International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain), Elsevier

Journal description

Advances in the understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow continue to be crucial in achieving improved performance and efficiency in a broad range of mechanical and process plants. The International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow publishes original contributions of high standards on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics relevant to engineering or the environment including two-phase flows. Papers reporting on the application of these disciplines to the design and development of manufacturing and industrial processes, with emphasis on new technological fields, are also accepted. Some of these new fields include the manufacture and operation of microelectronics and micromechanical devices and systems; medical instrumentation; environmental pollution problems; environmental control in residential and commercial facilities; high speed transportation systems; food processing; and biological systems, including the human body.

Current impact factor: 1.78

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.777
2012 Impact Factor 1.581
2011 Impact Factor 1.927
2010 Impact Factor 1.802
2009 Impact Factor 1.498
2008 Impact Factor 1.335
2007 Impact Factor 1.283
2006 Impact Factor 1.391
2005 Impact Factor 1.085
2004 Impact Factor 0.988
2003 Impact Factor 1.052
2002 Impact Factor 1.013
2001 Impact Factor 0.968
2000 Impact Factor 0.511
1999 Impact Factor 0.436
1998 Impact Factor 0.652
1997 Impact Factor 0.338
1996 Impact Factor 0.398
1995 Impact Factor 0.333
1994 Impact Factor 0.653
1993 Impact Factor 0.365
1992 Impact Factor 0.26

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.47
Cited half-life 7.80
Immediacy index 0.19
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.00
Website International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow website
Other titles International journal of heat and fluid flow (Online), Heat and fluid flow, IJHFF
ISSN 0142-727X
OCLC 38995688
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The modification of the near-wall structure is very important for the control of wall turbulence. To ascertain the effect of near-wall modulation on the viscoelastic drag-reduced flow, the modified characteristics of a surfactant solution channel flow were investigated experimentally. The modulation was conducted on the boundary of the channel flow by injecting water from the whole surface of one side of the channel wall. The diffusion process of the injected water was observed by using the planar laser-induced fluorescence technique. The velocity statistics and characteristic structure including the spatial distributions of instantaneous streamwise velocity, swirling strength, and Reynolds shear stress were analyzed based on the velocity vectors acquired in the streamwise wall-normal plane by using the particle imaging velocimetry technique. The results indicated that the disturbance of the injected water was constricted within a finite range very near the dosing wall, and the Reynolds shear stress was increased in this region. However, the eventual drag reduction rate was found to be increased due to a relatively large decrement of viscoelastic shear stress in this near-wall region. Moreover, the flow structure under this modulation presented obvious regional characteristics. In the unstable disturbed region, the mixing of high-speed and low-speed fluids and the motions of ejection and sweep occurred actively. Many clockwise vortex cores were also found to be generated. This characteristic structure was similar to that in the ordinary turbulence of Newtonian fluid. Nevertheless, outside this disturbed region, the structure still maintained the characteristics of the drag-reduced flow with non-Newtonian viscoelastic additives. These results proved that the injected Newtonian fluid associated with the modified stress distribution creates a diverse characteristic structure and subsequent enhanced drag reduction. This investigation can provide the experimental basis for further study of turbulence control.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.03.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The cross injection in a supersonic flow is an issue encountered in several aerodynamic applications such as fuel injection in scramjet combustor, missile control, drag reduction and thrust vector control. In a recent work, an analytical model has been presented to calculate the fluidic thrust vectoring performance for a supersonic axisymmetric nozzle. The model is able to take into account both the injected gas thermodynamic properties and the geometrical nozzle characteristics. The analytical model has been successfully validated following the cold air flow experimental analysis, in the case of fluidic thrust vectoring applied to conical nozzle. The aim of this work is to show how far the injected gas thermodynamic properties, different from that of the nozzle main flow, could influence the fluidic thrust vectorization parameters. In this work, the experimental performance of the fluidic thrust vectoring concept, using numbers of gases as injectant, has been qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Schlieren visualization, force balance and wall pressure measurements were used in the case of a truncated ideal contour nozzle. The experimental results are compared to the numerical and analytical findings. Performance analysis are conducted and basic conclusions are drawn in terms of thermodynamic gas properties effect on the fluidic thrust vector system. The primary effect was related to the gas molecular weight and its specific heat ratio product. It is observed that for fixed injection conditions, the vectoring angle is higher when the injected gas molecular weight and specific heat ratio product is less than that of the primary gas. For a given mission of the launcher, it can be concluded that the mass of the embedded gas, used for the fluidic vectorization system, can be significantly reduced, depending on its molecular weight and specific heat ratio.