Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology (J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol)

Publisher: American Physiological Society (1887- ), American Physiological Society

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Current impact factor: 3.73

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Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.81
Eigenfactor 0.06
Article influence 1.15
Other titles Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology, JAP: Respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology, Respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology
ISSN 0161-7567
OCLC 3474500
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

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American Physiological Society

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Publications in this journal

  • Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1993; 74(2):888-896.
  • Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1986; 60:901-907.
  • Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1986; 60(1):209-215.
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia causes severe disruption of both rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. Experiments were performed on rats to determine if hypoxic insomnia is mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors and if normal sleep is restored during acclimatization to low O2. Novel methods were devised to measure distribution of amplitudes of cortical slow waves during NREM sleep and to detect REM sleep from the ratio of amplitudes of theta-to delta-frequency bands in the hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG). Acute exposure of rats to 10.5% O2 (5,030 m altitude equivalent) during daylight hours virtually abolished REM sleep and shifted the distribution of amplitudes of slow-wave sleep EEG toward awake values. Similar disruption of sleep occurred during inhalation of 0.05% CO with steady-state carboxyhemoglobin of approximately 35%. Respiratory rate and alveolar ventilation were greatly increased by 10.5% O2 but were unaffected by CO. Therefore, hypoxic disruption of sleep was not mediated by peripheral chemoreceptors regulating breathing. Partial recovery of sleep occurred after 1-2 wk of hypoxia, but both REM and NREM were still subnormal after 1 mo. Decreased intensity of NREM sleep during hypoxia, measured by amplitude of cortical slow waves, may explain the disparity between subjective complaints of insomnia at altitude and evaluations of sleep by direct observation or by conventional EEG. Loss of appetite, loss of weight, irritability, and other symptoms of altitude sickness may be related to hypoxic insomnia.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1696-703.
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    ABSTRACT: Recording from pulmonary stretch receptors in the intact cervical vagus nerve revealed a novel interaction between stretch receptors and smooth muscle in the lungs of anesthetized paralyzed cats. Firing rates of pulmonary stretch receptors were modulated in step with the inflation-deflation cycle of the mechanical respirator, as expected. Firing rates of most slowly adapting receptors, but not rapidly adapting receptors, were also strongly modulated in step with the phrenic nerve activity even when the respirator was turned off and the cat motionless. The modulation of some receptors' firing rates by the inspiratory motor output was as great as the change in firing-rate in response to a lung inflation of 20 ml of air (one tidal volume). Atropine blocked the inspiratory-related modulation of slowly adapting/receptor firing rates; it did not block the inflation-related modulation. Pulmonary resistance was modulated in step with the inspiratory activity on the phrenic nerve. Hyperventilation to neural apnea (no phrenic nerve activity) reduced pulmonary resistance to its lowest level, a level equal to that produced by an injection of isoproterenol or atropine. Hypoxia during hypocapnic apnea caused bursts of inspiratory activity on the phrenic nerve accompanied by one-to-one increases in airway resistance. We conclude that the intrathoracic airway smooth muscle contracts with each neural inspiration, that the modulation of the pulmonary stretch receptors is due to a mechanical interaction with the intrathoracic airway smooth muscle, and that through the mechanical link with airway smooth muscle, stretch receptor sensitivity depends on inspiratory output, a closed loop.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1842-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we observed what appeared to be augmented D-glucose transport across the pulmonary epithelium. To investigate this phenomenon we placed fluid containing L-[3H]glucose and D-[U-14C]glucose in the alveoli of isolated Ringer-perfused lungs from 4-wk-old rabbits. The appearance of radioactivity in recirculating glucose-free perfusate was measured. 3H appearing in the perfusate was associated with L-glucose. 14C, however, was associated with three compounds, with approximate molecular weights of 180 (glucose), 300, and 560. The nonglucose species were not identified. This 14C movement was inhibited by phlorizin, but not phloretin, in the alveolar fluid. A similar pattern of 14C movement occurred when D-[U-14C]glucose was replaced with 2-deoxy-D-[U14C]-glucose, but not with methyl-alpha-D-[U-14C]glucopyranoside. The activation energy of the 14C metabolism-transport process was found to be 34 kcal/mol, and L-glucose transport showed an unusual temperature dependence, with maximum conductance at 15 degrees C. It appears that some D-glucose crosses the pulmonary epithelium as does L-glucose. However, most enters epithelial cells and is incorporated into larger molecules which enter the vascular but not the alveolar space.