Immunology Letters (IMMUNOL LETT )

Publisher: Elsevier


Immunology Letters provides a vehicle for the speedy publication of full-length and short articles, Rapid Notes, (mini)Reviews and Letters to the Editor addressing all aspects of molecular and cellular immunology. The essential criteria for publication will be clarity, experimental soundness and novelty. Results contradictory to current accepted thinking or ideas divergent from actual dogmas will be considered for publication provided that they are based on solid experimental findings. Preference will be given to papers of immediate importance to other investigators, either by their experimental data, new ideas or new methodology. Scientific correspondence to the Editor-in-Chief related to the published papers may also be accepted provided that they are short and scientifically relevant to the papers mentioned, in order to provide a continuing forum for discussion. Within a reference section, new mRNA sequences with unknown function, expressed sequence tags with tissue distribution and novel monoclonal antibody descriptions are considered for publication.

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    Immunology letters
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    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
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    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory infections are a leading cause of infectious disease burden worldwide especially among the elderly. Furthermore, a direct relationship between aging and susceptibility to infections has been reported, which may be caused by impaired immune function, frailty and degree of exposure to infectious diseases. Many complex changes, including structural and age-associated decline in immunity are associated with increased pulmonary diseases worldwide and result in a high age-related disease burden. The common respiratory infections that present serious risks for the elderly include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and a number of bacterial pathogens including pneumococcus and tuberculosis. Vaccines are available for a limited number of these pathogens including influenza, pneumococcal and pertussis vaccines. This mini review article examines the age-related changes in immune function that predispose the elderly population to respiratory infections and potential loss of vaccine efficacy with a focus on aging and influenza infections.
    Immunology Letters 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Highlights • An intriguing case of rituximab-induced persistent hypogammaglobulinemia was presented. • The patient also suffered from sustained lymphadenopathy and recurrent necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenopathy (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) accompanied by SLE-like symptoms. • Peripheral blood B cell phenotyping revealed developmental arrest to memory B cells, resemble to common variable immunodeficiency.
    Immunology Letters 10/2013;
  • Immunology Letters 10/2013;
  • Immunology Letters 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The use of nanoscale materials is growing exponentially, but concerns rise about the human hazards cannot be ignored. Nanotechnology has penetrated deep into our lives in diversified areas as engineering, information technology and diagnostics. Nonetheless owing to their peculiar properties these new materials also present new health risks upon interacting with biological systems. This is a typical case of technology preceding toxicity and therefore, various toxicological aspects for an array of nanomaterials are just beginning to be assessed. Several deleterious effects are being noticed, particularly in vitro situations as well as in mammalian system. Nanoparticles toxicity is compellingly related to oxidative stress, alteration of calcium homeostasis, gene expression, pro-inflammatory responses and cellular signalling events. It is therefore critical to understand the nature and origin of the toxicity imposed by nanomaterials. Keeping all these points in mind the present review provides updated information on the various aspects such as sources of production, effect of different physical properties, interaction with biological system and mechanisms of engineered nanoparticles induced toxicities.
    Immunology Letters 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Food allergy is an immune provocation induced by certain food in susceptible individuals. Most of the food allergic manifestations are evident in the individual having impaired oral tolerance. In spite of worldwide prevalence, there is no permanent cure of food allergy. Food allergic reactions are complex immunological events that comprises of several immune molecules like IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and T- cells, therefore, researchers are trying to pick the correct molecule to find out a pivotal therapeutic solutions. Being a key regulatory molecule in suppressing T-cells functional activities, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or cluster of differentiation-152 (CD-152) has contributed a novel and revolutionary dimension towards therapeutic research of several diseases. This review focuses on different immunological and mechanistic perspectives of CTLA-4 in correlation with food allergy.
