Aquacultural Engineering (AQUACULT ENG )

Publisher: Elsevier


Aquacultural Engineering is concerned with the design and development of effective aquacultural systems for marine and freshwater facilities. The journal aims to apply the knowledge gained from basic research which potentially can be translated into commercial operations. Problems of scale-up and application of research data involve many parameters, both physical and biological, making it difficult to anticipate the interaction between the unit processes and the cultured animals. Aquacultural Engineering aims to develop this bioengineering interface for aquaculture and welcomes contributions in the following areas: - engineering and design of aquaculture facilities - engineering-based research studies - construction experience and techniques - in-service experience, commissioning, operation - materials selection and their uses - quantification of biological data and constraints Style of presentation is flexible, but those papers dealing with specific problems should attempt to define them clearly in terms of systems engineering, quantifying the constraints, proposing solutions, implementing and detailing the design, and finally evaluating the outcome.

Impact factor 1.23

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    Aquacultural Engineering website
  • Other titles
    Aquacultural engineering (Online)
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    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
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    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a numerical analysis tool used to simulate fluid-flow characteristics around or within physical boundaries, such as aquaculture tanks. CFD allows predicting performance of tanks under virtually unlimited operating conditions and configurations, and it has the advantage of being more flexible and cost-effective than physical testing. A two-dimensional (2-D) simulation of a mixed-cell raceway (MCR) was performed using CFD to explore basic hydrodynamics of an MCR and optimize flow discharge strategies to improve solids removal. Accuracy of the simulations was validated against previously obtained field data in a large-scale MCR. The CFD simulation was conducted using the RNG k-ɛ turbulence model in a segregated solution scheme using a 17000-cell triangular grid of the x-y plane of the MCR. Simulations were conducted for three different bottom-drainage conditions. Results of the vector and contour plots revealed good agreement between the CFD simulations and the field data in describing fluid-flow characteristics of the raceway. However, given the constraints of a two-dimensional model, accurate prediction of velocity magnitudes required the calibration of the inlet velocity with field-measured data. Upon calibration, the simulation produced good agreement between the observed and predicted data. As opposed to three-dimensional CFD simulations, two-dimensional models are simple to implement and can be run in a mainstream, basic computer. Due to its flexibility and cost-effective characteristics, aquaculture research facilities can use 2-D CFD as a rapid proof-of-concept tool, for the design, testing, development, or optimization of aquaculture tanks and other reactor systems.
    Aquacultural Engineering 01/2015; In Press.
  • Aquacultural Engineering 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Anaerobic digestion is a way to utilize the potential energy contained in solid waste produced in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs), either by providing acidogenic products for driving heterotrophic denitrification on site or by directly producing combustive methane. In this study the biochemical acidogenic potential of solid waste from juvenile rainbow trout was evaluated by measuring the yield of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion by batch or fed-batch reactor operation at hydrolysis time (HT)/hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1, 5, or 10 days (and for batch additional 14 and 20 days) in continuously stirred tank reactors. Generally, the VFA yield increased with time and no effect of the reactor type used was found within the time frame of the experiment. At 10 days HT or 10 days HRT the VFA yield reached 222.3 ± 30.5 and 203.4 ± 11.2 mg VFA g−1 TVS0 (total volatile solids at day 0) in batch and fed-batch reactor, respectively. For the fed-batch reactor, increasing HRT from 5 to 10 days gained no significant additional VFA yield. Prolonging the batch reactor experiment to 20 days increased VFA production further (273.9 ± 1.6 mg VFA g−1 TVS0, n = 2). After 10 days HT/HRT, 16.8–23.5% of total Kjeldahl N was found as TAN and 44.3–53.0% of total P was found as ortho-phosphate. A significant difference between reactor types was detected for the phosphorous dissolution at 5 days HT/HRT as a relatively steep increase (of a factor 2-3) in ortho-P content occurred in fed-batch reactors but similar steep increase was only notable after 10 days HT for batch reactors. No differences between reactor types at the other HT/HRT were recorded for P as well as (for all HT/HRT for) N. Based on this study a HRT of approximately 5 days would be recommended for the design of an acidogenic continuously stirred reactor tank in a RAS single-sludge denitrification set-up. The biochemical methane potential of the sludge was estimated to 318 ± 29 g CH4 g−1 TVS0 by a batch assay and represented a higher utility of the solid waste when comparing the methane yield with the VFA yield (in COD units). This points towards a technological challenge of ultimately increase the acidogenic output to match the methane yield as both products are formed from the same reference point
    Aquacultural Engineering 01/2015;
  • Powell A., Chingombe P., Lupatsch, Shields, Lloyd
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    ABSTRACT: Turbot, Psetta maxima, represent a valuable and growing subsector of global finfish aquaculture, although bacterial infections such as edwardsiellosis have adversely affected the industry in recent years. During an experiment designed to investigate the effect of direct ozonation on fish performance in RAS, a bacterial disease outbreak (Edwardsiella tarda) occurred, presenting an opportunity to record additional effects of experimental ozonation regimes on performance of turbot grown in RAS. This short note thus collates phenomenological information on survival, growth and water quality parameters recorded during a 91 day experiment with juvenile fish. Alongside antibiotic therapy, a high ozone treatment (360 mV) improved survival of stock compared to those in a non-ozonated control (200 mV) and significantly so compared to low ozone treatment (320 mV). Both experimental treatments reduced total heterotrophic and Vibrio sp. bacterial loading and nitrite concentration in culture water compared to the control. Experimental ozone treatment also suggested a trend for improved growth and feed intake. Although no confirmed link or mechanism between ozonation and reduced impacts of bacterial infection are proven in this study, the observations add further evidence to the body of work demonstrating beneficial effects of ozonation on water quality, survival and growth of farmed fish.