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1722-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Changes in expired alveolar O2 and CO2 were measured breath-by-breath in six healthy male subjects (mean age 30 yr, mean weight 80 kg) at rest, 600 kpm/min, and 1,200 kpm/min. Changes were expressed in relation to expired volume (liters) and time (s) and separated into an initial dead-space component using the Fowler method applied to expired CO2 and O2, and alveolar slope. The alveolar slopes with respect to time (dPACO2, dPAO2, Torr/s) increased in relation to CO2 output (VCO2, 1/min, STPD) and O2 intake (VO2, 1/min, STPD) but were reduced by increasing tidal volume (VT, liters, BTPS): dPACO2 = 2.7 + 4.6(VCO2) - 1.9(VT) (r = 0.97); and dPAO2 = 2.3 + 5.5(VO2) - 1.9(VT) (r = 0.96). From the alveolar slopes, tidal volume, and airway dead-space volume, mean expired alveolar PO2 and PCO2 (PAO2, PACO2) were calculated. There was no change in arterialized capillary PCO2 (PaCO2) between rest (38.9 +/- 0.66 Torr) and heavy exercise (38.2 +/- 2.18 Torr), but mean PACO2 rose from 36.7 +/- 0.55 to 40.8 +/- 1.67 Torr during heavy exercise. There was no change in arterialized capillary (mean = 84.3 +/- 0.7 Torr) or alveolar (mean = 107.2 +/- 1.03 Torr) PO2. Exercise increases the fluctuations in alveolar gas composition leading to discrepancies between the PCO2 in mean alveolar gas and arterial blood to an extent that is dependent on VCO2 and VT.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1704-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The response of colonic and tail-skin temperatures to treadmill exercise was assessed in female Sprague-Dawley rats using incremental and single-stage exercise protocols to investigate the relationship between deep body temperature and work rate. O2 uptake (VO2) was measured by flow-through technique to evaluate the exercise intensity. Experiments were performed in ambient temperatures below (22-25 degrees C) and above (33-35 degrees C) the thermoneutral zone of the rat. During graded incremental exercise there was a linear relationship between colonic temperature (Tco) and VO2 in both the cooler and warmer ambient temperatures. However, Tco and tail-skin temperature (Tsk) at comparable work rates in the cooler and warmer environments were 40.22 +/- 0.59, 34.84 +/- 1.10 degrees C and 42.04 +/- 0.57, 38.39 +/- 1.54 degrees C, indicating that the rise in Tco was unrelated to the severity of exercise. During single-stage exercise the rats were able to achieve thermal equilibrium but only at low work rates and in the cool environment (22-25 degrees C). There were no significant differences in Tco at the first three levels of single-stage exercise (stage 1, 39.63 +/- 0.34 degrees C; stage 2, 39.67 +/- 0.49 degrees C; stage 3, 39.75 +/- 0.50 degrees C) despite significant differences in VO2 (stage 1, 4.3 +/- 0.7 ml X min-1 X 100 g-1; stage 2, 5.3 +/- 0.6 ml X min X 100 g-1; stage 3, 7.6 +/- 1.2 ml X min-1 X 100 g-1). This demonstrates that there was no relationship between the level of Tco maintained during exercise and the work intensity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1872-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Dogs with indwelling catheters in the jugular vein and in the carotid artery ran on the treadmill (slope: 15%, speed: 133 m/min). Lactate turnover and glucose turnover were measured using [U-14C]lactate and [3-3H]glucose as tracers, according to the primed constant-rate infusion method. In addition, the participation of plasma glucose in lactate production (Ra-L) was measured with [U-14C]glucose. Propranolol was given either (A) before exercise (250 micrograms/kg, iv) or (B) in form of a primed infusion administered to the dog running at a steady rate. Measurements of plasma propranolol concentration showed that in type A experiments plasma propranolol fell in 45 min below the lower limit of the complete beta-blockade. In the first 15 min of work Ra-L rose rapidly; then it fell below that of the control (exercise) values. During steady exercise, the elevated Ra-L was decreased by propranolol infusion close to resting values. beta-Blockade doubled the response of glucose production, utilization, and metabolic clearance rate to exercise. In exercising dogs approximately 40-50% of Ra-L arises from plasma glucose. This value was increased by the blockade to 85-90%. It is concluded that glycogenolysis in the working muscle has a dual control: 1) an intracellular control operating at the beginning of exercise, and 2) a hormonal control involving epinephrine and the beta-adrenergic receptors.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1754-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The maximum tetanic tension (Po) generated by a skeletal muscle is determined by its functional cross-sectional area (CSA) and its specific tension (tension/CSA). Measurements of average fiber length (normalized to a sarcomere length of 2.2 micron), muscle mass, and approximate angle of pinnation of muscle fibers within a muscle were taken from 26 different guinea pig hindlimb muscles and were used to calculate CSA. The specific tension was assumed to be 22.5 N X cm-2 and was used to determine the estimated Po of each muscle studied. In a second group of guinea pigs the in situ Po of 11 selected hindlimb muscles and muscle groups were determined. Estimated and measured Po values were found to have a strong linear relationship (r = 0.99) for muscle and muscle groups tested. The specific tension of the soleus, a homogeneously slow-twitch muscle, was shown to be approximately 15.4 N X cm-2 (P less than 0.01). Therefore, in our hands a specific tension value of 22.5 N X cm-2 appears to be a reasonable value for all mixed muscles studied in the guinea pig hindlimb and can be used to estimate their Po.