International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow (INT J HEAT FLUID FL)

Publisher: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain), Elsevier

Journal description

Advances in the understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow continue to be crucial in achieving improved performance and efficiency in a broad range of mechanical and process plants. The International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow publishes original contributions of high standards on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics relevant to engineering or the environment including two-phase flows. Papers reporting on the application of these disciplines to the design and development of manufacturing and industrial processes, with emphasis on new technological fields, are also accepted. Some of these new fields include the manufacture and operation of microelectronics and micromechanical devices and systems; medical instrumentation; environmental pollution problems; environmental control in residential and commercial facilities; high speed transportation systems; food processing; and biological systems, including the human body.

Current impact factor: 1.78

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.777
2012 Impact Factor 1.581
2011 Impact Factor 1.927
2010 Impact Factor 1.802
2009 Impact Factor 1.498
2008 Impact Factor 1.335
2007 Impact Factor 1.283
2006 Impact Factor 1.391
2005 Impact Factor 1.085
2004 Impact Factor 0.988
2003 Impact Factor 1.052
2002 Impact Factor 1.013
2001 Impact Factor 0.968
2000 Impact Factor 0.511
1999 Impact Factor 0.436
1998 Impact Factor 0.652
1997 Impact Factor 0.338
1996 Impact Factor 0.398
1995 Impact Factor 0.333
1994 Impact Factor 0.653
1993 Impact Factor 0.365
1992 Impact Factor 0.26

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.47
Cited half-life 7.80
Immediacy index 0.19
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 1.00
Website International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow website
Other titles International journal of heat and fluid flow (Online), Heat and fluid flow, IJHFF
ISSN 0142-727X
OCLC 38995688
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Pre-print allowed on any website or open access repository
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on authors' personal website, or institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository, without embargo, where there is not a policy or mandate
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and the publisher exists.
    • Permitted deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental policy or mandate, may be required to comply with embargo periods of 12 months to 48 months .
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The role of a large-scale coherent vortex structure in a planar jet, which is intermittently observed and called “flapping motion”, on the turbulent energy transport process is investigated experimentally. The experiment is performed by simultaneously measuring the two components of velocity and pressure in the self-preserving region of the jet. The probe for the simultaneous measurement of the velocity and pressure consists of an X-type hot-wire sensor and a static pressure probe. The measurement data are analyzed using a conditional sampling technique and the phase-averaging technique, on the basis of an intermittency function which shows whether the jet is now flapping or not. This intermittency function is obtained by the measurement results of the streamwise velocity fluctuation by means of the two I-type hot-wire sensors set in the self-preserving region of the jet with applying a continuous wavelet transform analysis to the data. The experimental results show that the phase-averaged velocity field during the flapping motion shows a good agreement with those obtained through the 23 points simultaneous measurement of the streamwise velocity in the previous studies. Further, the phase-averaged pressure field during the flapping motion indicates the existence of a large-scale coherent vortex structure, interpreted as a combination of the flapping and puffing motions in the self-preserving region of the jet. In addition, it is found that the production of the turbulent energy and its diffusion from the inner region to the outer region of the jet are enhanced by the flapping motion. In particular, this enhancement of the turbulent energy diffusion is caused by the combination of an increase of the turbulent diffusion to the outer region of the jet and a decrease of the pressure diffusion to the inner region of the jet.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 06/2015; 53. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.007
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    ABSTRACT: The flow characteristics and the structure of highly buoyant jet of low density fluid issuing into a stagnant surrounding of high density fluid is studied by scanning stereo PIV combined with proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis. The experiment is carried out at Froude number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 200, which satisfies the inflow condition due to the unstable density gradient near the nozzle exit. An increase in the maximum mean velocity occurs and the vertical velocity fluctuation is highly amplified near the nozzle exit, which suggests the influence of inflow due to the unstable density gradient. The POD analysis indicates that the vertical velocity fluctuation is the major source of fluctuating energy contributing to the development of the highly buoyant jet. The examination of the POD modes show that the longitudinal structure of the vertical velocity fluctuation is generated along the jet axis having the opposite sign of velocity fluctuation on both sides of the jet axis. The vertical scale of the POD mode decreases with increasing the mode number and results in the frequent appearance of cross-flow across the buoyant jet. The reconstruction flow from the POD modes indicates that the vortex structure is caused by the highly sheared layer between the upward and downward velocity and the inflow is induced by the vortex structure. The magnitude of the vortex structure seems to be weakened with an increase in the distance from the nozzle and the buoyant jet approaches to an asymptotic state in the further downstream.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.003
