International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow (INT J HEAT FLUID FL )

Publisher: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain), Elsevier


Advances in the understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow continue to be crucial in achieving improved performance and efficiency in a broad range of mechanical and process plants. The International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow publishes original contributions of high standards on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics relevant to engineering or the environment including two-phase flows. Papers reporting on the application of these disciplines to the design and development of manufacturing and industrial processes, with emphasis on new technological fields, are also accepted. Some of these new fields include the manufacture and operation of microelectronics and micromechanical devices and systems; medical instrumentation; environmental pollution problems; environmental control in residential and commercial facilities; high speed transportation systems; food processing; and biological systems, including the human body.

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    International journal of heat and fluid flow (Online), Heat and fluid flow, IJHFF
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This work concerns the modelling of stratified two-phase turbulent flows with interfaces. We consider an equation for an intermittency function α(x,t) which denotes the probability of finding an interface at a given time t and a given point x. In Wacławczyk and Oberlack (2011) a model for the unclosed terms in this equation was proposed. Here, we investigate the performance of this model by a priori tests, and finally, based on the a priori data discuss its possible modification and improvements.,KnG0JhT
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52:40-49.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method that uses dynamic basis functions. The dynamic functions are of a prescribed form and do not explicitly depend on time but rather on parameters associated with flow unsteadiness. This POD method has been developed for modeling nonlinear flows with deforming meshes but can also be applied to fixed meshes. The method is illustrated for subsonic and transonic flows in channels with fixed and deforming meshes. This method properly captured flow nonlinearities and shock motion for cases in which the classical POD method failed.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014; 50:145–159.
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    ABSTRACT: We perform Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations of a plane turbulent channel flow with high Schmidt number mass transfer. The DNS, which considers passive scalars with Schmidt numbers between 1 and 50, is used to analyse the mass transfer coefficient K and the near-wall behaviour of various turbulence quantities. A parameterisation for the turbulent Schmidt number, which varies sharply very close to the wall, is proposed. The RANS simulations, which consider Schmidt numbers between 1 and 500, are performed with the Launder–Sharma low-Reynolds number k-εk-ε model, the ζ-fζ-f model and the elliptic blending model. We show that the values of K predicted by the ζ-fζ-f and elliptic blending model are in reasonably good agreement with the available numerical and experimental correlations, even without the new parameterisation for the turbulent Schmidt number. The Launder–Sharma model significantly underpredicts K , which is due to incorrect values of the eddy viscosity near the wall. A simple modification of the damping function fμfμ for the Launder–Sharma model is proposed which significantly improves the prediction of K. The good predictions of the three RANS models studied here are a bit fortuitous as errors in the near-wall profile of the eddy viscosity and the turbulent Schmidt number cancel each other out.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Heat transfer in a Rayleigh-Bénard configuration consisting of a vertical cylinder, which is rotating about its axis, can be intensified considerably when the rotation rate is modulated harmonically in time. Such time-dependent rotation introduces an Euler force into the governing equations which leads to a particular modification of the flow that is shown to support a Nusselt number (Nu) that is considerably higher than in case of constant rotation. We use direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to perform a comprehensive parameter study of the flow-structuring and associated heat transfer investigating primarily the effect of variations in the frequency with which the rotation rate varies. We consider flow in an upright cylinder of unit aspect ratio which is heated from below and cooled at the top. At sufficiently strong Euler forces the temporal variation of Nu shows a striking dynamics with periods of gradual increase in Nu with more rapid oscillations superimposed, next to rather catastrophic events in which the entire flow-structure that supported high levels of Nu collapses entirely and it returns to a value more similar to that attained at steady rotation. During periods of oscillatory build-up of Nu, high levels of turbulence gradually become more pronounced from the outer cylinder wall inward and a gradually stronger thermal column arises along the centreline of the cylinder. This flow structure can support Nu up to 250% larger than without rotation, a value otherwise achievable only by employing phase transition.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Well-resolved Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of a pseudo-shock system in the divergent part of a Laval nozzle with rectangular cross section are conducted and compared with experimental results. The LES matches the parameter set of a reference experiment. Details of the experiment, such as planar side walls, are taken into account, all wall boundary layers are well-resolved and no wall model is used. The Adaptive Local Deconvolution Method (ALDM) with shock sensor is employed for subgrid-scale turbulence modeling and shock capturing. The LES results are validated against experimental wall-pressure measurements and schlieren pictures. A detailed discussion of the complex flow phenomena of three-dimensional shock-wave–boundary-layer interaction, including corner vortices and recirculation zones, is presented. Limitations of RANS approaches are discussed with reference to the LES results.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Large eddy simulation is used to numerically simulate flow past a heated sphere at Re=10,000Re=10,000. A second order accurate in space and time, semi-implicit finite difference code is used with the immersed boundary to represent the sphere in a Cartesian domain. Visualizations of the vorticity field and temperature field are provided together with profiles of the temperature and velocity fields at various locations in the wake. The laminar separated shear layer was found to efficiently transport heat from the hot sphere surface to the cold fluid in the wake. The thin separated shear layers are susceptible to Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and the pronounced rollers that subsequently form promote entrainment of both cold freestream fluid and warmer fluid near the back of the sphere. Breakdown of the shear layer into turbulence and subsequent interaction with the recirculation zone results in rapid mixing of the temperature field in the lee of the sphere. The wake dimensions of the velocity field and the temperature field were found to be comparable in the developed flow behind the re-circulating region. Profiles of the mean and fluctuating temperature and velocity in the near wake are provided together with profiles of the Reynolds stresses and thermal fluxes. Similarity was observed for the mean temperature, rms temperature, rms velocity, and the Reynolds stress component ux′ur′, and the thermal fluxes T′ux′ and T′ur′.