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1715-21.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the role of carotid bodies in modulating the ventilation-CO2 production relationship, steady-state responses to mild exercise were determined in goats following several experimental manipulations that led to chronic changes in resting ventilation and arterial blood gases. The experimental conditions were 1) control, 2) whole body serotonin depletion (induced by p-chlorophenylalanine, 100 mg/kg), 3) carotid body denervation (CBX), and 4) serotonin depletion with CBX. Resting values of arterial CO2 pressure (Pco2) ranged from 32 to 48 Torr. In each condition, arterial Pco2 was regulated to a similar degree in exercise due to changes in the slope of the ventilation-CO2 production relationship (delta Vi/delta Vco2) in accordance with the requirements of gas exchange. delta Vi/delta Vco2 increased with serotonin depletion both before and after CBX. The principal component of ventilation contributing to changes in delta Vi/delta Vco2 was tidal volume. These results suggest a basic property of the ventilatory control system whereby enhanced ventilatory activity at rest is associated with an increased ventilatory response to exercise via a mechanism that does not require peripheral chemoreceptors.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1894-900.
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    ABSTRACT: The pressure swings under the costal (Pcos) and crural diaphragms (Pcru) and between the intestinal loops (Pint) were compared with the swings in gastric pressure (Pga) in 13 supine anesthetized dogs. Pcos, Pcru, and Pint were measured with air-filled latex balloons in eight dogs and saline-filled catheters in five. Pga was measured with an air-filled balloon in all dogs. During quiet breathing differences were often present, the directions of which were variable from animal to animal. During mechanical ventilation, all pressures increased, but both Pcos and Pcru increased more than Pga, whereas only a small change was observed in Pint. During bilateral stimulation of the costal diaphragm, Pcos invariably increased more than Pga and Pint, whereas almost no change was observed in Pcru. During bilateral stimulation of the crural diaphragm, Pcru invariably increased more than Pga, Pint, and Pcos. During abdominal muscle stimulation as during external abdominal compression, Pint always increased more than Pcos and Pcru. During lower rib cage compression, Pga, Pcos, and Pcru increased more than Pint. During sternocleidomastoid stimulation, all pressure swings were negative, but the change in Pint was always smaller than in Pcos, Pcru, or Pga. Inhomogeneities observed with balloons and saline-filled catheters were similar. After the abdomen was filled with 2 liters of saline all pressure swings became much more homogeneous.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1682-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory responses to increased skin temperatures were recorded in anesthetized cerebrate and in unanesthetized decerebrate cats. All were vagotomized, glomectomized, and paralyzed. Core body temperature and end-tidal Pco2 were kept constant with servoncontrollers. Stimulation of cutaneous nociceptors by heating the skin to 46 degrees C caused respiration to increase in both cerebrate and decerebrate cats. An even larger facilitation of respiration occurred when the skin temperature was elevated to 51 degrees C. However, respiration did not increase in either group of cats when the skin was heated to 41 degrees C to activate cutaneous warm receptors. The phenomenon of sensitization of nociceptors was observed. Spinal transection prevented all the respiratory responses to cutaneous heating. We conclude that noxious, but not nonnoxious, increases in skin temperature cause increases in respiratory output.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1738-41.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between response to hypercapnia and ventilatory response to exercise under graded anesthesia in eight dogs. The response to hypercapnia was measured by the CO2 rebreathing method under three grades of chloralose-urethan anesthesia. The degrees of response to hypercapnia (delta VE/delta PETCO2, 1 X min-1 X Torr-1) in light (L), moderate (M), and deep (D) anesthesia were 0.40 +/- 0.05 (mean +/- SE), 0.24 +/- 0.03, and 0.10 +/- 0.02, respectively, and were significantly different from each other. Under each grade of anesthesia, exercise was performed by electrically stimulating the bilateral femoral and sciatic nerves for 4 min. The time to reach 63% of full response of the increase in ventilation (tauVE) after beginning of exercise was 28.3 +/- 1.5, 38.1 +/- 5.2, and 56.0 +/- 6.1 s in L, M, and D, respectively. During steady-state exercise, minute ventilation (VE) in L, M, and D significantly increased to 6.17 +/- 0.39, 5.14 +/- 0.30, and 3.41 +/- 0.16 1 X min-1, from resting values of 3.93 +/- 0.34, 2.97 +/- 0.17, and 1.69 +/- 0.14 1 X min-1, respectively, while end-tidal CO2 tension (PETCO2) in L decreased significantly to 34.8 +/- 0.9 from 35.7 +/- 0.9, did not change in M (38.9 +/- 1.1 from 38.9 +/- 0.8), and increased significantly in D to 47.3 +/- 1.9 from 45.1 +/- 1.7 Torr.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1796-802.
