Human toxicology (Hum Toxicol )


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    Human & experimental toxicology (Online), Human and experimental toxicology
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. In a prospective study of patients hospitalized for deliberate self-poisoning between 1978 and 1987 the number of admissions increased from 303 to 425. The annual incidence increased significantly for both women (P less than 0.05) and men (P less than 0.01). The mean age decreased significantly in the male group (P less than 0.05), but increased in the female group (P less than 0.05). 2. The median latency time for patients presenting at the hospital was short; 3.7 h in 1978 and 2.9 h in 1987. 3. There was a significant reduction in the percentage using barbiturates (9% in 1978 and 1% in 1987; P less than 0.001) and the use of benzodiazepines increased (18% in 1978 and 32% in 1987; P less than 0.05). The percentage of unconscious patients did not change significantly. 4. In 1987 N-acetyl-cysteine was the most frequently used antidote. Physostigmine has almost been abandoned since 1978. 5. Significantly more patients were hypotensive in 1978: 24% vs 11% in 1987; (P less than 0.001) and significantly less patients needed treatment in the central intensive care unit (2% in 1987 and 5% in 1978; P less than 0.05). Complications were few (8-10%) and the mortality low (approximately 1%) in both years studied. 6. The mean duration of hospitalization in 1978 was 65 h vs 30 h in 1987, (P less than 0.001).
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):475-82.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Patients who have taken canthaxanthin and beta-carotene to avert phototoxicity have been monitored by electroretinographic testing. 2. Patients took the compounds only during the summer months, but were monitored for more than 1 year to determine if seasonal changes in the ERG were visible. 3. The characteristic refractile retinal crystals reduced during the winter. 4. The scotopic b-wave amplitude increased during the winter, whether evoked by red or blue flashes. 5. No other ERG parameter altered. 6. Changes noted in 3 and 4 above are reversible. 7. A dose/ERG-amplitude response relationship was established, but no correlation between blood level or total cumulative dose and b-wave amplitude could be found. 8. It is suggested that the Müller cells concentrate canthaxanthin and this is the mechanism which affects the ERG.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):439-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Data concerning 15 consecutive cases of single exposures of the skin or eyes during work to paraquat solutions are presented. Urine and serum were analysed for paraquat in all these cases at the laboratory of the Israel Poison Information Center. From these data it is apparent that a single exposure of healthy skin to paraquat solutions caused only local lesions. No systemic effect was detected in these patients.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):483-5.
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    ABSTRACT: A 50-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease took 98 tablets of diltiazem 60 mg with alcohol. He developed a junctional bradycardia, hypotension and reduced cardiac function refractory to intravenous calcium gluconate. He survived with temporary cardiac pacing and infusion of dopamine. As much as half the dose was vomited back, but nonetheless the plasma diltiazem concentration reached 6090 micrograms/l before falling mono-exponentially with a half-life of 8.6 h. Sinus rhythm returned when the plasma concentration of diltiazem was around 750 micrograms/l. Standard resuscitative procedures sufficed to treat massive diltiazem overdosage.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):497-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Capillary gas chromatography with selective nitrogen detection was employed to quantify morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in biological fluids and tissues in five deaths attributed to heroin injection overdose. The minimum lethal concentration found was 0.021 micrograms morphine per ml of blood. In all cases, 6-monoacetylmorphine was identified in urine, confirming heroin abuse.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):487-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Most survivors of paraquat intoxication go on to develop fibrosis of the lung leading to death within a few weeks. The pathogenic effects of paraquat are based on the formation of oxygen free radicals. A cascade reaction occurs at the cell membrane which is damaged and cell integrity is destroyed. Fibroblasts migrate into the damaged region leading to the laying down of collagen and subsequent fibrosis. Currently paraquat intoxication is treated with gastrointestinal lavage, haemoperfusion and haemodialysis with mixed results. Artificial respiration with low percentage of inspired oxygen is instituted in order to decrease the possible release of oxygen radicals. However, in most cases, developing fibrosis prevents this treatment continuing and requires increased concentrations of inspired O2 and increased ventilation pressure. The combination of increased FiO2 and barotrauma leads to a vicious circle of parenchymal lung damage. In this study we present a treatment designed to avoid the development of lung fibrosis using total exclusion of segments of the lung from external ventilation. Exclusion from external ventilation was performed in animal experiments by instillation of Ethibloc, an amino acid glue, in one main bronchus to create an atelectasis. In different experimental groups this procedure was performed before and after intraperitoneal intoxication with paraquat. Four to twelve days later the experimental animals were sacrified and the ventilated lungs and the atelectatic lungs were compared. The ventilated lungs showed dose-dependent damage to the alveolar epithelium and gross interstitial oedema. In some cases fibrosis was seen. The atelectatic parts of the lung were not different from the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):465-74.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Neutrophils play a role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Most of the patients with ulcerative colitis are non-smokers. 2. Neutrophil function was examined in healthy males, five smokers and five non-smokers, measuring production of oxygen free radicals by chemiluminescence. 3. The chemiluminescence was examined in the presence of nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in various concentrations. 4. 10 mM nicotine inhibited production of oxygen free radicals (90.2% +/- 11.6) compared with controls (P less than 0.001), as did the same concentration of cotinine (58.9% +/- 34.2), (P less than 0.05). 