Journal of Affective Disorders (J AFFECT DISORDERS )

Publisher: International Society for Affective Disorders, Elsevier


The Journal of Affective Disorders publishes papers concerned with affective disorders in the widest sense: depression, mania, anxiety and panic. It is interdisciplinary and aims to bring together different approaches for a diverse readership. High quality papers will be accepted dealing with any aspect of affective disorders, including biochemistry, pharmacology, endocrinology, genetics, statistics, epidemiology, psychodynamics, classification, clinical studies and studies of all types of treatment.

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    Journal of Affective Disorders website
  • Other titles
    Journal of affective disorders (Online)
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research shows great individual variation in changes in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) after major traumas of terrorist attacks, military combat, and natural disasters. Earlier studies have identified specific mental health trajectories both in children and adults. This study aimed, first, to identify potential PTSS-related trajectories by using latent class growth analyses among children in a three-wave assessment after the 2008/2009 War on Gaza, Palestine. Second, it analyzed how family- and child related factors (e.g., attachment relations, posttraumatic cognitions (PTCs), guilt, and emotion regulation) associate with the trajectory class membership.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Background The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. Methods A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. Results A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values <75%. Limitations Over sampling of depression and anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. Conclusions The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:611–618.
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    ABSTRACT: Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder are frequently unavailable and resource intensive. Mobile technology may improve access to evidence-based interventions and may increase their efficacy. We evaluated the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of an augmentative mobile ecological momentary intervention targeting self-management of mood symptoms.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174.
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    ABSTRACT: The Internet is used to deliver information on many psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder. This paper reports on the results of a 12-months randomised controlled trial, which examined the efficacy of an Internet-based preventive program for bipolar disorder, adjunctive to usual pharmacological management. Participants were recruited by completing an online screening questionnaire accessed through the Black Dog Institute and Sentiens websites based in Australia. The treatment was predominantly psycho-educational with cognitive behavioral therapy optional elements. The attention control treatment comprised directing subjects to a variety of websites focused on 'healthy living'. Time to recurrence was determined using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The main outcome measures were recurrence as defined by: (i) depressive and/or hypomanic symptomatology and functional capacity (using Beck Depression Inventory, Internal State Scale and Sheehan Disability Scale) and (ii) hospitalization. Two-hundred-and-thirty-three subjects were randomized to the active or control treatment groups. There were no significant differences between the active and control treatment groups on any of the definitions of recurrence. Reliance on an online self-report tool to confirm diagnosis and hospitalization rates may have potentially allowed for inclusion of individuals with other diagnoses such as borderline personality disorder. The 'attention control' treatment may have included more 'active' components than intended. This is the first report examining the efficacy of a randomized controlled web-based psychological intervention in a large sample of subjects with bipolar disorder. The potential reasons for failing to demonstrate a significant difference compared to the active control are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:485-492.
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    ABSTRACT: Depression has been hypothesized to be a risk factor of cancer, especially hormone-related cancers. However, few studies have been conducted with large enough sample size and sufficient follow-up period to rigorously estimate these associations. We aim to examine the relationship between depression and risk of registry-documented overall and hormone-related cancers. In this 19 year prospective cohort study of general population, 601,775 Koreans aged 30–64 years had a biennial medical evaluation by the National Health Insurance Service in either 1992 or 1994. Major and minor depression was ascertained by a 9-item depression questionnaire. At baseline, major depression was identified in 7.4% and 10.2% and minor depression in 19.3% and 21.4% in men and women, respectively. During the follow-up, 49,744 cancers were identified in men and 7860 in women. Prostate cancer in men was positively related to minor depression (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05, 1.23), and cervical cancer in women was inversely related to major depression (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83, 0.98) after adjusting for potential confounders. Regarding overall cancer, major depression was positively related to overall cancer in men (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00, 1.08) and inversely related in women (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83, 0.98). There was no association between breast cancer and depression. Different direction and magnitude of association among gender and cancer subtypes suggest different psycho-behavioral and biological pathways in which depression may affect later cancer development. Further studies on the association of depression and cancer and the underlying mechanisms should be conducted on specific cancer subtypes.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 173.
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    ABSTRACT: Zinc is a trace element released from glutamatergic terminals, and modulates the pre- and postsynaptic areas, giving a diverse biological response. Zinc is a natural ligand that inhibits the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and regulates the excessive release of glutamate. Moreover, zinc exhibits an antidepressant-like profile, as demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies. Recent reports indicate that the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor is an important target for zinc "transmission" (its activation modulates/induces diverse biochemical pathways involved in neuroprotection). Preclinical studies provide evidence that zinc deficiency leads to depressive-like behavior related to down-regulation of the GPR39 Zn2+-sensing receptor. Zinc binds to the GPR39 and triggers signals, leading to CRE-dependent gene transcription, resulting in increases in proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), that plays a pivotal role in antidepressant action. Chronic administration of many antidepressants induces GPR39 up-regulation, which suggests that the Zn2+-sensing receptor may be considered as a new target for drug development in the field of depression.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:89-100.
  • Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:144-149.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Avoidant personality disorder is characterized by pervasive anxiety, fear of criticism, disapproval, and rejection, particularly in anticipation of exposure to social situations. An important but underexplored question concerns whether anxiety in avoidant patients is associated with an impaired ability to engage emotion regulatory strategies in anticipation of and during appraisal of negative social stimuli. Methods We examined the use of an adaptive emotion regulation strategy, cognitive reappraisal, in avoidant patients. In addition to assessing individual differences in state and trait anxiety levels, self-reported affect as well as measures of neural activity were compared between 17 avoidant patients and 21 healthy control participants both in anticipation of and during performance of a reappraisal task. Results Avoidant patients showed greater state and trait-related anxiety relative to healthy participants. In addition, relative to healthy participants, avoidant patients showed pronounced amygdala hyper-reactivity during reappraisal anticipation, and this hyper-reactivity effect was positively associated with increasing self-reported anxiety levels. Limitations Our finding of exaggerated amygdala activity during reappraisal anticipation could reflect anxiety about the impending need to reappraise, anxiety about the certainty of an upcoming negative image, or anxiety relating to anticipated scrutiny of task responses by the experimenters. While we believe that all of these possibilities are consistent with the phenomenology of avoidant personality disorder, future research may clarify this ambiguity. Conclusions These results suggest that amygdala reactivity in anticipation of receiving negative social information may represent a key component of the neural mechanisms underlying the heightened anxiety present in avoidant patients.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:1–7.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Few studies have analyzed the course of neurocognition in treated children and adolescents with early-onset bipolar disorder (EOBD) and shown improvements in attention, working memory, and verbal memory after treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the progress over two years in neuropsychological performance of a sample of medicated adolescents with EOBD compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Twenty adolescents, diagnosed in clinical setting as DSM-IV bipolar disorder, treated for two years, euthymic, and 20 gender and age-matched HC were assessed at two moments in reasoning, verbal and visual memory, working memory, speed, visual-motor skills and executive function. Multivariate analyses of variance was carried out to analyze the differences between groups over time, and to monitor the influence of psychotic symptoms and type of mood-stabilizer. Results The entire sample improved on verbal and visual memory tests (verbal recall p<0.01; visual recall p<0.001). Moreover, patients improved more than controls in verbal reasoning (p<0.01), working memory (p<0.01), processing speed (p<0.01) and visual-motor skills (p<0.001). Psychotic symptoms and treatment with lithium were associated with poorer development in executive control tasks. Limitations Sample size was small and groups were re-evaluated in slight different follow-up periods. Doses of antipsychotics drugs over time were not controlled. Conclusions Processing speed and visual-motor skills in the EOBD group normalized during follow-up. Executive functioning, working memory, and verbal and visual memory remained impaired in patients versus controls. The knowledge of cognitive deficits due to normal course of illness or to drug effects allows better therapeutic strategies.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:48–54.
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background Major depression (MD) is associated with deficits in selective attention. Previous studies in adults with MD using event-related potentials (ERPs) reported abnormalities in the neurophysiological correlates of auditory selective attention. However, it is yet unclear whether these findings can be generalized to MD in adolescence. Thus, the aim of the present ERP study was to explore the neural mechanisms of auditory selective attention in adolescents with MD. Methods 24 male and female unmedicated adolescents with MD and 21 control subjects were included in the study. ERPs were collected during an auditory oddball paradigm. Results Depressive adolescents tended to show a longer N100 latency to target and non-target tones. Moreover, MD subjects showed a prolonged latency of the P200 component to targets. Across groups, longer P200 latency was associated with a decreased tendency of disinhibited behavior as assessed by a behavioral questionnaire. Limitations To be able to draw more precise conclusions about differences between the neural bases of selective attention in adolescents vs. adults with MD, future studies should include both age groups and apply the same experimental setting across all subjects. Conclusions The study provides strong support for abnormalities in the neurophysiolgical bases of selective attention in adolecents with MD at early stages of auditory information processing. Absent group differences in later ERP components reflecting voluntary attentional processes stand in contrast to results reported in adults with MD and may suggest that adolescents with MD possess mechanisms to compensate for abnormalities in the early stages of selective attention.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:445-452.
