Separation Science and Technology (SEP SCI TECHNOL )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Exploring the wide range of separation phenomena, Separation Science and Technology reviews the newest concepts and techniques for dealing with problems encountered by professionals in this rapidly expanding field. It offers authoritative and critical articles, notes, and reviews on all the varied aspects of separation, including separation theory, membranes, extraction, flocculation, crystallization, distillation, ultrafiltration, chromatography, electrophoresis, foam fractionation, adsorption, and ion exchange.

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    Separation science and technology (Online), Separation science and technology
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    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ammonium ion exchange behavior of synthetic zeolites, i.e., sodalite (SOD), rho zeolite (RHO), Linde type A zeolite (LTA), and faujasite zeolite (FAU), was investigated by changing the initial concentration of ammonium ions and reaction time. Ammonium ion exchange behavior was dependent on the open‐window sizes, the pore structures, and the cation exchange capacities of these zeolites. Regarding sodalite with Na ions (Na‐SOD), ammonium ion exchange did not completely occur at the equilibrium state because the open‐window size is smaller than the diameter of ammonium ions. Regarding RHO with Na and Cs ions (NaCs‐RHO), the larger cations, Cs ion, in the cages obstructed the ion exchange at the initial stage. However, the amount of exchanged ammonium ions gradually increased with increasing reaction time, finally achieving equilibrium. Regarding LTA with Na ions (Na‐LTA), the amount of exchanged ammonium ions decreased with increasing reaction time, and then reached plateau. It indicated that both the ion exchange on the α‐cages and physical adsorption on the β‐cages occurred at the initial stage, which was followed by the equilibrium state of ion exchange on the α‐cages. Regarding FAU with Na ions (Na‐FAU), no dependence on reaction time was observed, because the size of the open‐windows is large enough for ion exchange of ammonium ions. The Na‐FAU, which has the biggest open‐windows among these zeolites, showed the highest exchange capacity for ammonium ions, 3.20 mmol/g.
    Separation Science and Technology 01/2091; 39(9):2091-2104.
  • Separation Science and Technology 01/2067; 39(9):2067-2090.
  • Separation Science and Technology 01/2031; 39(9):2031-2040.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adsorption isotherms of atenolol and ibuprofen onto activated carbon (AC) at trace concentration in water (initial concentration, 80 µg/L – equilibrium concentration as low as 0.13 µg/L) are presented in this paper. Their adsorption was studied considering two ACs (F400 and Picabiol) showing different textural and chemical characteristics. Experiments were performed in buffered ultrapure water with and without humic acids to evaluate their influence on adsorption. It was found that adsorption was not in agreement with expectations based either on the log Kow or log D values of the target compounds. Adsorption mechanisms were discussed and the experimental isotherms were modelled.
    Separation Science and Technology 12/2014;
  • Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(17):2689-2699.
  • Zhuqing Wang, Chen Dong, Min Wang, Youcun Chen, Genhua Wu
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(17):2721-2727.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main outline of this investigation is demonstrating the behavior and details of gas-liquid contact on the cross-current trays using a 3D CFD model. The model has been applied to several operating conditions, and the effect of gas and liquid flow rates on the contact characteristics was studied, and in-depth picturing of local events was presented. Based on the picturing of details of flow features, an innovative division of flow region on the tray deck was presented. The tray is divided into four regions having different characteristics of flow phenomena, and these regions and their flow features are described as a novel outlook in this way. Although the extent of nonuniformities and interfacial area density are dependent on the operating conditions, but partial to total nonuniformities and weak phase mixing are present in all four regions.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(17):2772-2782.