5. 1 mM solutions had no effect and 3 mM nicotine was required to achieve 50% inhibition. 6. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ. 7. Since plasma concentrations of nicotine after a cigarette are only between 5 and 15 mM, the observed effects of nicotine and cotinine in much higher pharmacological concentrations in this system are unlikely to be of clinical relevance in ulcerative colitis.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):461-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Blood levels and urinary excretion of triclopyr, the active ingredient in Garlon herbicides, were followed in six volunteers given single oral doses of 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Five of these volunteers later received dermal applications of Garlon 4 herbicide formulation equivalent to 3.7 mg triclopyr/kg body weight applied to the forearm. Following oral administration blood levels peaked at 2-3 h and declined to undetectable levels within 48 h; more than 80% of the dose was found as unchanged triclopyr in the urine. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model was used to describe the time-course of triclopyr clearance; half-lives for the rapid initial and slower terminal phases were 1.3 h and 5.1 h respectively, and were independent of dose. Due to the slow half-life for dermal absorption (t1/2 = 16.8 h) the rapid initial elimination phase was obscured and the pharmacokinetics could be simplified by a one-compartment model. An average of 1.37% of the applied dose was recovered in the urine; when corrected for recovery after oral administration this was equivalent to an absorption of 1.65%. Triclopyr is slowly absorbed through skin and is rapidly eliminated. It has very low potential to accumulate in man or to be absorbed through the skin in acutely toxic amounts.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):431-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Sri Lanka is a developing agricultural country with a high fatality rate due to self-poisoning with very toxic agrochemicals as the main poisoning agents. A prospective study of 97 consecutive admissions following self-poisoning reveals that easy availability of the agrochemicals together with the lack of knowledge regarding their lethality were the main causative factors determining the choice of poisoning agents. Developing community awareness of the lethality of these substances, educating the farmers with regards to proper storage and disposal of agrochemicals together with stricter legislation regarding their sale and distribution may reduce the incidence of self-poisoning due to these agents with a consequent reduction in mortality due to self-poisoning.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):507-10.
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    ABSTRACT: The estimated intestinal absorption after a single administration of 239Np-nitrate to fasted weanling rats (about 2% of the oral dose) was ten times higher than that of 233Pa administered as the chloride. Rats drinking tomato juice, apple juice or tea instead of water had a similar retention to the control group. However, when a small amount of tea was administered immediately before 239Np, the absorption and retention values were six times lower. When animals received only milk or glucose, the whole body retention of 239Np and 233Pa increased about 20 and 200-300 times, respectively, due mainly to a very high retention in the large intestine. When rats were fed milk plus rat chow, the whole body and gut retention of 233Pa was only two and three times higher, respectively; in the other organs less 233Pa was found than in control animals. This indicates that the extremely high retention of radionuclides in the gut contents of young rats fed only milk is temporary and disappears when solid food is available.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):425-9.
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    ABSTRACT: An unusual case of acute renal failure is reported following accidental cutaneous absorption of phenol and exposure to dichloromethane. Renal function during the onset of the nephrotoxic episode and the subsequent recovery period was monitored using a combination of standard clinical biochemical techniques and high resolution 1H-NMR urinalysis. The initial urine biochemical patterns (up to 2 weeks following exposure) showed amino aciduria, glycosuria and lactic aciduria consistent with renal cortical necrosis. There followed a period of polyuria revealing a biochemical pattern (succinic aciduria, dimethylaminuria and N,N-dimethylglycinuria) consistent with renal papillary damage. Haemodialysis was required for a period of 3 weeks and the patient was discharged 42 days after admission to hospital when renal function was normal by standard clinical chemistry criteria (urea, potassium, sodium, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, urine glucose and protein). 1H-NMR spectroscopic urinalysis revealed residual renal biochemical abnormalities consistent with renal papillary damage that were not detected by conventional analytical techniques. One year after the incident the patient is still polyuric, passing up to 3 l of urine a day.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):491-6.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Two thousand, one hundred and seventy-three patients with cancer or chronic infections were treated with coumarin in a clinical trial. 2. 0.37% of these patients developed elevated liver enzyme levels during therapy with coumarin. 3. This hepatitis was probably a form of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and may have been immune in origin.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):501-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Radioactive cerium is a nuclear toxicant. Metallic cerium is used in industry. Aspects of the intracellular metabolism of this element were studied following intraperitoneal injection and aerosol exposure in rat. Two microanalytic methods, an electron microprobe and ionic microanalysis, enabled the sites of incorporation and the process of intracellular concentration of cerium to be determined in the liver, lung, kidney, bone marrow and bone tissue. The very high sensitivity of ionic analysis enabled very low concentrations of cerium to be detected with a spatial resolution of 0.5 microns. Microanalysis by electron microprobe permitted: (i) the lysosomal localization of cerium to be determined; and (ii) the lysosomal coprecipitation of cerium with phosphorus to be demonstrated. Results are discussed in relation to aspects of radiological protection.