    Immunology Letters 12/2012;
  • Article: wettero
    Immunology Letters 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Blood platelets express several receptors involved in immunity (e.g. complement-, toll-like- and Fcγ-receptors) and release inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates has an important role during inflammatory conditions such as coronary artery disease. Thus, apart from their well-known role in haemostasis, platelets are today also recognized as cells with immuno-modulatory properties. We have previously reported regulatory effects of complement protein 1q (C1q) on platelet activation in experimental setups using isolated cells. In the present study we have proceeded by investigating effects of C1q on collagen-induced aggregation, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates and levels of soluble P-selectin in whole blood. Impedance measurements showed that C1q inhibited collagen-induced aggregation whereas it potentiated the collagen-provoked production of ROS in a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The effects of C1q on aggregation and ROS-production were dependent upon platelets, as they were no longer observed in presence of the platelet (GpIIb/IIIa) inhibitor Reopro. Furthermore, the levels of soluble P-selectin were found to be lowered upon treatment with C1q prior to addition of collagen. There was also a trend towards a decreased formation of large platelet-leukocyte aggregates in collagen-stimulated whole blood following C1q treatment. In conclusion, our data indicate that C1q could have a role in regulating platelet activation and associated leukocyte recruitment during vessel wall injury. This has implications for inflammatory disorders such as coronary artery disease.
    Immunology Letters 11/2011; 142(1-2):28-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Although cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibits T cell activation when ligated by B7 molecules on antigen-presenting cells, it can also act as an activating receptor when binding certain soluble recombinant ligands known as inverse agonists. Following ligation with an inverse agonist, we observed CTLA-4 microclusters evenly distributed on the T cell surface over a 60-min period. We have previously shown that the inverse agonist properties of these ligands correlate with their capacity to induce the formation of large CTLA-4 oligomers that are distinctly different from those resulting by CTLA-4 engagement with membrane-bound B7. These oligomers are composed of CTLA-4 molecules expressed on the cell surface and decrease from both the soluble cell lysate and lipid rafts upon cellular fractionation. Formation of these inverse agonist-induced CTLA-4 oligomers does not require an intact actin cytoskeleton. However, modulation of these oligomers was partially blocked upon actin depolymerization. Retention of CTLA-4 oligomers on the cell surface correlated with enhanced T cell signaling. Together, our data further characterize the structural basis of inverse agonist properties for CTLA-4 ligands that may be used in the design and screening of therapeutic biologicals targeting this receptor.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):29-36.
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    ABSTRACT: Since the role of striatal GABAergic medium-sized spiny (MSP) neurons in the modulation of the immune responses is largely unknown, we evaluated the humoral immune response in rats with bilateral lesion of the striatum caused by quinolinic acid, which destroys MSP neurons. Sham-operated rats and those with striatal lesions were immunized either with TNP-LPS, a T-independent antigen type 1, or one of several T-dependent antigens: ovoalbumin, bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or outer membrane proteins (OMP) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The specific levels of serum IgM and IgG, as well as intestinal IgA antibodies were determined either by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a haemagglutination assay 5 or 7 days after immunization. Our results show that the lesion of striatal MSP neurons attenuated the primary antibody response to the T-independent antigen type 1 (TNP-LPS), but increased the antibody response to T-dependent antigens (proteins, SRBC and OMP), indicating that the striatal neurons modulate the humoral immune response in rats. The mechanisms involved are probably related to a reduction in both the number of B cells and the expression of caveolin-1 in the spleen, as well as an increase in the number of CD4(+) T cells and in corticosterone levels of the serum.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):20-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Pemphigus is a severe blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes caused by pathogenic autoantibodies to desmosomal adhesion proteins desmoglein-3 (Dsg3) and desmoglein-1 (Dsg1). The antibody titer and the distinct isotype patterns correlated with the disease activity. To identify their functional properties and pathogenic potential, we immunized C57BL/6 and Balb/c mice with recombinant Dsg3 fusion protein plus complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or Aluminum Hydroxide hydrate (Alum). After immunization, the cytokine profiles on T cells, the antibody titers, and the isotypes were analyzed. The pathogenicity of different autoantibody isotypes was evaluated by antibody passive transfer approach. It was found that Th1 type cytokine interferon gamma (IFN gamma) was elevated in the CFA-treated group, while Th2 type cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) was increased in the Alum-treated group. IgG1 expression was persistent in the Alum group while IgG2a was predominant in the CFA group. Neonatal mice transferred with sera from the Alum group, but not the CFA group, developed skin lesions clinically and histologically with IgG deposition on the epidermal keratinocytes. Our findings suggest that distinct T cell responses could be switched after active immunization combined with different adjuvants, resulting in distinct anti-Dsg3 antibody isotypes with different pathogenic activities in disease development. These findings shed new light on the immunopathogenesis of PV and offer a new therapeutic strategy for this potentially fatal disorder.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):6-13.