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    ABSTRACT: This study proposes an improved physical model to predict sand deposition at high temperature in gas turbine components. This model differs from its predecessor (Sreedharan and Tafti, 2011) by improving the sticking probability by accounting for the energy losses during particle-wall collision based on our previous work (Singh and Tafti, 2013). This model predicts the probability of sticking based on the critical viscosity approach and collision losses during a particle–wall collision. The current model is novel in the sense that it predicts the sticking probability based on the impact velocity along with the particle temperature. To test the model, deposition from a sand particle laden jet impacting on a flat coupon geometry is computed and the results obtained from the numerical model are compared with experiments (Delimont et al., 2014) conducted at Virginia Tech, on a similar geometry and flow conditions, for jet temperatures of 950 °C, 1000 °C and 1050 °C. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are used to model the flow field and heat transfer, and sand particles are modeled using a discrete Lagrangian framework. Results quantify the impingement and deposition for 20–40 μm sand particles. The stagnation region of the target coupon is found to experience most of the impingement and deposition. For 950 °C jet temperature, around 5% of the particle impacting the coupon deposit while the deposition for 1000 °C and 1050 °C is 17% and 28%, respectively. In general, the sticking efficiencies calculated from the model show good agreement with the experiments for the temperature range considered.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.008
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    ABSTRACT: Structure-based turbulence models (SBM) carry information about the turbulence structure that is needed for the prediction of complex non-equilibrium flows. SBM have been successfully used to predict a number of canonical flows, yet their adoption rate in engineering practice has been relatively low, mainly because of their departure from standard closure formulations, which hinders easy implementation in existing codes. Here, we demonstrate the coupling between the Algebraic Structure-Based Model (ASBM) and the one-equation Spalart–Allmaras (SA) model, which provides an easy route to bringing structure information in engineering turbulence closures. As the ASBM requires correct predictions of two turbulence scales, which are not taken into account in the SA model, Bradshaw relations and numerical optimizations are used to provide the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Attention is paid to the robustness and accuracy of the hybrid model, showing encouraging results for a number of simple test cases. An ASBM module in Fortran-90 is provided along with the present paper in order to facilitate the testing of the model by interested readers.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.002
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental study on heavy oil with air (two phase flow) and water and air (three phase flow) at different temperatures was carried out in square capillaries under gravity drainage conditions. Fluid retention characteristics (in the corners of capillaries) were determined and evaluated using the trapping number (NT). In air–heavy oil systems, when NT < 2.7E−2, the residual oil saturation (Sor) was constant and equal at 55 and 85 °C. The Sor was controlled by capillary forces regardless of viscous and gravity forces, including free fall gravity drainage (FFGD). For higher NT, the Sor was a function of competition between gravity, viscous and capillary forces. The Sor was always higher at 85 °C compared to 55 °C for the same gas injection rate and the difference increased as the NT augmented. FFGD experiments demonstrated that heavy oil retention depended on the Bond number and increased linearly as the Bond number increased.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.005
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental study of a Rayleigh–Bénard–Poiseuille air flow in a rectangular channel is presented. The aim of the paper is to characterize a secondary instability, referred to as wavy instability and known to be a convective instability, with the objective to identify the best conditions for an optimal homogenization of heat transfers in the system. A periodic mechanical forcing is introduced at channel inlet and the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature fluctuations are analyzed, depending on the Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers, the forcing frequency and the forcing amplitude. As the saturation state is a priori the best situation to homogenize the transfers, the objective is to expand the saturation area and to generate a maximum saturation amplitude value by conducting experiments at high Rayleigh numbers. It is shown that the change in the Rayleigh number value influences the saturation length but does not act on the saturation magnitude while the change in the Reynolds number value causes antagonist effects on the saturation parameters. The key parameter acting on the saturation amplitude is the forcing frequency. The most efficient forcing configuration is to introduce the external perturbation into the fully developed region of the longitudinal rolls and to apply a specific low forcing frequency associated with a moderate forcing magnitude.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.08.014
