Veterinary and human toxicology (Vet Hum Toxicol )

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  • Other titles
    Veterinary and human toxicology, Poison line
  • ISSN
    0145-6296
  • OCLC
    2765341
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the first case from Turkey of a dermonecrotic wound associated with possible Loxosceles spider bite and offer the complete clinical course that resulted in a permanent scar. Emergency physicians in western Turkey should be aware of Loxosceles spider bites as a cause of necrotizing wounds.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):306-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A spontaneous outbreak of neurological disease in swine caused by the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica seeds and reproduction of the disease in the same specie are reported. In the natural outbreak the morbidity, mortality and lethality rates were respectively 25%-40%, 8.5%-20%, and 25%-66%. Clinical signs were variable degrees of incoordination of gait, falls, sternal recumbency with wide base stance of the hind limbs, lateral recumbency and death. For experimental reproduction of the intoxication, 5 (A-E) pigs were fed a ration containing 10% (PigA), 15% (Pig B) and 20% (Pigs C-E) of A. indica seeds. Pigs A and B were euthanatized and Pigs C-E died of acute disease respectively 16, 21 and 24 hours after the start of the experiment. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in pigs from the spontaneous outbreak. Histopathological findings in the brain of pigs fed rations with 20% A. indica seeds (C-E) were congestion, edema and hemorrhage and swollen capillary endothelia in nuclei and in the telencephalic cortex. Pigs fed 10% and 15% A. indica had histopathological changes in the brain of discrete focal symmetrical areas of malacia. These findings indicate that one or more toxic principles in A. indica seeds are responsible for this neurological condition and that clinical outcome and pathological changes are dose-dependent. The symmetrical malacic foci from the ingestion of A. indica seeds in pigs affected vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, putamen, and the mesencephalic substantia nigra, oculomotor, and red nucleus; thus, focal symmetrical encephalomalacia is suggested as a better name for the disease.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):309-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The non life-threatening results of a bite from a grass snake in a 17-y-old patient are described, their significance evaluated, and the hazard of such bites discussed.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):334.
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    ABSTRACT: Yew ( Taxus baccata) foliage was co-incubated with rumen fluid (RF) taken from fistulated cattle (Bos taurus), anesthetized white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and O. virginianus killed by bow hunters. The first trial with live deer resulted in statistically significant 59% reduction of taxine A by deer RF and no reduction by cattle RF. The second intubation trial, in which half the samples were stopped after 12 h, resulted in slightly less taxine A reduction by deer (46%) and 12% reduction by cattle RF. RF obtained by hunters eQuipped with thermos bottles and trained to collect RF immediatey upon field dressing their deer caused the most (88-96%) taxine A destruction: cattle RF reduced 68-88% the toxin. Obtaining RF from freshly killed deer was less expensive and more consistently successful than taking RF by intubation of anesthetized deer. The greater ability of white-tailed deer RF to detoxify yew taxines may not entirely explain the advantage white-tailed deer have over cattle to surviveyew ingestions without toxic effects.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):300-2.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated a cluster of canine poisonings around the 4th of July weekend in 2003 in dogs that visited a local park. Medical records review and personal interviews were performed on 17 suspect cases; 14 dogs met the case definition criteria. The 13/14 dogs were allowed off-leash at some point during their visit to the park; 7 owners noted their dog had either eaten something at the park or vomited up meat-like material within 1 h after their walk. Eleven of the 14 dogs died or were euthanized. Urine samples from 4 dogs were positive for trace amounts of paraquat and 1 vomitus sample tested positive. Tachypnea was a significant risk factor for death of the dogs. Oral or gastrointestinal ulcers were significantly correlated with recovery.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):313-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Fourteen pigs, fed during the last 5 mo of rearing on fumonisin B1 naturally contaminated feed, were evaluated for hematological and biochemical effects. After slaughtering of the animals, the liver and 1 kidney underwent histopathological examination; the other kidney was tested by HPLC for fumonisin B1 residues. With feed contamination of 2 and 22 mg fumonisin B1/kg, the calculated daily intake of fumonisin B1 was approximately 50 microg/kg bw before the first blood sampling and approximately 500 microg/kg bw before the second blood sampling and slaughter. No hematological changes were observed, while moderate adverse effects on liver function (ALT and cholesterol) and hepatocyte integritywere found. No histopathological alterations nor fumonisin residues were detected (LOD 5 microg/kg) in the kidneys. The levels of contamination had slight but observed effects on swine health. The lack of fumonisin B1 carry-over to edible swine tissues was confirmed and under the studied conditions, no consumer risk from the pork products was expected.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):303-5.
  • Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):352-3.
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    ABSTRACT: September 11, 2001 demonstrated dramatic voids in national preparedness, and catalyzed massive efforts to identify and remedy vulnerabilities. Since Part I of this series appeared in August 2002, significant improvements have been achieved especially in bioterrorism and chemical terrorism for first responders and emergency medicine, law enforcement, and public health (surveillance). Such efforts manifested benefits during the SARS outbreaks and monkeypox cases of 2003. Nevertheless, emerging infectious diseases will continue to pose a threat if we do not remain vigilant and continue to invest in training, surveillance, and treatments. As expected, many poison centers and toxicologists have taken leadership roles nationwide. In regions where such leadership existed, preparedness levels are strong and collaborations resulted in the development of valuable response plans and training, including the Advanced Hazardous Life Support (AHLS) and Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) courses. Early success notwithstanding, experts suggest that current national preparedness has improved slightly from "1" (9/11) to "3" out of "10". Increasingly it has become evident that the nuclear threat, including radiation terrorism, is significant, against which the US remains inadequately prepared. Arguably the nuclear threat-whether accidental or planned-remains our highest consequence vulnerability, and we must rapidly improve our readiness across disciplines. Special populations including the elderly and children remain marginalized in preparedness protocols. Local vulnerabilities including chemical manufacturing and transportation--not just a risk for terrorism but industrial accidents--continue unabated. Our early success is not an endpoint; much work remains and time is fleeting. This report examines vulnerabilities that must be addressed to enhance preparedness.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):347-51.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of a powder for poisoning sea fish off Lebanon is reported for the first time. The powder is prepared from the seeds of storax (Styrax officinalis L) and tubers of common cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill.), both species growing wild in Lebanon. References to the properties of these species are provided.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):338-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is widey used as a sexual enhancement drug, a euphoriant, muscle building agent, a sleep aid, a weight loss agent, and as a date rapeagent. Precursor ingredients such as gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and GHB recipes are available, especially via the Internet. This is a report of an organic inkjet cleaner containing a GHB precursor 1,4-butanediol and butylenegycol. A 26-y-o male fell unconscious during work being unresponsive, with constricted pupils, and convulsing, he did not respond to naloxone. A bottle labeled "Hurricane" was found in his pocket. Five h later the patient awoke and was subsequently discharged with all vitals normal. The patient had recently purchased "Hurricane" as a sleep aid and to treat his panic attacks. It is an organic product with active ingredients similar to ink jet cleaner, the key ingredient being 1,4butanediol, which is metabolized to GHB. In spite of legislative changes restricting GHB, the precursors remain available and continue a public health threat.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):329-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Heightened toxicovigilance since the terrorist actions of 9/11 has raised concerns for malicious use of highly toxic botanicals, as the 3 cases reported illustrate.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):341.
