International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow (INT J HEAT FLUID FL )

Publisher: Institution of Mechanical Engineers (Great Britain), Elsevier


Advances in the understanding of heat transfer and fluid flow continue to be crucial in achieving improved performance and efficiency in a broad range of mechanical and process plants. The International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow publishes original contributions of high standards on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of convective heat transfer and fluid dynamics relevant to engineering or the environment including two-phase flows. Papers reporting on the application of these disciplines to the design and development of manufacturing and industrial processes, with emphasis on new technological fields, are also accepted. Some of these new fields include the manufacture and operation of microelectronics and micromechanical devices and systems; medical instrumentation; environmental pollution problems; environmental control in residential and commercial facilities; high speed transportation systems; food processing; and biological systems, including the human body.

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    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow website
  • Other titles
    International journal of heat and fluid flow (Online), Heat and fluid flow, IJHFF
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  • Material type
    Document, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

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    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PubMed Central after 12 months
    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The flow characteristics and the structure of highly buoyant jet of low density fluid issuing into a stagnant surrounding of high density fluid is studied by scanning stereo PIV combined with proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis. The experiment is carried out at Froude number of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 200, which satisfies the inflow condition due to the unstable density gradient near the nozzle exit. An increase in the maximum mean velocity occurs and the vertical velocity fluctuation is highly amplified near the nozzle exit, which suggests the influence of inflow due to the unstable density gradient. The POD analysis indicates that the vertical velocity fluctuation is the major source of fluctuating energy contributing to the development of the highly buoyant jet. The examination of the POD modes show that the longitudinal structure of the vertical velocity fluctuation is generated along the jet axis having the opposite sign of velocity fluctuation on both sides of the jet axis. The vertical scale of the POD mode decreases with increasing the mode number and results in the frequent appearance of cross-flow across the buoyant jet. The reconstruction flow from the POD modes indicates that the vortex structure is caused by the highly sheared layer between the upward and downward velocity and the inflow is induced by the vortex structure. The magnitude of the vortex structure seems to be weakened with an increase in the distance from the nozzle and the buoyant jet approaches to an asymptotic state in the further downstream.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: This study proposes an improved physical model to predict sand deposition at high temperature in gas turbine components. This model differs from its predecessor (Sreedharan and Tafti, 2011) by improving the sticking probability by accounting for the energy losses during particle-wall collision based on our previous work (Singh and Tafti, 2013). This model predicts the probability of sticking based on the critical viscosity approach and collision losses during a particle–wall collision. The current model is novel in the sense that it predicts the sticking probability based on the impact velocity along with the particle temperature. To test the model, deposition from a sand particle laden jet impacting on a flat coupon geometry is computed and the results obtained from the numerical model are compared with experiments (Delimont et al., 2014) conducted at Virginia Tech, on a similar geometry and flow conditions, for jet temperatures of 950 °C, 1000 °C and 1050 °C. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are used to model the flow field and heat transfer, and sand particles are modeled using a discrete Lagrangian framework. Results quantify the impingement and deposition for 20–40 μm sand particles. The stagnation region of the target coupon is found to experience most of the impingement and deposition. For 950 °C jet temperature, around 5% of the particle impacting the coupon deposit while the deposition for 1000 °C and 1050 °C is 17% and 28%, respectively. In general, the sticking efficiencies calculated from the model show good agreement with the experiments for the temperature range considered.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental study on heavy oil with air (two phase flow) and water and air (three phase flow) at different temperatures was carried out in square capillaries under gravity drainage conditions. Fluid retention characteristics (in the corners of capillaries) were determined and evaluated using the trapping number (NT). In air–heavy oil systems, when NT < 2.7E−2, the residual oil saturation (Sor) was constant and equal at 55 and 85 °C. The Sor was controlled by capillary forces regardless of viscous and gravity forces, including free fall gravity drainage (FFGD). For higher NT, the Sor was a function of competition between gravity, viscous and capillary forces. The Sor was always higher at 85 °C compared to 55 °C for the same gas injection rate and the difference increased as the NT augmented. FFGD experiments demonstrated that heavy oil retention depended on the Bond number and increased linearly as the Bond number increased.