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    ABSTRACT: The statistical behaviours of sub-grid flux of reaction progress variable has been assessed for premixed turbulent flames with global Lewis number Le (=thermal diffusivity/mass diffusivity) ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating statistically planar flames. It is known that the sub-grid scalar flux shows counter-gradient transport when the velocity jump across the flame due to heat release overcomes the effects of turbulent velocity fluctuation. The results show that the sub-grid scalar flux components exhibit counter-gradient transport for all cases considered here. The extent of counter-gradient transport increases with increasing filter width Δ and decreasing value of Le. This is due to the fact that flames with Le ≪ 1 (e.g. Le = 0.34) exhibit thermo-diffusive instabilities, which in turn increases the extent of counter-gradient transport. The effects of heat release and flame normal acceleration weaken with increasing Le. Several established algebraic models have been assessed in comparison to the sub-grid scalar flux components extracted from explicitly filtered DNS data in terms of their correlation coefficients at the vector level and their mean variation conditional on the Favre-filtered progress variable. The gradient transport closure does neither capture the quantitative nor the qualitative behaviour of the different sub-grid scalar flux components for all filter widths in all cases considered here. Models which account for local flame normal acceleration perform better, especially when the flame remains completely unresolved. In particular those models that account for the alignment of local resolved velocity and scalar gradients by using a tensor diffusivity, perform relatively better than the other alternative models irrespective of Le.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.10.022
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    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.006
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    ABSTRACT: The concurrent upward two-phase flow of air and water in a long vertical large diameter pipe with an inner diameter (D) of 200 mm and a height (z) of 26 m (z/D = 130) was investigated experimentally at low superficial liquid velocities from 0.05009 to 0.3121 m/s and the superficial gas velocities from 0.01779 to 0.5069 m/s. The resultant void fractions range from 0.03579 to 0.4059. According to the observations using a high speed video camera, the flow regimes of bubbly, developing cap bubbly and fully-developed cap bubbly flows prevailed in the flows. The developing cap bubbly flow appeared as a flow regime transition from bubbly to fully-developed cap bubble flow in the vertical large diameter pipe. The developing cap bubbly flow changes gradually and lasts for a long time period and a wide axial region in the flow direction, in contrast to a sudden transition from bubbly to slug flows in a small diameter pipe. The analysis in this study showed that the flow regime transition depends not only on the void fraction but also on the axial distance in the flow and the pipe diameter. The axial flow development brings about the transition to happen in a lower void fraction flow and the increase of pipe diameter causes the transition to happen in a higher void fraction flow. The measured void fraction showed an N-shaped axial changing manner that the void fraction increases monotonously with axial position in the bubbly flow, decreases non-monotonously with axial position in the developing cap bubbly flow, and increases monotonously again with axial position in the fully-developed cap bubbly flow. The temporary void fraction decrease phenomenon in the transition region from bubbly to cap bubbly flow can be attributed to the formation of medium to large cap bubbles and their gradual growth into the maximum size of cap bubble and/or cluster of large cap bubbles in the developing cap bubbly flow. In order to predict the N-shaped axial void fraction changing behaviors in the flow regime transition from bubbly to cap bubbly flow, the existing 12 drift flux correlation sets for large diameter pipes are reviewed and their predictabilities are studied against the present experimental data. Although some drift flux correlation sets, such as those of Clark and Flemmer (1986) and Hibiki and Ishii (2003), can predict the present experimental data with reasonable average relative deviations, no drift flux correlation set for distribution parameter and drift velocity can give a reliable prediction for the observed N-shaped axial void fraction changing behaviors in the region from bubbly to cap bubbly flow in a vertical large diameter pipe.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.001
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper, the Fractional Step method usually used in single fluid flow is here extended and applied for the two-fluid model resolution using the finite volume discretization. The use of a projection method resolution instead of the usual pressure-correction method for multi-fluid flow, successfully avoids iteration processes. On the other hand, the main weakness of the two fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows, which is the numerical diffusion of the interface, is also solved by means of the conservative Level Set method (interface sharpening) (Strubelj et al., 2009). Moreover, the use of the algorithm proposed has allowed presenting different free-surface cases with or without Level Set implementation even under coarse meshes under a wide range of density ratios. Thus, the numerical results presented, numerically verified, experimentally validated and converged under high density ratios, shows the capability and reliability of this resolution method for both mixed and unmixed flows.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: CFD has become an essential tool for researchers to analyze centrifugal compressors. Tip leakage flow is usually considered one of the main mechanisms that dictate compressor flow field and stability. However, it is a common practice to rely on CAD tip clearance, even though the gap between blades and shroud changes when compressor is running. In this paper, sensitivity of centrifugal compressor flow field and noise prediction to tip clearance ratio is investigated. 3D CFD simulations are performed with three different tip clearance ratios in accordance to expected operating values, extracted from shaft motion measurements and FEM predictions of temperature and rotational deformation. Near-surge operating conditions are simulated with URANS and DES. DES shows superior performance for acoustic predictions. Cases with reduced tip clearance present higher pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, but no significant changes in compressor acoustic signature are found when varying clearance. In this working point, tip clearance is immersed in a region of strongly swirling backflow. Therefore, tip leakage cannot establish any coherent noise source mechanism.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.12.004