    Aquacultural Engineering 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Aquatic products are popular among consumers and their visual quality used to be detected manually for sorting, grading, species classification and freshness assessment. Machine vision, as a non-destructive method, has been used in external quality detection of aquatic products for its efficiency, objectiveness, consistency and reliability. Quite a number of researches have highlighted its potential for visual quality detection of fishes, fish filets and some other aquatic products (i.e. shrimp, oyster, and scallop). This review introduced detecting methods based on measurement of size, shape, and color using machine vision systems. Size measurement (i.e. length and area) was usually taken for sorting and grading, while shape was measured for species classification with the integration of size information. Color information was studied for analysis of fish filets, fish muscle, fish skin and shrimp, and for color changes of specially treated fish. Machine vision systems used for measuring size, shape, and color was described, including improvements of cameras, illumination settings, image processing and analysis methods, and experimental results as well. With the development in these areas, machine vision technique may achieve higher accuracy and efficiency, and wider application in visual quality detection of aquatic products. Besides, advantages and limitations of these machine vision systems were discussed, with recommendation on future developments.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014; 63.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel ethanol-packed membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was used to develop a simple denitrification technology applicable to aerobic tanks in recirculating aquarium or aquaculture systems. First, the basic properties of the module of the MBfR were assessed via a series of batch tests. The results of the batch tests indicated that (1) the module could obtain denitrifying capability after a 2-week submergence in aerated seawater without having direct inoculation onto the module, (2) the denitrification rate was proportional to the ethanol supply rate, and (3) the type of supporting medium had little effect on denitrifying capability. On the basis of these results, a module for the full-scale demonstration was made of 30 cm × 30 cm square of non-woven fabric coated with a 0.07-mm-thick PE film on the one side. An openable tap was incorporated to supply additional ethanol, and 100 mL of ethanol was packed into each module before use. Then, the appropriate number of modules was used for a full-scale demonstration in two types of recirculating aquarium systems for up to 400 days. In an aquarium rearing small fishes, the three MBfR modules submerged in the aerobic tank prevented nitrate accumulation for 77 days. However, the surface denitrification rate (0.68 gN m−2 d−1) was smaller than the expected value, probably because the nitrate concentration was very low. In another aquarium mainly rearing lobsters, the 17 submerged modules prevented nitrate accumulation at the rate of 1.0–1.1 gN m−2 d−1 for approximately 6 months without ethanol refilling. After that, it was also observed that the dilution of ethanol decreased the denitrification rate; however, ethanol refilling resulted in immediate recovery of denitrification capability. Taken together, our results indicate that the proposed ethanol-packed MBfR could be employed as a denitrification technology for recirculating aquariums or aquacultures, and offers the practical advantage of eliminating the need for a pump for ethanol supply and an additional loop or tank exclusively for denitrification.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014; 63.