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: The statistical behaviours of sub-grid flux of reaction progress variable has been assessed for premixed turbulent flames with global Lewis number Le (=thermal diffusivity/mass diffusivity) ranging from 0.34 to 1.2 using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) database of freely propagating statistically planar flames. It is known that the sub-grid scalar flux shows counter-gradient transport when the velocity jump across the flame due to heat release overcomes the effects of turbulent velocity fluctuation. The results show that the sub-grid scalar flux components exhibit counter-gradient transport for all cases considered here. The extent of counter-gradient transport increases with increasing filter width Δ and decreasing value of Le. This is due to the fact that flames with Le ≪ 1 (e.g. Le = 0.34) exhibit thermo-diffusive instabilities, which in turn increases the extent of counter-gradient transport. The effects of heat release and flame normal acceleration weaken with increasing Le. Several established algebraic models have been assessed in comparison to the sub-grid scalar flux components extracted from explicitly filtered DNS data in terms of their correlation coefficients at the vector level and their mean variation conditional on the Favre-filtered progress variable. The gradient transport closure does neither capture the quantitative nor the qualitative behaviour of the different sub-grid scalar flux components for all filter widths in all cases considered here. Models which account for local flame normal acceleration perform better, especially when the flame remains completely unresolved. In particular those models that account for the alignment of local resolved velocity and scalar gradients by using a tensor diffusivity, perform relatively better than the other alternative models irrespective of Le.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present paper, the Fractional Step method usually used in single fluid flow is here extended and applied for the two-fluid model resolution using the finite volume discretization. The use of a projection method resolution instead of the usual pressure-correction method for multi-fluid flow, successfully avoids iteration processes. On the other hand, the main weakness of the two fluid model used for simulations of free surface flows, which is the numerical diffusion of the interface, is also solved by means of the conservative Level Set method (interface sharpening) (Strubelj et al., 2009). Moreover, the use of the algorithm proposed has allowed presenting different free-surface cases with or without Level Set implementation even under coarse meshes under a wide range of density ratios. Thus, the numerical results presented, numerically verified, experimentally validated and converged under high density ratios, shows the capability and reliability of this resolution method for both mixed and unmixed flows.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52.
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    ABSTRACT: This work concerns the modelling of stratified two-phase turbulent flows with interfaces. We consider an equation for an intermittency function α(x,t) which denotes the probability of finding an interface at a given time t and a given point x. In Wacławczyk and Oberlack (2011) a model for the unclosed terms in this equation was proposed. Here, we investigate the performance of this model by a priori tests, and finally, based on the a priori data discuss its possible modification and improvements.,KnG0JhT
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 04/2015; 52:40-49.
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that turbulence energy is overpredicted by the linear k –ε model at the stagnation point. This problem causes inadequate predictions of the flow field. In this paper, to evaluate the performance of a low-Reynolds-number (LRN) type turbulence model for flows on a complex wall shape, we carried out simulations of flows around various wall shapes. Based on this evaluation, we improved the model by introducing a time scale based on the velocity gradient parameter. The proposed model is evaluated in four complex turbulent flows, i.e., forward-facing step, two-dimensional block, two-dimensional hill and three-dimensional block flows. The results, together with the proposed model, are in good agreement with the experimental data.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 02/2015; 51:221–228.
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    ABSTRACT: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 01/2015; 51:16-28.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the flow patterns of circular synthetic jets issuing into a quiescent flow at low Reynolds numbers are studied numerically. The results confirm the presence of the three jet flow regimes, i.e. no jet formation, jet flow without rollup and jet flow with rollup reported in the literature. The boundaries of the different jet flow regimes are determined by tracking the structures produced by the synthetic jets in the near field of the jet orifice over several actuation cycles and examining the cycle-averaged streamwise velocity profiles along the jet central axis. When the Stokes number is above a certain threshold value appropriate for the corresponding flow regime, a good correlation between the flow patterns and the jet Reynolds number defined using the jet orifice diameter, ReDo, is also found. Furthermore, the flow structures of synthetic jets with different suction duty cycle factors are compared. The use of a high suction duty cycle factor strengthens the synthetic jet resulting in a greater penetration depth into the surrounding fluid. Overall, the finding from this study enables the flow regimes, in which a synthetic jet actuator with a circular orifice operates, to be determined. It also provides a way of designing more effective synthetic jet actuators for enhancing mass and momentum transfer at very low Reynolds numbers.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014; 50.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper a turbulent channel flow of a mixture of dry air and water vapor with water droplets is examined. Direct numerical simulation is used to quantify the importance of variations in the initial relative humidity. We focus on the droplet behavior along with the thermal properties of the system, such as the Nusselt number. During the initial stages of the simulations droplets evaporate more if the initial relative humidity is lower in order to reach the saturation condition. The difference in the Nusselt number between the cases of the lowest initial relative humidity and the saturation initial condition is on the order of 10% and this is connected with the different total heat capacity of the system. At the same time, we confront compressible and incompressible formulations comparing the results for both phases. A lower initial relative humidity leads to a larger difference in the mean gas mass density between the two formulations because of larger heat and mass transfer. Moreover, we find a larger relative difference in the Nusselt number between the two formulations in case of a lower initial relative humidity. These findings motivate the need to adopt the complete compressible flow model.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014; 50.