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    ABSTRACT: We administered antifibrotic agent beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to rats exposed to 10% O2-90% N2 for 3 wk to prevent excess vascular collagen accumulation. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats studied were air breathing, hypoxic, and hypoxic treated with BAPN, 150 mg/kg twice daily intraperitoneally. After the 3-wk period, we measured mean right ventricular pressure (RVP), the ratio of weight of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum (RV/LV + S), and hydroxyproline content of the main pulmonary artery (PA) trunk. Hypoxia increased RVP from 14 to 29 mmHg; RVP was 21 mmHg in hypoxic BAPN-treated animals. Hypoxia increased the RV/LV + S ratio from 0.28 to 0.41; the ratio was 0.32 in hypoxic BAPN-treated animals. Hypoxia increased PA hydroxyproline from 20 to 239 micrograms/artery; hydroxyproline was 179 micrograms/artery in hypoxic BAPN-treated animals. Thus BAPN prevented pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and excess vascular collagen produced by hypoxia. We conclude that vascular collagen contributes to the maintenance of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1760-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of peak airway pressure (Paw) on vascular permeability and the "safety factor" against edema formation was determined in isolated blood-perfused lower lobes of dog lungs. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the measured filtration coefficient (Kf,C), isogravimetric capillary pressure (Pc,i), and critical capillary pressure (Pcrit) for exhaustion of tissue safety factors. Airway pressure was maintained constant at -3 cmH2O except for the test period of 20 min when the lungs were ventilated at 6/min with sufficient volume to generate a peak inflation pressure ranging from 5 to 60 cmH2O. Mean Kf,C (in ml X min-1 X cmH2O X 100 g-1) were measured before and immediately after the period of peak airway pressures. Kf,C was significantly increased in all lungs where Paw exceeded 42 cmH2O, but in only two experiments at a lower Paw. Mean Pc,i was significantly reduced from control in the 45-55 and 55-65 cmH2O Paw groups, and both Pc,i and Pcrit were found to be inversely related to Kf,C measured after Paw ventilation. These data indicate that ventilation with Paw above 42 cmH2O (30.9 Torr) and in some cases lower pressures for 20 min significantly increased capillary hydraulic conductivity, reduced the effective osmotic effect of plasma proteins at the capillary wall, and reduced the total tissue safety factor against edema formation.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1809-16.