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used in aquaculture systems where preventive or curative water treatments occasionally are required. Use of chemical agents can be challenging in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) due to extended water retention time and because the agents must not damage the fish reared or the nitrifying bacteria in the biofilters at concentrations required to eliminating pathogens. This calls for quantitative insight into the fate of the disinfectant residuals during water treatment. This paper presents a kinetic model that describes the HP decomposition in aquaculture water facilitated by microbial enzyme activity. The model describes how the hydrogen peroxide removal declines and eventually stops at relatively low chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. It is hypothesized that this is due to an enzyme deficit because it is destructed due to the reactive radicals created during the HP decomposition. The model assumes that the enzyme decay is controlled by an inactivation stoichiometry related to the HP decomposition. In order to make the model easily applicable, it is furthermore assumed that the COD is a proxy of the active biomass concentration of the water and thereby the enzyme activity. This was, however, not measured. The model developed successfully described the removal of HP in aquaculture water from three types of RAS and model parameters are estimated. The model and the model parameters provide new information and are valuable tools to improve HP application in RAS by addressing disinfection demand and identify efficient and safe water treatment routines.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Accepted manuscript (proof) available:
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014; TBC(TBC):TBC.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of a high and low non-starch polysaccharide diet (HNSP and LNSP diet) and ultrasound treatment on particle size distribution and carbon bioavailability in fecal waste of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) was studied. Feces were collected from four flow-through fish tanks, two tanks fed the HNSP diet and two the LNSP diet. The collected feces were sonicated (disintegrated) in duplicate with high-intensity (0.6 W/ml), low-frequency (f = 20 Hz) ultrasound at five different energy levels (0.6 W/ml for 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 16 min). The particle size distribution of the treated feces samples was measured by wet sieving (1000, 500, 200, 100, 63, 36, 1.2 μm screen size) and total suspended solids (TSS) measurement. Carbon bioavailability in sonicated fecal waste samples was determined with oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests. The results showed that: (1) feces from the HNSP diet contained significant more particulate material and bigger particles; (2) carbon bioavailability was almost three times higher in untreated LNSP feces when compared with HNSP feces; (3) almost 50% of HNSP feces could have been recovered on a microscreen of 36 μm after wet sieving, whereas it was only 10% for LNSP feces; (4) the production of small particles (1.2–36 μm), which could pass a drum filter screen and potentially accumulate in RAS, was approximately 50 g/kg feed, showing no significant differences between diets; (5) sonication increased fecal dry matter below 36 μm (p = 0.015), but it had no significant effect on the median particle size; (6) sonication increased carbon bioavailability with 7–10% for the HNSP feces (p = 0.037); (7) fecal particles withstood up to 16 min sonication at an intensity of 0.6 W/ml and a frequency of 20 Hz corresponding to specific energy input of 20,000 kJ/kg DM without major changes in particle size distribution. The results of this study indicate that the applied ultrasound treatment of fecal waste is not an effective method to increase short-term carbon bioavailability.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Boat-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements were conducted at a full scale salmon farm outside Tórshavn, Faroe Islands. Measurements were conducted over the duration of two days in an oscillating tidal current. The objective was to visualise the flow field in the wake of the salmon farm and make predictions of the velocity reduction from the farm equipment, i.e. cage nets primarily. Kriging was used to interpolate results from measured velocity to a 3-dimensional (3-D) volume of water, including bathymetry data from the farm site. Results indicate that it is possible to visualise the flow field and make prediction of the velocity reduction. Comparison is made with theoretical velocity reduction and there is good agreement with only a 5% difference in the minimum velocity magnitude.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The long term effects of moderate elevation ORP (oxidation–reduction potential) around 300–320 mV on the growth, hematological parameters and the ability of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to react against bacterial infection was studied in recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs). Two RASs, one with a moderate ozonation (RAS-O3) and a control (RAS-C) were used in this experiment. After 60 days, seabass reared in the RAS-O3 were more able to react against a Vibrio anguillarum infection. It was in spite of the fact that seabass in the RAS-O3 showed decreased feed intake, feed conversion rate, growth rate and modified hematological parameters compared with the fish in RAS-C. It is obvious that an ORP level of 300–320 mV is too high for seabass to adapt in terms of the growth performance and the hematological parameters. However the increased ORP resulted in a better ability of the fish to react against bacterial infection. Our results strongly suggest that ORP for seabass in RAS should be elevated but not exceeding 300 mV and a slightly increased and well controlled ORP level (above 240–270 mV) has a positive effect on the disease resistance of fish. For the future, molecular methods could be utilized to identify which functional groups of microbe are contributing to the ORP effect and investigate how ORP influenced fish physiology in RASs.