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    ABSTRACT: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52:pp. 185-197. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.004
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    ABSTRACT: This work concerns the modelling of stratified two-phase turbulent flows with interfaces. We consider an equation for an intermittency function α(x,t) which denotes the probability of finding an interface at a given time t and a given point x. In Wacławczyk and Oberlack (2011) a model for the unclosed terms in this equation was proposed. Here, we investigate the performance of this model by a priori tests, and finally, based on the a priori data discuss its possible modification and improvements.,KnG0JhT
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52:40-49. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.11.004
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    ABSTRACT: In-line flow segregators based on axial induction of swirling flow have important applications in chemical, process and petroleum production industries. In the later, the segregation of gas bubbles and/or water droplets dispersed into viscous oil by swirling pipe flow may be beneficial by either providing a pre-separation mechanism (bubble and/or drop coalescer) or, in the case of water-in-oil dispersions, by causing a water-lubricated flow pattern to establish in the pipe (friction reduction). Works addressing these applications are rare in the literature. In this paper, the features and capabilities of swirling pipe flow axially induced by a vane-type swirl generator were investigated both numerically and experimentally. The numerical analysis has been carried out using a commercial CFD package for axial Reynolds numbers less than 2000. Pressure drop, tangential and axial velocity components as well as swirl intensity along a 5 cm i.d. size and 3 m long pipe were computed. Single phase flow experiments have been performed using a water–glycerin solution of 54 mPa s viscosity and 1210 kg/m3 density as working fluid. The numerical predictions of the pressure drop were compared with the experimental data and agreement could be observed within the range of experimental conditions. The experiments confirmed that swirl flow leads to much higher friction factors compared with theoretical values for non-swirl (i.e. purely axial) flow. Furthermore, the addition of a conical trailing edge reduces vortex breakdown. Visualization of the two-phase swirling flow pattern was achieved by adding different amounts of air to the water–glycerin solution upstream the swirl generator.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 03/2015; 53:81-90. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.02.003
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    ABSTRACT: A compressible supersonic mixing layer at convective Mach number (Mc) equal to 1 has been studied experimentally in a dual stream supersonic/subsonic wind-tunnel. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (L.D.V.) measurements were performed making possible a full estimation of the mean and turbulent 3D velocity fields in the mixing layer. The Reynolds stress tensor was described. In particular, some anisotropy coefficients were obtained. It appears that the structure of the Reynolds tensor is almost not affected by compressibility at least up to Mc = 1.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 02/2015; 51. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.10.009
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    ABSTRACT: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 02/2015; 51:16-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2014.10.018
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    ABSTRACT: This work discusses a new and efficient method for treating the nonlinearity of algebraic turbulence models in the case of stratified and convective flows, for which the equations for the Reynolds stresses and turbulent heat flux are strongly coupled. In such cases, one finds a quasi-linear set of equations, which can be solved through an appropriate linear expansion in basis tensors and vectors, as discussed in earlier work. However, finding a consistent and truly explicit algebraic turbulence model requires solving an additional equation for the production-to-dissipation ratio $(\mat{P}+\mat{G})/\eps$ of turbulent kinetic energy. Due to the nonlinear nature of the problem, the equation for $(\mat{P}+\mat{G})/\eps$ is a higher-order polynomial equation for which no analytical solution can be found. Here we provide a new method to approximate the solution of this polynomial equation through an analysis of two special limits (shear-dominated and buoyancy-dominated), in which exact solutions are obtainable. The final result is a model that appropriately combines the two limits in more general cases. The method is tested for turbulent channel flow, both with stable and unstable stratification, and the atmospheric boundary layer with periodic and rapid changes between stable and unstable stratification. In all cases, the model is shown to give consistent results, close to the exact solution of $(\mat{P}+\mat{G})/\eps$. This new method greatly increases the range of applicability of explicit algebraic models, which otherwise would rely on the numerical solution of the polynomial equation.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 02/2015; 53:15-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2015.01.005