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):511-20.
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    ABSTRACT: A study is presented in which eight healthy male non-smoking volunteers ingested a daily amount of 0.5 mg/kg butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) for 10 consecutive days. Blood samples were taken on days -6 and 0 before and on days 4 and 7 after the first BHA administration for the assessment of standard clinical plasma parameters (L-aspartate aminotransferase, L-alanine-aminotransferase, L-gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, Na+, and Cl-). Antipyrine (500 mg p.o.) and paracetamol (500 mg p.o) were administered before and during BHA administration as test substances to measure phase-I and phase-II biotransformation capacity. Saliva samples and urine were subsequently collected for the assessment of kinetic parameters (e.g. saliva elimination half-life, saliva clearance, apparent volume of distribution) and urinary excretion of metabolites. Kinetic plasma parameters of BHA itself were determined in plasma samples obtained via a catheter in an arm vein after oral BHA intake on days 0 and 7. Levels of antipyrine, paracetamol, BHA and metabolites in plasma, saliva or urine were quantified by standard or newly developed reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Urinary excretion of Na+, K+, and Cl-, as well as osmolality of urine were measured on three days before and six days during BHA administration. Generally, no significant differences were detected in the parameters measured, indicating that oral administration of BHA to men for 10 days remains without effects on clinical biochemical parameters and phase-I and phase-II biotransformation capacity. In contrast, urinary excretion of metabolites of BHA was significantly increased on days 3 and 7 vs. the first day of BHA administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Human toxicology 12/1989; 8(6):451-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A 32-year-old female ingested an unknown quantity of Nylax tablets containing phenolphthalein. This results in widespread organ involvement, predominantly causing liver damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The eventual cause of death was massive liver necrosis. We suggest that phenolphthalein was responsible for the widespread damage.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):381-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Toxicology results from all 302 coroners' cases referred to the supraregional unit at Beaumont Hospital over the one year period December 1987 to November 1988 are detailed. Clinical details were provided in 69.5% and formed the basis for the formation of four groups; road traffic accidents, suicides, possible suicides and possible carbon monoxide poisonings. All tests reported were instigated by the referring pathologist on behalf of the coroner. Alcohol was measured in all except 11 patients and a positive result was found in 44%. Drug screens were performed in 68.5% of cases with a positive finding in 30%. At least one positive result was found in 61.9% of the total. In the 60.4% of 53 road accident victims where alcohol was found, the median value was 117 mg/dl. COHb was measured in 23 cases and the median saturation was 45%. There were 12 suicides and agents found included paraquat, CO, cyanide, pancuronium bromide, and amitriptyline. Alcohol levels greater than 120 mg/dl were present in seven. In the 22 cases of suspected suicide, 77.3% were positive for drugs and more than one substance was found in 45.4%.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):375-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Trimethyltin chloride was found to induce cytotoxic damage in vitro in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Two concentrations (0.5 micrograms and 1.0 micrograms) were added to lymphocytes from male and female subjects in mitogen stimulated and serum supplemented culture medium for 72 h. A dose-related increase of inhibition of replication index (P less than 0.01) and cell division (P less than 0.001) was observed. The frequencies of abnormal cells and chromosomal aberrations such as chromatid and chromosome breaks, dicentrics, triradial and quadriradial configurations were increased significantly (P less than 0.001), as were micronucleus counts (P less than 0.001) and sister chromatid exchanges (P less than 0.001). Endoreduplication, an extremely rare spontaneous event in human lymphocytes, was observed in a few cases at all dose levels. The effects were more pronounced in lymphocytes obtained from habitual smokers.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):349-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Approaches to the assessment of the toxic effects which may arise from chemical Major Hazards are examined. The definitions of hazard and risk and the types of toxicity data required for risk analysis are investigated with particular reference to the quality of the data and models available.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):369-74.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Two fatal cases of deliberate self-poisoning with lignocaine are reported, one by oral ingestion and one by intravenous injection. Post-mortem blood lignocaine concentrations were 40 and 53 mg/l, respectively. 2. Lignocaine self-poisoning is rare since no formulations for oral use other than gels are available. However, serious toxicity can follow the oral application or ingestion of such gels, especially in children and in the elderly. Fatalities due to accidental oral overdosage with 10-25 g of lignocaine in adults have also been reported. 3. The frequent incidental occurrence of lignocaine in specimens submitted for toxicological analysis should not exclude the possibility of poisoning with this compound.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):389-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Two cases who developed haematemesis, 30 and 36 hours after ingestion of 4 tablets (600 mg base) of chloroquine phosphate are described. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed erosions in the stomach and duodenum.
    Human toxicology 10/1989; 8(5):387-8.

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