponinum (EPS-Ca) had immunomodulatory effects in vitro. Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) were matured in the absence or presence of EPS-Ca and the effects were determined by measuring the secretion of cytokines by ELISA and the expression of surface molecules by flow cytometry. DCs matured with EPS-Ca at 100μg/ml secreted higher levels of IL-10 than untreated DCs. Subsequently, DCs matured in the presence or absence of EPS-Ca were co-cultured with allogeneic CD4(+) T cells and their effects on T cell activation analysed by measuring expression of intracellular and surface molecules and cytokine secretion. Supernatant from allogeneic T cells co-cultured with EPS-Ca-exposed DCs had raised levels of IL-10 compared with control. A reduced frequency of IL-17(+)RORγt(+) T cells was observed when co-cultured with EPS-Ca-exposed DCs and a tendency towards increased frequency of FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) T cells, resulting in a lower IL-17(+)RORγt(+)/FoxP3(+)IL-10(+) ratio. The study shows that EPSs secreted by C. aponinum stimulate DCs to produce vast amounts of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. These DCs induce differentiation of allogeneic CD4(+) T cells with an increased Treg but decreased Th17 phenotype. These data suggest that EPSs from C. aponinum may play a role in the beneficial clinical effect on psoriasis following bathing in the Blue Lagoon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To elucidate the immunologic mechanisms of artificially synthesized helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptide (H/K-HELP), which indicated a great vaccine efficacy in human cancers, we prepared ovalbumin (OVA)-H/K-HELP by conjugating killer and helper epitopes of OVA-model tumor antigen via a glycine-linker. Vaccination of C57BL/6 mice with OVA-H/K-HELP (30 amino acids) but not with short peptides mixture of class I-binding peptide (8 amino-acids) and class II-binding peptide (17 amino-acids) combined with adjuvant CpG-ODN (cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides), induced higher numbers of OVA-tetramer-positive CTL with concomitant activation of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) Th1 cells. However, replacement of glycine-linker of OVA-H/K-HELP with other peptide-linker caused a significant decrease of vaccine efficacy of OVA-H/K-HELP. In combination with adjuvant CpG-ODN, OVA-H/KHELP exhibited greater vaccine efficacy compared with short peptides vaccine, in both preventive and therapeutic vaccine models against OVA-expressing EG-7 tumor. The elevated vaccine efficacy of OVAH/K-HELP might be derived from the following mechanisms: (i) selective presentation by only professional dendritic cells (DC) in vaccinated draining lymph node (dLN); (ii) a long-term sustained antigen presentation exerted by DC to stimulate both CTL and Th1 cells; (iii) formation of three cells interaction among DC, Th and CTL. In comparative study, H/K-HELP indicated stronger therapeutic vaccine efficacy compared with that of extended class I synthetic long peptide, indicating that both the length of peptide and the presence of Th epitope peptide were crucial aspects for preparing artificially synthesized H/K-HELP vaccine. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on antiviral immunity in man are hampered by the impossibility to standardize the infection as is done in experimental animal studies. An exception is the occurrence of cytomegalovirus infection transmitted by a donor organ into a transplant-recipient, where the time-point of infection is exactly known. Moreover, its strong interaction with the human immune system during evolution and the strong immunogenic properties of this persistent virus, as well as the need for intervention e.g. by vaccine development, all make studies towards the immune response against just this virus very attractive and relevant. In this work, we will present an overview of the studies on this topic that were performed in the departments of Experimental and Clinical Immunology in the AMC and Sanquin in Amsterdam. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2PB):141-144.
  • Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2 Pt B):83-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are severe autoimmune disorders now causing gut inflammation and ulceration, among other symptoms, in up to 1 in 250 people worldwide. Incidence and prevalence of IBD have been increasing dramatically over the past several decades, although the causes for this increase are still unknown. IBD has both a complex genotype and a complex phenotype, and although it has received substantial attention from the medical research community over recent years, much of the etiology remains unexplained. Genome-wide association studies have identified a rich genetic signature of disease risk in patients with IBD, consisting of at least 163 genetic loci. Many of these loci contain genes directly involved in microbial handling, indicating that the genetic architecture of the disease has been driven by host-microbe interactions. In addition, systematic shifts in gut microbiome structure (enterotype) and function have been observed in patients with IBD. Furthermore, both the host genotype and enterotype are associated with aspects of the disease phenotype, including location of the disease. This provides strong evidence of interactions between host genotype and enterotype; however, there is a lack of published multi-omics data from IBD patients, and a lack of bioinformatics tools for modeling such systems. In this article we discuss, from a computational biologist's point of view, the potential benefits of and the challenges involved in designing and analyzing such multi-omics studies of IBD.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the recent years fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an effective therapeutic option for patients with refractory Clostridium difficile infection that is not responding to antibiotic therapy. It results in implantation of donor microbiota into recipients and restoration of normal distal gut microbial community structure. We anticipate that this form of therapy represents merely the first entry into a new class of therapeutics. There is great interest in application of FMT or defined microbial consortia to treatment of many diseases associated with dysbiosis. However, many challenges remain in development as our understanding of microbial ecology within the human body and microbiota–host interactions remain limited. Future advances in this field will be critically depending on detailed mechanistic understanding.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Menstrual blood stromal stem Cells (MenSCs) have shown promising potential for future clinical settings. Nonetheless, data regarding their interaction with immune cells is still scarce. Here, we investigated whether MenSCs could affect the generation and/or maturation of human blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). MenSCs were isolated from menstrual blood of normal women through culture of adherent mononuclear cells. Magnetically-isolated peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated toward immature DCs (iDC) and mature DCs (mDCs) in the presence or absence of MenSCs. Monocyte-derived cells were assessed for the percentage of monocyte-, iDC-, and mDC-specific markers as well as the expression of costimulatory molecules. IL-6 and IL-10 levels were also determined in supernatants of MenSC-monocytes cocultures. Optimal phenotypic differentiation of monocytes into iDCs was inhibited upon coculture with MenSCs. Moreover, higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were detected in these settings. Even though addition of MenSCs to iDC cultures could not prevent iDC maturation, coculture of MenSCs with monocytes from the beginning of differentiation process could effectively hinder generation of fully mature DCs. This is the first study to address the inhibitory impact of MenSCs on generation and maturation of DCs. IL-6 and IL-10 could be partly held responsible for this effect. Given the central roles of DCs in regulation of immune responses, these results highlight the importance of further research on the potential modulatory impacts of MenSCs, as rather easily accessible and expandable stem cells, on the immune system-related cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2 Pt B):239-46.
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    ABSTRACT: At the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Immunology (DSI, de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Immunologie), this contribution deals with some highlights of 50 years of Immunology in the Netherlands. It narrates about the founders and first board members of the DSI, their institutes, progeny and patrimony, describes major centers of immunological activities, mentions key persons in the field, and touches upon some events dear to the Society and its members. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Immunology Letters 12/2014; 162(2PB):85-94.