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper considers the application of the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach to two types of electromagnetically influenced turbulent flows. The first is a fully-developed 2D channel flow with a magnetic field imposed in either the wall-normal direction (Hartmann flow), or in the streamwise direction. The second is that of Rayleigh–Bénard convection with a vertical magnetic field imposed. The turbulence is represented by a low-Re k-εk-ε model which is tested with and without electromagnetic modifications proposed by Kenjereš and Hanjalić (2000). The results show the modifications lead to a dramatic reorganisation of the coherent structures in Rayleigh–Bénard convection as the magnetic field strength is increased, but overpredict the damping of the turbulent shear stress in a simple channel flow.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A multi-scale k–εk–ε eddy viscosity model for turbulence in porous media is developed. When the double averaging is applied to the momentum equation, the dispersive covariance, the macro-scale and micro-scale Reynolds stresses appear and need modelling to close the equation. The conventional eddy viscosity modelling is applied to model the second moments for engineering applications. A k–εk–ε two-equation eddy viscosity model is employed for obtaining the volume averaged Reynolds stress which consists of the macro-scale and the micro-scale Reynolds stresses. The micro-scale Reynolds stress is also independently modelled and obtained by solving another set of k and εε equations, whilst an algebraic model is developed for the dispersive covariance. The presently proposed multi-scale four equations eddy viscosity model is evaluated in developed turbulent flows in homogeneous porous media, porous wall channel flows and porous rib-mounted channel flows with satisfactory accuracy.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper reports experiences from applying alternative strategies for modelling turbulent flow and local heat-transfer coefficients around in-line tube banks. The motivation is the simulation of conditions in the closely packed cross-flow heat exchangers used in advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactors (AGRs). The main objective is the flow simulation in large-scale tube banks with confining walls. The suitability and accuracy of wall-resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approaches are examined for generic, square, in-line tube banks, where experimental data are limited but available. Within the latter approach, both eddy-viscosity and Reynolds-stress-transport models have been tested. The assumption of flow periodicity in all three directions is investigated by varying the domain size. It is found that the path taken by the fluid through the tube-bank configuration differs according to the treatment of turbulence and whether the flow is treated as two- or three-dimensional. Finally, the important effect of confining walls has been examined by making direct comparison with the experiments of the complete test rig of Aiba et al. (1982).
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The swirling flow in a tube with the outlet designed in the form of an orifice nozzle with centered and eccentrical openings, investigated experimentally by Grundmann et al. (2012), was studied computationally by employing Large Eddy Simulation (LES) method and a Hybrid LES/RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes) method. The latter method, denoted by VLES (Very Large Eddy Simulation) according to Speziale (1998), represents a variable resolution computational scheme enabling a seamless transition from RANS to the direct numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations (DNS) depending on the ratio of the turbulent viscosities associated with the unresolved scales corresponding to the LES cut-off and the ‘unsteady’ scales pertinent to the turbulent properties of the VLES residual motion, which varies within the flow domain. Before computing the swirling pipe configuration, the VLES model is interactively validated in the process of the model derivation in some generic flows featured by natural decay of the homogeneous isotropic turbulence and separation from a curved continuous surface. The background RANS model representing the basis of the VLES method is the eddy-viscosity-based ζ-fζ-f model proposed by Hanjalic et al. (2004). The inflowing swirl generated by two tangential inlets has the same intensity in all cases considered. However, the abrupt outlet cross-section contraction created by variably-shaped orifices causes strong modification of the flow within the tube resembling a three-layered structure characterized by an alternating axial velocity directions. Both LES and VLES methods, unlike the RANS method employing the same turbulence model, returned such a behavior in good agreement with experimental data.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Wake-vortex evolution during approach and landing of a long range aircraft is investigated. The simulations cover final approach, touchdown on the tarmac, and the evolution of the wake after touchdown. The wake is initialized using a high fidelity Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solution of the flow field around an aircraft model. The aircraft in high-lift configuration with deployed flaps and slats is swept through a ground fixed domain. The further development of the vortical wake is investigated by large-eddy simulation until final decay. The results show the formation of a pronounced shear layer at the ground and an increase in circulation in ground proximity, caused by the wing in ground effect. Disturbances at disconnected vortex ends, so-called end effects, appear after touchdown and propagate along the wake vortices against the flight direction. They lead to a circulation decay of the rolled-up wake vortices, combined with a growth of the core radius to 300%300% of its initial value. After touchdown wake vortices are subjected to strong three-dimensional deformations and linkings with the ground. The complete vortex evolution, including roll-up and decay, is accelerated in ground proximity. Additionally the effect of a plate line installed in front of the runway is studied with this method. The plates cause disturbances of the vortices propagating to either side and interacting with the end effects. The plate line further accelerates the vortex decay, reducing the circulation rapidly by another 25%25% of its initial value.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study are to investigate the counter diffusion phenomenon (CDP) in a stably thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layer by means of direct numerical simulation (DNS). In this study, four cases of stably thermally-stratified turbulent boundary layers are simulated to reproduce the CDP, in which two Reynolds numbers and four Richardson numbers are set. The CDP is discovered in both the velocity and thermal fields in three cases. DNS clearly shows the CDP, which indicates the negative sign of the Reynolds shear stress and the wall-normal turbulent heat flux with the positive sign of mean velocity and temperature gradients. The turbulent heat flux tensor is also shown in order to indicate the variation of the thermal field, in which the streamwise turbulent heat flux tensor maintains a high value even in the case of strong CDP occurrence. The relation between the vortex structure and the Reynolds shear stress fluctuation is shown, where the negative value of Reynolds shear stress fluctuation frequently appears around the vortex structure in the case of CDP occurrence.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 10/2014;