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined how local forearm temperature (Tloc) affects the responsiveness of the cutaneous vasculature to a reflex drive for vasoconstriction. We observed responses in forearm blood flow (FBF) and arterial blood pressure to a 5-min bout of supine leg exercise of moderate intensity (125-175 W) after the forearm had been locally warmed to 36, 38, 40, or 42 degrees C for 48 min. With exercise, FBF fell by 1.82 +/- 0.23, 4.06 +/- 0.58, and 3.64 +/- 1.48 ml X 100 ml-1 X min-1 at 36, 38, and 40 degrees C, respectively, and rose by 2.16 +/- 0.57 ml X 100 ml X min-1 at a Tloc of 42 degrees C (mean +/- SE). Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) fell with the onset of exercise by averages of 2.77 +/- 0.57, 7.02 +/- 0.51, 5.36 +/- 0.85, and 4.17 +/- 0.79 ml X 100 ml-1 X min-1 X 100 mmHg-1 at 36, 38, 40, and 42 degrees C, respectively. Second-order polynomial regression analysis indicated that the reductions in FVC were greatest near a Tloc of 39 degrees C and that at a Tloc of 40 or 42 degrees C the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to the onset of exercise is attenuated. Although elevated Tloc can be used to increase base-line FBF levels to make cutaneous vasoconstrictor responses more obvious, the direct effects of Tloc on this response must also be considered. We conclude that the optimum Tloc for observing reflex cutaneous vasoconstriction is near 39 degrees C.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1878-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of adjacent large blood vessels, fibroelastic membrane, and parenchyma on pressure-diameter (P-D) behavior of intrapulmonary bronchi were studied in five dog lung lobes. Central lobar airways were inflated separately by blocking all branches with beads and inflating the distal lobar air spaces via pleural capsules. After bronchial P-D curves were obtained at fixed pleural pressures (Ppl) of -30, -10, and -5 cmH2O, the P-D properties of the isolated bronchi were measured in each of four stages of dissection: 1) lobar artery and vein were left attached to the bronchus, but parenchyma was removed to within 1-2 mm of the limiting membranes; 2) all remaining parenchyma was carefully removed; 3) the large vessels were removed, leaving the bronchial fibroelastic membrane intact; and 4) the fibroelastic membrane was peeled from the bronchus. From stage 1 it was deduced that in the intact lobes, peak peribronchial parenchymal stress (Px) averaged -29.2 cmH2O at Ppl = -30 cmH2O). In stage 2 bronchial recoil was reduced only approximately 5%. The major decrease (approximately 35%) occurred in stage 3, indicating that interaction between vessels and bronchi contributed significantly to bronchial stiffness. A final decrease of approximately 10% was seen in stage 4. We conclude that Px in the intact state is similar to Ppl at a transpulmonary pressure of 30 cmH2O and that stages 1 or 2 may provide a better basis for estimating Px than the commonly employed bronchus free of vessels and tissue.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1632-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The total deposition of monodisperse, 0.026-0.19 micron (dry volume equivalent diameter) sodium chloride particles in the lungs of five healthy subjects, who breathed orally, was measured. For a tidal volume of 1,000 ml and flow rate of 500 ml/s, the percentages deposited were: 37.2 +/- 8.4% (mean +/- SD) for 0.026 micron, 23.8 +/- 3.3% for 0.051 micron, 22.8 +/- 3.1% for 0.096 micron, and 31.8 +/- 6.2% for 0.19 micron particles. The deposition minimum corresponded to a particle size of approximately 0.08 micron. Deposition did not correlate with measures of lung volume or body size but did correlate with forced expired flow rate after 75% of forced vital capacity (FVC) exhaled (FEF 75%/FVC) and with percent-predicted values for FEF 25-75% and FEF 75%. Lengthening the breathing period from 4 to 8 s/breath while maintaining flow rate at 500 ml/s caused an additional 11.3 +/- 3.1% of the inhaled particles to deposit. Sedimentation and diffusion were found to be the principal deposition mechanisms. These hygroscopic particles deposited according to sizes they would attain in air with a relative humidity between 96 and 100%.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1850-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effect of hyperosmolality on thermoregulatory responses, five men [average maximal O2 consumption (VO2 max) = 48 ml X kg-1 X min-1] cycled at 65-75% VO2max for up to 30 min in a 30 degrees C, 40% relative humidity environment under three conditions. First, control tests (C) were performed where preexercise plasma volume (PV) and osmolality (Osm) averaged 3,800 ml and 282 mosmol X kg-1, respectively. Second, exercise tests (D) were performed following dehydration induced by fluid restriction and mild exercise (30% VO2max) in hot (40 degrees C) ambient conditions. Each subject then rested in cool surroundings 1 h before performing the exercise test. Preexercise PV and Osm averaged 3,606 ml and 293 mosmol X kg-1, respectively. Third, exercise tests (I) were performed following dehydration, but during the 1-h rest interval, 3% saline was infused so that PV was restored to 3,826 ml and Osm averaged 294 mosmol X kg-1 prior to exercise. During D, esophageal temperatures (Tes) were significantly higher than C, an avg 0.56 degrees C after 20 min exercise due to a 0.22 degrees C increase in Tes threshold for vasodilation, a 39% reduction in slope of the forearm blood flow (BF)-Tes relationship, a 32% average reduction in maximal exercise BF, and a 0.22 degrees C increase in Tes sweating threshold. During I, responses were similar to D, except the BF-Tes slope and the maximum BF were not significantly different from C. Thus hyperosmolality modifies thermoregulation by elevating thresholds for both vasodilation and sweating even without decreases in PV.
    Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 01/1985; 57(6):1688-95.