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    ABSTRACT: Heat transfer between the working fluid and machine parts within a screw compressor does not affect its performance significantly because the thermal energy dissipation is usually less than 1% of the compressor power input. However, it can be detrimental to the machine reliability because the fluid compression creates a non-uniform three dimensional temperature field leading to local distortions, which may be larger than the clearances between the machine parts. This phenomenon is widely known and special control procedures are required to allow for start-up and shut down, as well as for steady running operation. These measures are usually derived only from test-bench data and may result in larger clearances than necessary, thereby reducing the optimum performance.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Boundary conditions for abdominal aortic aneurysm simulations are problematic both on the fluid and the solid side. In this paper improvements are suggested on existing methodology in both respects. First, a derivation of a hyperelastic wall model is given, taking into account the wall stresses at the diastolic instant. It is demonstrated that this model can be approximated with a simplified linear wall model in the physiologically interesting range. Then a new method for inlet and outlet boundary condition generation is introduced on the fluid side, based on a one-dimensional transient simulator. Finally, the effect of spine support on the intra-aneurysmal flow is studied. Good agreement was found between rigid wall flow simulations on the “systolic” geometry and the fluid–structure interaction simulations. Other authors found much larger differences because earlier the “diastolic” geometry had been used for comparisons and the stresses in the diastolic state were neglected. It was concluded that the spine support does not have a great impact on the flow field. Significant differences were found between the flow behaviour of artificially generated and real aneurysm geometries.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Resolving flow near walls is critical to reproducing the high rates of shear that generate turbulence in high Reynolds number, wall-bounded flows. In the present study, we examine the resolution requirements for correctly reproducing mean flow quantities and wall shear stress distribution in a large eddy simulation using the spectral element method. In this method, derivatives are only guaranteed in a weak sense, and the same is true of quantities composed of derivatives, such as the wall shear stress. We are interested in what is required to resolve the wall shear stress in problems that lack homogeneity in at least one direction. The problem of interest is that of parallel flow through a rod bundle configuration. Several meshes for this problem are systematically compared. In addition, we conduct a study of channel flow in order to examine the issues in a canonical flow that contains spanwise homogeneity missing in rod bundle flow. In the case of channel flow, we compare several meshes and subgrid scale models. We find that typical measures of accuracy, such as the law of the wall, are not sufficient for determining the resolution of quantities that vary along the wall. Spanwise variation of wall shear stress in underresolved flows is characterized by spikes—physical points without well-defined derivatives of the velocity—found at element boundaries. These spikes are not particular to any subgrid scale model and are the unavoidable consequence of underresolution. Accurately reproducing the wall shear stress distribution, while minimizing the computational costs, requires increasing the number of elements along the wall (local h -refinement) and using very high order (N=19N=19) basis functions (p-refinement). We suggest that while these requirements are not easily generalized to grid spacing guidelines, one can apply a general process: construct a mesh that progressively increases elements along any walls, and increase the order of basis functions until the distribution of wall shear stress or any other quantity of interest is smooth.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method that uses dynamic basis functions. The dynamic functions are of a prescribed form and do not explicitly depend on time but rather on parameters associated with flow unsteadiness. This POD method has been developed for modeling nonlinear flows with deforming meshes but can also be applied to fixed meshes. The method is illustrated for subsonic and transonic flows in channels with fixed and deforming meshes. This method properly captured flow nonlinearities and shock motion for cases in which the classical POD method failed.
    International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 12/2014; 50:145–159.