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    ABSTRACT: An economic assessment of natural gas dehydration using polymeric membranes was made through modeling and simulation and the results were compared with those conducted through absorption and adsorption. A diagram of the economic boundaries between different natural gas dehydration processes was also introduced. The effects of the membrane properties, membrane module cost, feed pressure, and natural gas wellhead price on the cost of water vapor removal were examined. It has been concluded that at low feed pressures and at feed flow rates more than 0.85 MMSCMD the membrane-based gas dehydration system is not competitive with the absorption process. An increase in the feed pressure increases the cost of the absorption and adsorption processes, while decreases that of the membrane system. At feed flow rates higher than 3.4 MMSCMD and inlet pressures less than about 4100 kPa, the total separation cost of the adsorption unit was lower than that of the membrane system.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellulosic biofibers because of their abundance and renewable nature have recently attracted the attention of researchers for their applications in the field of waste-water remediation. In the present study, cellulosic biofibers have been modified through alkali treatment and subsequently used as low cost adsorbent for the removal of Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ toxic metal ions from aqueous solution. Both raw and treated fibers have been characterized by scanning electron micrography (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Various adsorption parameters such as pH, contact time, temperature, and initial metal ion concentration were studied. The adsorption has been found to depend on the pH of the solution. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used to show the adsorption isotherm. The Langmuir model fitted well with the equilibrium data. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated using Langmuir model for Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+ metal ions at 25[Inline formula] has been found to be 19.21, 16.85, 44.42, and 67.24 mg/g, respectively. Adsorption of metal ions has been observed to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, rather than pseudo-first-order-model. Further temperature study has revealed that the adsorption process is exothermic in nature.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have developed a liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor that induces Taylor vortices in the annular fluid region. To demonstrate extraction of multiple species (Nd/Sm/Eu/Gd/Dy) with N,N,N′,N′-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA), additional chemical agents, such as a surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)), a synergist (nonanoic acid) and a masking agent (N,N,N′,N′-tetraethyl-3,6-dioxaoctane-1,8-diamide (DOODA(C2))) were employed. When only TODGA was utilized, extraction performance was not effective due to the insufficient dispersion even under a high rotating speed. By combining TODGA and other chemical agents, the separation performance was improved considerably in the countercurrent flow of aqueous and organic phases due to the synergistic effect and improved dispersion.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Solvent extraction is generally considered as one of the important and effective techniques to remove toxic phenol from wastewater. This paper explores the solvent extraction of phenol from wastewater using bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfoxide (BESO) as extractant. Various parameters such as equilibrium time, the volume percentage of BESO, pH value, and ionic strength of the aqueous solution on the phenol extraction were investigated. The results indicated that BESO exhibited excellent performance of phenol extraction. The extraction percentage increased from 97.26% to 99.47%, varying the BESO concentration from 10% (v/v) to 30% (v/v). The extraction percentage decreased with increasing temperature in the range of 298-343 K. FTIR spectra of fresh and phenol loaded BESO organic phase indicated the existence of the hydrogen bonding interactions between S=O groups and phenol molecules. The relationship between log D and log [BESO] suggested the stoichiometry of the extracted species was a 1:1 complex, namely, [PhOH]·[BESO]. Phenol stripping from the loaded organic phase by sodium hydroxide was feasible, and more than 99% of phenol could be stripped when the NaOH concentration was 0.5 mol L−1. The results obtained established that BESO/kerosene extraction system has potential for practical application in the phenol removal and recovery.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to find a solution for the treatment of simulated industrial paint effluent using natural material, Strychnos potatorum, as a coagulant. The coagulation capacity was evaluated for a liter of effluent using standard jar test apparatus. The FTIR spectrum confirmed the existence of various functional groups in S. potatorum. The residence of proteins tied with coagulant treatment were determined and analyzed over SDS PAGE. The predominance of determining variables such as eluent type (water, NaCl, KCl), eluent concentration (1-5N), coagulant dosage (1-10 g), coagulant volume (20-100 mL), initial pH (5-11), and initial effluent concentration (3100, 4224, 5650, 6258, and 7693 mg/L named as sample number 1 to 5, respectively) were valued in terms of color, COD, and turbidity. The choicest outcome of the treatment was identified as, 2 g of S. potatorum, 3N NaCl as an eluent, 100 mL of coagulant volume, and the actual pH of the sample (7.2-7.8). It was found that the removal efficiency increased as the pollution load swelled. The results were matched with conventional coagulant alum. The amount of sludge formation was appreciably lower for natural coagulant. The results affirmed that the S. potatorum could act as an alternate solution for the paint effluent treatment.