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    ABSTRACT: Lead poisoning is described in a herd of 120 Nelore cows of which 35 were affected. All affected cows died after a clinical course of 2-7 d with clinical signs related to cortical neurological disturbances. The source of Pb was fumes from a car battery recycling plant which has had a failure in its filtering system. Lead concentrations in liver and kidneys of 2 cows, in soil; and in grass where the cows were held were respectively 39 to 431 ppm, 147 to 431 ppm, and 245 ppm. No significant gross changes were observed. Histopathology revealed of neuronal necrosis, vacuolation of the neuropil and hypertrophy of the vascular endothelium in the cerebral cortices, degeneration of the epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules, and hemosiderosis of kidney, spleen and liver.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):326-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute ingestion of copper sulfate has been reported to cause gastrointestinal injury, hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, hepatorenal failure, shock; or even death. The toxicity of organocopper compounds, however, remains largely unknown. A 40-y-old man attempted suicide by ingesting some 50 ml of Sesamine fungicide. He immediately developed headache, vomiting and abdominal pain, followed by progressive dyspnea, cyanosis, dark urine and diarrhea. Severe methemoglobinemia and hemolysis were documented, and treatment with ascorbic acid and hydration was commenced. He was referred to our service 3 d later for methylene blue treatment. Despite the above treatment, his symptomatology persisted and it was not until 5 d post-ingestion that the implicated fungicide was identified as copper-8-hydroxyquinolate. BAL therapy and plasma exchange were instituted, which decreased his plasma hemoglobin from 1,300 mg/dL to 29.1 mg/dL, and lowered his methemoglobin level from 20.9% to 1.1%. His serum and urine copper concentration dropped from 238 microg/dL to 96 microg/dL and from 112 microg/dL to 16 microg/dL, respectively. He was discharged uneventfully 18 d post-ingestion. Pre-existing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency as well as copper-induced inhibition of G6PD activity was documented during hospitalization. Organocopper compounds may cause prolonged hemolysis and methemoglobinemia through oxidative stress, especially among patients with G6PD deficiency. Antidotal therapy with methylene blue is not likely to be effective in this setting: treatment with intensive supportive measures and other therapeutic options, such as plasma exchange, should be sought.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):321-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Veterinary anesthestics have gained popularity as drugs of abuse. A case of multiple drug abuse by a 36-y-old veterinarian involved the injection of xylazine-ketamine, resulting in gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects, and unexpected hypertension, tachycardia and electrocardiogram changes.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):324-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Solid sodium hydroxide compounds are used to unclog drains. In Turkey, these agents are easily available and commonly used by housewives. They are sold in weak bags and usually stored within these bags. We present the case of an elderly woman with dementia who developed severe alkaline tongue burn and edema after unintentional short contact with solid sodium hydroxide drain cleaner. Official legislation for safety packing in Turkey will lead to reduction in the incidence of accidental caustic injuries.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):319-21.
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    ABSTRACT: The Vietnamese centipede (Scolopendra subspinipes) is one of the largest and most aggressive tropical centipedes. It has become a popular pet among arthropod enthusiasts and the general public. Despite their reputation, few well-documented cases of envenomation are reported in the medical literature. A 53-yo man developed severe pain, swelling and erythema of his left hand and forearm after being bitten on the hand by his pet Vietnamese centipede. The neurological and vascular examination of the arm was normal. He was admitted to the hospital, treated with arm elevation, analgesics and parenteral antibiotics. His symptoms gradually resolved and he was discharged after 4 d with no neurological or cosmetic sequelae.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):312-3.
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    ABSTRACT: This study compared CYP-mediated activation and toxicity of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in male and female rats, since gender difference in CPF toxicity in rats has been reported. A dose of 50 mg/kg of CPF in corn oil was administered ip to 2 groups of male and female rats while the respective control groups received the vehicle alone. Measurement of cholinesterase activity in brain showed no difference in cholinesterase inhibition between male and female rats 3 h following CPF administration. In contrast, inhibition of plasma cholinesterase was significantly greater in females than males. The activities of microsomal CYP 1A1, 2B1, 2E1 and 3AV 2 determined whether CPF, a suicide substrate of cytochrome P450 enzymes, was metabolized by the liver CYP enzymes. The CYP 1A1 and 2B1 activities were significantly decreased in both male and female rats, with the CYP 1A1 decrease in females markedly greater than that in males. CPF produced a significant inhibition of only CYP 3A1/2 activity, but not CYP 2E1 activity, irrespective of gender effect. These results demonstrated that CYP 1A1, 2B1 and 3A1/2 were differentially involved in the metabolism of CPF to CPF-oxon in both genders and the extent of plasma cholinesterase inhibition was significantly greater in female than male rats.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):297-9.
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    ABSTRACT: We defined patient demographics, type of the poisoning, distribution according to month, route and reason for exposure, mortality causes and rates from 682 poisonings admitted to University Hospital in Kayseri, Turkey to evaluate whether they follow the pattern of other countries. Poisoning were drugs (54.5%), inhalational poisonings including carbon monoxide (13.7%), food (12.4%), alcohol (7%), pesticides (5.4%) and corrosives (2.1%). In drug ingestions, psychoactive drugs most common; psychoactive, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drugs were most frequent agents in multiple drug poisonings. Drugs were the most used poison while pesticides, mushrooms, methanol and carbon monoxide caused more deaths. The mortality rate was 2%.
    Veterinary and human toxicology 01/2005; 46(6):335-6.

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