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53(2015):156-166. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.03.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Large eddy simulation of diesel spray in a constant volume vessel as well as in an internal combustion engine has been performed. Spray is modeled using Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. The modeling involves primary and secondary break-up, the spray-induced turbulence (SIT) and the stochastic turbulence dispersion (STD) of parcels. Including SIT, based on Baharawaj et al. (2009), in coarse grids, e.g., = 0.5 mm, hardly affects the results. With finer grids, e.g., = 0.25 mm and = 0.125 mm, the local mixture fraction in the downstream flow field slightly decreases whereas the prediction of the spray tips and air entrainment dose not respond to the inclusion of SIT.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.02.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of a large-scale coherent vortex structure in a planar jet, which is intermittently observed and called “flapping motion”, on the turbulent energy transport process is investigated experimentally. The experiment is performed by simultaneously measuring the two components of velocity and pressure in the self-preserving region of the jet. The probe for the simultaneous measurement of the velocity and pressure consists of an X-type hot-wire sensor and a static pressure probe. The measurement data are analyzed using a conditional sampling technique and the phase-averaging technique, on the basis of an intermittency function which shows whether the jet is now flapping or not. This intermittency function is obtained by the measurement results of the streamwise velocity fluctuation by means of the two I-type hot-wire sensors set in the self-preserving region of the jet with applying a continuous wavelet transform analysis to the data. The experimental results show that the phase-averaged velocity field during the flapping motion shows a good agreement with those obtained through the 23 points simultaneous measurement of the streamwise velocity in the previous studies. Further, the phase-averaged pressure field during the flapping motion indicates the existence of a large-scale coherent vortex structure, interpreted as a combination of the flapping and puffing motions in the self-preserving region of the jet. In addition, it is found that the production of the turbulent energy and its diffusion from the inner region to the outer region of the jet are enhanced by the flapping motion. In particular, this enhancement of the turbulent energy diffusion is caused by the combination of an increase of the turbulent diffusion to the outer region of the jet and a decrease of the pressure diffusion to the inner region of the jet.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.007
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Oil–water two-phase flow experiments were conducted in horizontal ducts made of Plexiglas® to determine the in situ oil fraction (holdup) by means of the closing valves technique, using mineral oil (viscosity: 0.838 Pa s at 20 °C; density: 890 kg m−3) and tap water. The ducts present sudden contractions from 50 mm to 40 mm i.d. and from 50 mm to 30 mm i.d., with contraction ratios of 0.64 and 0.36, respectively. About 200–320 tests were performed by varying the flow rates of the phases. Flow patterns were investigated for both the up- and downstream pipe in order to assess whether relevant variations of the flow patterns across the sudden contraction take place. Data were then compared with predictions of a specific correlation for oil–water flow and some correlations for gas–water flow. A drift-flux model was also applied to determine the distribution parameter.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.03.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For high-speed air breathing engines, fuel injection and subsequent mixing with air is paramount for combustion. The high freestream velocity poses a great challenge to efficient mixing both in macroscale and microscale. Utilising cavities downstream of fuel injection locations, as a means to hold the flow and stabilise the combustion, is one mechanism which has attracted much attention, requiring further research to study the unsteady flow features and interactions occurring within the cavity. In this study we combine the transverse jet injection upstream of a cavity with an impinging shock to see how this interaction influences the cavity flow, since impinging shocks have been shown to enhance mixing of transverse jets. Utilising qualitative and quantitative methods: schlieren, oilflow, PIV, and PSP the induced flowfield is analysed. The impinging shock lifts the shear layer over the cavity and combined with the instabilities generated by the transverse jet creates a highly complicated flowfield with numerous vertical structures. The interaction between the oblique shock and the jet leads to a relatively uniform velocity distribution within the cavity.