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    ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DC) mediate potent alloimmune responses through the positive costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 while the negative costimulatory molecules, immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2), ILT3 and ILT4 have been associated with tolerogenic DC function. Due to the pivotal role played by DC in immunity the effect of the immunosuppressive agent rapamycin (RAPA) on the expression profile of both positive and negative costimulatory molecules during human DC differentiation and maturation was investigated. During monocyte differentiation to DC an increase in the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) for CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 was observed in association with a concomitant downregulation of ILT2, ILT3, ILT4 and HLA-G expression. While DC differentiation in the presence of RAPA (10nM) showed a reduction in the MFI for CD40, CD80 and CD86 expressing cells, treatment after differentiation had no effect on the expression of these costimulatory molecules. The inhibitory receptors were also downregulated by RAPA only when added during differentiation. In comparison to RAPA, Cyclosporin A (CsA) had relatively minor effects on DC phenotype whereas IFN-alpha showed induction of CD80, CD86 and HLA-G when added prior to differentiation. Functionally, RAPA-treated DC used as stimulators in a DC-T cell mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) showed 40% inhibition of T cell proliferation relative to untreated DC (P=0.001) whereas CsA-treated DC showed no difference, and IFN-alpha-treated DC stimulated T cell proliferation. Nevertheless, the induction of T cell hyporesponsiveness by coculture of RAPA-treated DC with T cells was not associated with the generation of increased numbers of FoxP3 positive T regulatory cells. In conclusion, although RAPA downregulated ILT2, ILT3 and ILT4 expression in DC, the inhibition of T cell proliferation by RAPA-treated DC is predominantly due to the reduction of CD40, CD80 and CD86 expression rather than the propensity to generate FoxP3 expressing regulatory cells.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is critical for the generation of marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen. However, the precise mechanism underlying the differentiation of MZB cells is unclear. To determine whether hematopoietic cells or non-hematopoietic cells provides the Dll1-mediated signals to primitive hematopoietic cells, we transplanted lineage(-)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) (KSL) bone marrow cells derived from wild-type (Dll1(+/+)) GFP-transgenic mice into lethally irradiated Dll1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. After transplantation, we examined the kinetics of hematopoietic reconstitution and found that although the frequency of stem/progenitor subsets and of more mature lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages were normal, the donor-derived hematopoietic cells failed to differentiate into MZB cells. We further demonstrated that while the splenic stromal cells of wild-type mice expressed Dll1 molecule, the splenic stromal cells of recipient Dll1 cKO mice deleted the expression of Dll1. These results suggesting that the expression of Dll1 in splenic non-hematopoietic stromal cells, but not hematopoietic cells, is essential for the development of MZB cells.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 121(1):33-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Although anti-DNA antibodies have been decisively linked to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, the mechanisms have not been conclusively determined. Recently, we reported that anti-DNA antibodies may contribute to kidney damage by upregulation of proinflammatory genes in mesangial cells (MC), a process involving both Fc receptor-dependent and independent pathways. In investigating the mechanism by which pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies modulate gene expression in MC, we found that the pathogenic anti-DNA antibody 1A3F bound to high mobility group binding protein 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous ligand for TLR2/4 and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products). Interestingly, HMGB1 treatment of MC induced a similar pattern of genes as stimulation with 1A3F. Furthermore, HMGB1 and 1A3F exhibited a synergistic proinflammatory effect in the kidney, where increased expression of HMGB1 