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a robust comorbidity between mood disorders and cardiovascular disorder (CVD). The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and the atherogenic coefficient (AC) are important atherogenic indexes. The aims of this study were to delineate whether AIP and AC are increased in mood disorders especially when comorbid with tobacco use disorder (TUD). Methods In this case-control study we included 134 patients with mood disorders, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression (cases), and 197 individuals without mood disorder (controls) divided into those with and without TUD (defined as never-smokers). Total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) were measured. AIP and AC were computed as log (TG/HDLc) and non-HDLc/HDLc, respectively. Results The AIP and AC indexes were significantly increased in patients with mood disorders versus controls, both in depression and bipolar disorder. Patients with mood disorder without TUD and patients with TUD without mood disorder showed higher AIP and AC values than never-smokers while those with comorbid mood disorders and TUD showed significantly higher AIP and AC levels than all other individuals. A large part of the variance in the AIC (26.4%) and AC (20.4%) was explained by mood disorders, TUD, male gender and body mass index. Conclusions The findings suggest that lipid abnormalities leading to an increased atherogenic potential are involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders (depression and bipolar disorder) and especially comorbid mood disorder and TUD. The comorbidity between mood disorders and CVD may be partly explained increased through AIP and AC indexes, impacting increments in atherogenic potential.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:55–62.
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    ABSTRACT: The association between cannabis use and mood disorders is well documented, yet evidence regarding causality is conflicting. This study explored the association between cannabis use, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD) in a 3-year prospective study.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172.
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable evidence suggests a crucial role for the epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relationship between BDNF DNA methylation and white matter (WM) integrity in MDD has not yet been investigated. In the current study, we examined the association between the DNA methylation status of the BDNF promoter region and WM integrity in MDD. Sixty patients with MDD and 53 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to assess their WM integrity. BDNF DNA methylation at 4 CpG sites of the promoter region was also measured.As compared to healthy controls, the MDD group demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral anterior and posterior corona radiata (ACR and PCR), genu of the corpus callosum, and the bilateral posterior thalamic radiations. We observed a significant inverse correlation between the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter region and the FA of the right ACR in MDD patients.Our findings demonstrate a relationship between methylation of the BDNF promoter region and the integrity of the ACR, a key structural component of the emotional and cognitive control network involved in the pathophysiology of MDD. This correlation suggests that BDNF DNA methylation may contribute to structural WM changes in MDD patients.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172.
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    ABSTRACT: This study assessed the efficacy of the Falloon model of psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), originally developed for schizophrenia management and adapted to bipolar I disorder. The efficacy of the intervention was evaluated in terms of improvement of patients׳ social functioning and reduction of family burden.Methods This was a multicentre, real-world, controlled, outpatient trial carried out in 11 randomly recruited Italian mental health centres. Enroled patients and key-relatives were consecutively allocated either to receive PFI and Treatment As Usual (TAU) or to a waiting list receiving TAU alone. The efficacy of the intervention was evaluated in terms of improvement in patients׳ social functioning (primary outcome) and reduction of family burden (secondary outcome).ResultsOf the 137 recruited families, 70 were allocated to the experimental group and 67 to the control group. At the end of the intervention, significant improvements in patients׳ social functioning and in relatives׳ burden were found in the treated group compared to TAU. This effect of the intervention remained also after controlling for several confounding patient׳s socio-demographic and clinical factors. The experimental intervention had an impact also on other outcome measures, such as patients׳ clinical status and personal burden.LimitationsLack of an active control group.Conclusions The results of this study clearly show that the psychoeducational family intervention according to the Falloon model is effective in improving the social outcome of patients with bipolar I disorder.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:291-299.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with a low rate of full remission. As it is commonly assumed that cases in the elderly principally represent the continuing chronic course of early onset illness, there has been little research into the clinical characteristics, including comorbid psychiatric and physical conditions, which may be specific to older people. Methods Lifetime GAD and psychiatric comorbidity were diagnosed in 1974 community-dwelling elderly people aged 65 or over using a standardized psychiatric examination, the MINI, based on DSM-IV criteria. Multivariate regression analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle, biological, and clinical variables, as well as adverse life events. Results The lifetime prevalence of GAD was 11% (95% CI=9.6–12.4%) of whom 24.6% reported a late onset with a first episode after 50 years of age. The 6-month current prevalence was 4.6% (95% CI=3.7–5.5%). Most of the prevalent cases were recurrent but only 36.3% were receiving treatment. Fourteen percent were comorbid with major depression and 34% with phobia but their associated factors differed. The factors associated with pure GAD were being female, having cognitive impairment, lower body mass index, reporting low affective support during childhood, taking a high number of somatic medications independently of other mental health factors, e.g. psychotropic medication use, major depression, and phobia. Limitations The study is limited by cross-sectional design. Conclusions Our data indicate that GAD prevalence is high in elderly people with a late-life onset of GAD in 25% of cases. GAD in the elderly is not just a severity marker of depression and is clinically distinct from phobia, the other major anxiety disorder of the elderly.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 02/2015; 172:24–29.