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.03.004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A computational tool based on the ghost fluid method (GFM) is developed to study supersonic liquid jets involving strong shocks and contact discontinuities with high density ratios. The solver utilizes constrained reinitialization method and is capable of switching between the exact and approximate Riemann solvers to increase the robustness. The numerical methodology is validated through several benchmark test problems; these include one-dimensional multiphase shock tube problem, shock–bubble interaction, air cavity collapse in water, and underwater-explosion. A comparison between our results and numerical and experimental observations indicate that the developed solver performs well investigating these problems. The code is then used to simulate the emergence of a supersonic liquid jet into a quiescent gaseous medium, which is the very first time to be studied by a ghost fluid method. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the experimental investigations. Also some of the famous flow characteristics, like the propagation of pressure-waves from the liquid jet interface and dependence of the Mach cone structure on the inlet Mach number, are reproduced numerically. The numerical simulations conducted here suggest that the ghost fluid method is an affordable and reliable scheme to study complicated interfacial evolutions in complex multiphase systems such as supersonic liquid jets.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.03.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (3D-PTV) is applied to particle-laden pipe flows at Reynolds number 10,300, based on the bulk velocity and the pipe diameter. The effects of flow direction (upward or downward) and mean concentration (in the range 0.5 × 10−5–3.2 × 10−5) on the production of turbulence are assessed for inertial particles with a Stokes number equal to 2.3, based on the particle relaxation time and viscous scales. The turbulence production and the Kolmogorov constant, both measured for particle laden flows in upflow and downflow, allowed for the derivation of a break-up criterion as a function of the radial coordinate. This criterion predicts the maximum possible particle size before break-up may occur. It is shown that the maximum particle size is bigger at the pipe centerline than in the near-wall zone by more than a factor of 5. Flow direction affects the particle concentration profile, with wall peaking in downflow and core peaking in upflow. This affects both the residence time and the maximum particle size, the latter by 7%.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.02.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The flow characteristics and the structure of highly buoyant jet of low density fluid issuing into a stagnant surrounding of high density fluid is studied by scanning stereo PIV combined with proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis. The experiment is carried out at Froude number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 200, which satisfies the inflow condition due to the unstable density gradient near the nozzle exit. An increase in the maximum mean velocity occurs and the vertical velocity fluctuation is highly amplified near the nozzle exit, which suggests the influence of inflow due to the unstable density gradient. The POD analysis indicates that the vertical velocity fluctuation is the major source of fluctuating energy contributing to the development of the highly buoyant jet. The examination of the POD modes show that the longitudinal structure of the vertical velocity fluctuation is generated along the jet axis having the opposite sign of velocity fluctuation on both sides of the jet axis. The vertical scale of the POD mode decreases with increasing the mode number and results in the frequent appearance of cross-flow across the buoyant jet. The reconstruction flow from the POD modes indicates that the vortex structure is caused by the highly sheared layer between the upward and downward velocity and the inflow is induced by the vortex structure. The magnitude of the vortex structure seems to be weakened with an increase in the distance from the nozzle and the buoyant jet approaches to an asymptotic state in the further downstream.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.003
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study proposes an improved physical model to predict sand deposition at high temperature in gas turbine components. This model differs from its predecessor (Sreedharan and Tafti, 2011) by improving the sticking probability by accounting for the energy losses during particle-wall collision based on our previous work (Singh and Tafti, 2013). This model predicts the probability of sticking based on the critical viscosity approach and collision losses during a particle–wall collision. The current model is novel in the sense that it predicts the sticking probability based on the impact velocity along with the particle temperature. To test the model, deposition from a sand particle laden jet impacting on a flat coupon geometry is computed and the results obtained from the numerical model are compared with experiments (Delimont et al., 2014) conducted at Virginia Tech, on a similar geometry and flow conditions, for jet temperatures of 950 °C, 1000 °C and 1050 °C. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are used to model the flow field and heat transfer, and sand particles are modeled using a discrete Lagrangian framework. Results quantify the impingement and deposition for 20–40 μm sand particles. The stagnation region of the target coupon is found to experience most of the impingement and deposition. For 950 °C jet temperature, around 5% of the particle impacting the coupon deposit while the deposition for 1000 °C and 1050 °C is 17% and 28%, respectively. In general, the sticking efficiencies calculated from the model show good agreement with the experiments for the temperature range considered.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An experimental study on heavy oil with air (two phase flow) and water and air (three phase flow) at different temperatures was carried out in square capillaries under gravity drainage conditions. Fluid retention characteristics (in the corners of capillaries) were determined and evaluated using the trapping number (NT). In air–heavy oil systems, when NT < 2.7E−2, the residual oil saturation (Sor) was constant and equal at 55 and 85 °C. The Sor was controlled by capillary forces regardless of viscous and gravity forces, including free fall gravity drainage (FFGD). For higher NT, the Sor was a function of competition between gravity, viscous and capillary forces. The Sor was always higher at 85 °C compared to 55 °C for the same gas injection rate and the difference increased as the NT augmented. FFGD experiments demonstrated that heavy oil retention depended on the Bond number and increased linearly as the Bond number increased.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.005
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Structure-based turbulence models (SBM) carry information about the turbulence structure that is needed for the prediction of complex non-equilibrium flows. SBM have been successfully used to predict a number of canonical flows, yet their adoption rate in engineering practice has been relatively low, mainly because of their departure from standard closure formulations, which hinders easy implementation in existing codes. Here, we demonstrate the coupling between the Algebraic Structure-Based Model (ASBM) and the one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (SA) model, which provides an easy route to bringing structure information in engineering turbulence closures. As the ASBM requires correct predictions of two turbulence scales, which are not taken into account in the SA model, Bradshaw relations and numerical optimizations are used to provide the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Attention is paid to the robustness and accuracy of the hybrid model, showing encouraging results for a number of simple test cases. An ASBM module in Fortran-90 is provided along with the present paper in order to facilitate the testing of the model by interested readers.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An experimental study of a Rayleigh–Bénard–Poiseuille air flow in a rectangular channel is presented. The aim of the paper is to characterize a secondary instability, referred to as wavy instability and known to be a convective instability, with the objective to identify the best conditions for an optimal homogenization of heat transfers in the system. A periodic mechanical forcing is introduced at channel inlet and the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature fluctuations are analyzed, depending on the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers, the forcing frequency and the forcing amplitude. As the saturation state is a priori the best situation to homogenize the transfers, the objective is to expand the saturation area and to generate a maximum saturation amplitude value by conducting experiments at high Rayleigh numbers. It is shown that the change in the Rayleigh number value influences the saturation length but does not act on the saturation magnitude while the change in the Reynolds number value causes antagonist effects on the saturation parameters. The key parameter acting on the saturation amplitude is the forcing frequency. The most efficient forcing configuration is to introduce the external perturbation into the fully developed region of the longitudinal rolls and to apply a specific low forcing frequency associated with a moderate forcing magnitude.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.08.014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The statistical behaviours of sub-grid flux of reaction progress variable has been assessed for premixed turbulent flames with global Lewis number Le (=thermal diffusivity/mass diffusivity) ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating statistically planar flames. It is known that the sub-grid scalar flux shows counter-gradient transport when the velocity jump across the flame due to heat release overcomes the effects of turbulent velocity fluctuation. The results show that the sub-grid scalar flux components exhibit counter-gradient transport for all cases considered here. The extent of counter-gradient transport increases with increasing filter width Δ and decreasing value of Le. This is due to the fact that flames with Le ≪ 1 (e.g. Le = 0.34) exhibit thermo-diffusive instabilities, which in turn increases the extent of counter-gradient transport. The effects of heat release and flame normal acceleration weaken with increasing Le. Several established algebraic models have been assessed in comparison to the sub-grid scalar flux components extracted from explicitly filtered DNS data in terms of their correlation coefficients at the vector level and their mean variation conditional on the Favre-filtered progress variable. The gradient transport closure does neither capture the quantitative nor the qualitative behaviour of the different sub-grid scalar flux components for all filter widths in all cases considered here. Models which account for local flame normal acceleration perform better, especially when the flame remains completely unresolved. In particular those models that account for the alignment of local resolved velocity and scalar gradients by using a tensor diffusivity, perform relatively better than the other alternative models irrespective of Le.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.10.022