was found in lupus patients but not in patients with other types of renal disease. TLR2/Fc and RAGE/Fc inhibited the proinflammatory effects of 1A3F on MC. Finally, we found enhanced susceptibility of lupus prone MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) as compared to normal BALB/c derived MC to pathogenic anti-DNA antibody and LPS stimulation (in particular enhanced chemokine synthesis), in addition to significantly increased expression of TLR4. Our results suggest that gene upregulation in MC induced by nephritogenic anti-DNA antibodies is TLR2/4 and RAGE-dependent. Finally, HMGB1 may act as a proinflammatory mediator in antibody-induced kidney damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 121(1):61-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Functional impairment of dendritic cells (DC) appears to be one of the mechanisms responsible for tumor escape from the control of the immune system. DC isolated from tumor-bearing animals and cancer patients with solid or with hematological malignancies have phenotypic and functional abnormalities. In addition, supernatants from in vitro cultured tumor cells have been shown to interfere with DC differentiation from CD34+ and monocyte precursors. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-associated tumor, which releases several cytokines such as IL-6, IL-10 and VEGF and its growth seems to be dependent on them in vitro or in vivo. In the present study, we found that these cytokines released by PELs have also an important role in interfering with the in vitro differentiation of immature DC (iDC) from CD14+ monocytes. The iDC obtained in the presence of PEL supernatants showed reduction of FITC-dextran uptake, reduction of MLR allostimulatory activity and altered expression of surface molecules, suggesting that cytokines released by PEL adversely affect DC differentiation.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):37-41.
  • Immunology Letters 10/2008; 121(1):84-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Activation of resting T cells is highly dependent on dendritic cells (DCs), which take up antigens and present antigenic peptides to T cells in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody, which we call 1C4 that recognizes integrin alpha(M)beta(2) (CD11b/CD18) on the surface of conventional DCs (cDCs) and is internalized after binding. Addition of 1C4 inhibited the ability of immature DCs to phagocytose apoptotic cells. 1C4 treatment also partially inhibited the generation of cDCs from bone marrow in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Our findings suggest that not only CD11b is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, but also that mAb such as 1C4 may be a useful tool for the delivery of specific proteins into the cytoplasm of immature DCs.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 120(1-2):42-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance of T cells to activation-induced cell death (AICD) is associated with autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation. We found that apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a non-mutagenic dietary flavonoid, augmented both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in recurrently activated, but not in primarily stimulated, human blood CD4+ T cells. Apigenin potentiated AICD by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation and suppressing NF-kappaB-regulated anti-apoptotic molecules, cFLIP, Bcl-x(L), Mcl-1, XIAP and IAP, but not Bcl-2. Apigenin suppressed NF-kappaB translocation to nucleus and inhibited IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation in response to TCR stimulation in reactivated peripheral blood CD4 T cells, as well as in leukemic Jurkat T cell lines. Among the pathways that lead to NF-kappaB activation upon TCR stimulation, apigenin selectively inhibited PI3K-PKB/Akt, but not PKC-theta activation in the human T cells, and synergized with a PI3K inhibitor to markedly augment AICD. Apigenin also suppressed expression of anti-apoptotic cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) protein in activated human T cells, but it did not affect activation of Erk MAPKinase. Thus, in chronically activated human T cells, relatively non-toxic apigenin can suppress anti-apoptotic pathways involving NF-kappaB activation, and especially cFLIP and COX-2 expression that are important for functioning and maintenance of immune cells in inflammation, autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation.
    Immunology Letters 10/2008; 121(1):74-83.