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In sole (Solea spp.) culture, like in other flatfish culture, it's likely that a vertical gradient of dissolved oxygen (DO) occurs with the lower concentrations being at the tank bottom. This lower concentration at the tank bottom is a consequence of fish oxygen consumption and of the presence of the boundary layer. This fact generates lower DO concentrations in the near-bottom zone where soles are lying most of the time. The aim of this work was to study the hydrodynamic conditions that determine the oxygen gradient that occurs in the layer of water adjacent to flatfish. Three flow rates were tested in a circular tank and in a rectangular or raceway tank. For each flow rate, water velocities, boundary layer thickness and Reynolds number were calculated. Results showed that the vertical gradient of dissolved oxygen diminishes when water velocity and Reynolds numbers (Re) increase. At the fish density used in this work (11.6 kg m−2), when Re decreased under 6000, a large increase in the DO gradient was observed. Guidelines are presented to determine in which situations, as defined by hydraulic parameters, Re > 6000 is achieved and DO stratification avoided. The present work shows that in raceways, the flow rate required to avoid DO stratification is higher than that typically needed to maintain water quality (oxygen, ammonia-nitrogen, carbon dioxide and suspended solids). In circular tanks, it can be easier to achieve velocities that are high enough to avoid stratification with low water inlet flow rates, by adjusting the area of the water entry orifices.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
  • Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To be effective at nutrient removal, aquaponics systems should be sized correctly to balance nutrient production from fish culture and nutrient uptake by plants. We describe a method where the plant component was isolated from the fish rearing operation so that nutrient removal could be evaluated independently. Two crops, lettuce (Latuca sativa) and nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus), were evaluated. Nasturtium had higher removal rates and removed both total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrate resulting in 80% DIN removal while lettuce removed only 48%. Lettuce removed only TAN and was ineffective at nitrate removal. Older plants were more effective at DIN removal while younger plants were more effective at PO4 removal. When normalized for biomass, younger plants had much higher removal rates. These results demonstrated that both crop and cropping method have considerable impacts on nutrient removal. This method will allow operators to adjust their system quickly and easily to meet remediation goals.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Parasitic trematodes require an intermediate host, such as a freshwater snail, to complete their lifecycle. It has been suggested that tobacco dust, a by-product of the tobacco industry, could be an effective molluscicide option for the aquaculture industry. Thus, the eradication of snails by this potential molluscicide could effectively reduce parasitic trematodes. Four types of tobacco dust were evaluated as a molluscicide including burley (8,200 μg/g nicotine), flue-cured (7,200 μg/g nicotine), truck burley (4,400 μg/g nicotine), and truck flue-cured (3,900 μg/g nicotine). Common freshwater snails (Physa spp.) and daphnia (Daphnia magna) were exposed to various concentrations of each type of tobacco dust over a three day period. Test concentrations included 0 g/L tobacco dust as a control and concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.5 g/L tobacco dust. Tests on goldfish (Carassius auratus) were also performed for a 21 day period. For flue-cured and burley tobacco dust, a dose as low as 1.0 g/L tobacco dust was effective in killing 100% of the snails within three days. For snails, the calculated LC50 (lethal concentration to kill half of the snails) values using all five concentrations of tobacco dust and four types were estimated to be 6.51, 2.51, and 2.10 mg/L nicotine for 24, 48, and 72 hour exposure times, respectively. Daphnia were most sensitive to tobacco dust. Less than 70% of daphnia survived for 24 hours at 0.05 g/L, the lowest tobacco dust concentrations evaluated. For daphnia, LC50 values were estimated to be 0.92, <0.20, and <0.20 mg/L nicotine for 24, 48, and 72 hour exposure times, respectively. There were no mortalities or histological evidence of negative effects on goldfish at either of the 0.50 and 1.0 g/L tobacco dust concentrations over a 21 day exposure trial.
    Aquacultural Engineering 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test and evaluate a 2D computer vision technique that estimates the mass of Jade perch Scortum barcoo swimming freely in a tank of a recirculation aquaculture system. The first step of this study, which is described in this paper, was to build up a relationship between the fish shape and its mass in order to be able to estimate the mass of the fish by vision techniques. A set of 120 images of fish outside the water was captured and different features were extracted by using computer vision techniques. Regression analysis was used on the training dataset in order to generate the best model that estimated accurately the mass of the fish. Single-factor regression equation using the area of the fish without considering the fin tail proved adequate for measuring the mass of Jade perch S. barcoo and revealed a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.99. When applied to the evaluation dataset, the mean relative error was 6 ± 3% compared to the value measured by a weighing scale. This suggests that the calculated model can be used in a second step to estimate the biomass of fish moving freely in a tank without causing any stress or damage to the fish.
    Aquacultural Engineering 11/2014;