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The concurrent upward two-phase flow of air and water in a long vertical large diameter pipe with an inner diameter (D) of 200 mm and a height (z) of 26 m (z/D = 130) was investigated experimentally at low superficial liquid velocities from 0.05009 to 0.3121 m/s and the superficial gas velocities from 0.01779 to 0.5069 m/s. The resultant void fractions range from 0.03579 to 0.4059. According to the observations using a high speed video camera, the flow regimes of bubbly, developing cap bubbly and fully-developed cap bubbly flows prevailed in the flows. The developing cap bubbly flow appeared as a flow regime transition from bubbly to fully-developed cap bubble flow in the vertical large diameter pipe. The developing cap bubbly flow changes gradually and lasts for a long time period and a wide axial region in the flow direction, in contrast to a sudden transition from bubbly to slug flows in a small diameter pipe. The analysis in this study showed that the flow regime transition depends not only on the void fraction but also on the axial distance in the flow and the pipe diameter. The axial flow development brings about the transition to happen in a lower void fraction flow and the increase of pipe diameter causes the transition to happen in a higher void fraction flow. The measured void fraction showed an N-shaped axial changing manner that the void fraction increases monotonously with axial position in the bubbly flow, decreases non-monotonously with axial position in the developing cap bubbly flow, and increases monotonously again with axial position in the fully-developed cap bubbly flow. The temporary void fraction decrease phenomenon in the transition region from bubbly to cap bubbly flow can be attributed to the formation of medium to large cap bubbles and their gradual growth into the maximum size of cap bubble and/or cluster of large cap bubbles in the developing cap bubbly flow. In order to predict the N-shaped axial void fraction changing behaviors in the flow regime transition from bubbly to cap bubbly flow, the existing 12 drift flux correlation sets for large diameter pipes are reviewed and their predictabilities are studied against the present experimental data. Although some drift flux correlation sets, such as those of Clark and Flemmer (1986) and Hibiki and Ishii (2003), can predict the present experimental data with reasonable average relative deviations, no drift flux correlation set for distribution parameter and drift velocity can give a reliable prediction for the observed N-shaped axial void fraction changing behaviors in the region from bubbly to cap bubbly flow in a vertical large diameter pipe.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.001
  • Source
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.006
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present paper, the Fractional Step method usually used in single fluid flow is here extended and applied for the two-fluid model resolution using the finite volume discretization. The use of a projection method resolution instead of the usual pressure-correction method for multi-fluid flow, successfully avoids iteration processes. On the other hand, the main weakness of the two fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows, which is the numerical diffusion of the interface, is also solved by means of the conservative Level Set method (interface sharpening) (Strubelj et al., 2009). Moreover, the use of the algorithm proposed has allowed presenting different free-surface cases with or without Level Set implementation even under coarse meshes under a wide range of density ratios. Thus, the numerical results presented, numerically verified, experimentally validated and converged under high density ratios, shows the capability and reliability of this resolution method for both mixed and unmixed flows.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.002
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CFD has become an essential tool for researchers to analyze centrifugal compressors. Tip leakage flow is usually considered one of the main mechanisms that dictate compressor flow field and stability. However, it is a common practice to rely on CAD tip clearance, even though the gap between blades and shroud changes when compressor is running. In this paper, sensitivity of centrifugal compressor flow field and noise prediction to tip clearance ratio is investigated. 3D CFD simulations are performed with three different tip clearance ratios in accordance to expected operating values, extracted from shaft motion measurements and FEM predictions of temperature and rotational deformation. Near-surge operating conditions are simulated with URANS and DES. DES shows superior performance for acoustic predictions. Cases with reduced tip clearance present higher pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, but no significant changes in compressor acoustic signature are found when varying clearance. In this working point, tip clearance is immersed in a region of strongly swirling backflow. Therefore, tip leakage cannot establish any coherent noise source mechanism.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.004