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Membrane gas-solvent contactors have received much attention for CO2 absorption, as the approach incorporates advantages from both solvent absorption and membrane gas separation. This study reports on pilot plant trials of three membrane contactors for the separation of CO2 from flue gas. The contactors were porous polypropylene (PP), porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and non-porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with the solvent PuraTreatTM FTM. To enable performance comparison, laboratory measurements based on a gas mixture of 10% CO2 in N2 were also undertaken on the same contactor–solvent systems. It was found that the PP contactor experienced significant pore wetting in both laboratory and pilot plant studies. In contrast, the PTFE contactor experienced only minor pore wetting in the laboratory. However, in the pilot plant trial of the PTFE contactor extensive pore wetting was observed, and the overall mass transfer coefficient measured was comparable with the PP contactor. The non-porous PDMS contactor had an overall mass transfer coefficient two orders of magnitude less than the PP contactor, due to the greater mass transfer resistance of the polymeric film. However, the non-porous membrane does not experience pore wetting, which resulted in the overall mass transfer coefficient being similar for both laboratory and pilot plant measurements.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study, potential of green nanoemulsions in the removal of Congo red (CR) from aqueous solution was investigated. Nanoemulsions were prepared by low energy emulsification technique using ethyl acetate (EA), Triton-X100, ethylene glycol (EG), and water. Nanoemulsions were characterized for thermodynamic stability, self-nanoemulsification efficiency, droplet size, polydispersity, viscosity, refractive index, and transmittance. Adsorption studies were carried out for contact time of 10, 15, and 20 min. The influence of contact time and EA & Triton-X100/EG concentrations on droplet size, viscosity, and % CR removal was also investigated. It was observed that droplet size, viscosity, and % CR removal were significantly influenced by EA and Triton-X100/EG concentrations. However, contact time had negligible/little impact on % CR removal. Based on the lowest droplet size (14.3 nm), lowest viscosity (11.4 cp), and highest % CR removal efficiency (91.6%), the nanoemulsion F7 containing 5% w/w of EA, 33.3% w/w of Triton-X100, 16.7% w/w of EG, and 45% w/w of water was optimized as the best formulation for the removal of CR from its bulk aqueous solution. These results indicated the potential of green nanoemulsions in the removal of toxic dyes such as CR from its aqueous solution via liquid-liquid adsorption.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article, finite multilayer adsorption modeling was presented. The grand canonical formalism was used to establish a novel finite multilayer with multisite occupancy model. Expression for the physico-chemical parameters involved in the adsorption phenomena were derived based on statistical physics treatment. This model has been applied to one of the most challenging adsorption in liquid phase, i.e., Basic Bleu 41 dye adsorption onto raw and modified Posidonia biomass. The parameters involved in the analytical expression of the multilayer model such as the number of adsorbed molecules per site, the density of occupied receptor sites, and the number of adsorbed layers were determined by fitting the experimental adsorption isotherms at temperatures ranging from 303 to 353 K. Fitting results show that the dye molecules are multimolecular adsorbed onto Posidonia surface. Furthermore, the new approach leads us to quantify the mean number of adsorbed layers. The magnitudes of the calculated adsorption energy indicate that BB41 dye is physisorbed onto Posidonia adsorbent.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical oxidation of chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) was investigated as an attempt to gain a better understanding of its surface oxidation chemistry in alkaline solutions. Rest potential measurements, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry experiments were conducted in the pH range of 7 to 13 to determine the influence of pH, immersion time, and applied potential on the mineral oxidation state. Rest potential was found to increase by immersion time and oxygen content of the solution and decrease by the pH value. Cyclic voltammetry experiments revealed that the mineral oxidation occurs in three stages. Increase of the pH value caused the peaks to shift to lower potentials. The results were confirmed by chronoamperometry experiments.
    Separation Science and Technology 11/2014; 49(16).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study the ability of chitosan to remove acid, basic, reactive and direct dyestuffs by adsorption was studied. The effect of several factors influencing dye adsorption such as dye concentration, grain size, pH and temperature were investigated. Desorption of dyes at different pH was also examined. It was shown that the adsorption capacities of chitosan were comparatively high for acid and direct dyes and that the adsorption was controlled by the acidity of the solution. The kinetics of adsorption were found to be of pseudo second order. Batch isotherm studies showed that adsorption of dyes from aqueous solution by chitosan was described by the Langmuir equation
    Separation Science and Technology 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The extraction of α-Lactalbumin (α-La) and β-Lactoglobulin (β-Lg) from whey have been carried out in the Aqueous Two Phase System (ATPS) composed of PEG 1000 – tri sodium citrate. The suitable conditions for the simultaneous partitioning of α-La in to the top phase and β-Lg in bottom phases was identified using the pure α-La and β-Lg. Maximum partition coefficient (k) of 16.67 was achieved for α-La at the system condition of 28 % (w/w) PEG 1000 – 14% (w/w) tri sodium citrate at pH 8 and 40°C, whereas in this condition k of β-Lg is 0.27. 30% (w/w) whey loaded to this system yielded the maximum recovery of α-La and β-Lg.
    Separation Science and Technology 10/2014;