Fiziologiia cheloveka

Publisher: Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR, Springer Verlag

Journal description

Russian version of Human Physiology (0362-1197).

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Website Fiziologiya Cheloveka website
Other titles Fiziologija čeloveka
ISSN 0131-1646
OCLC 2244548
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to determine the spatial-frequancy characteristics of the visual system of healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, we used the contrast comparison of two Gabor gratings with sinusoidal distribution of brightness. The Gabor gratings have low, medium or high spatial frequencies; the neurons of magnocellular and parvocellular channels are sensitive to these frequencies to different extents. We found an increase in sensitivity to the contrast when comparing the gratings with low frequencies (to which magnocellular channels are most sensitive) in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had not receive long-term antipsychotic treatment, as compared with the control group. On the contrary, the sensitivity to the gratings with medium and high spatial frequencies in this group of patients was lower, as well as in patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had received long-term treatment. The patients with chronic schizophrenia showed a decrease in contrast sensitivity in all tested ranges of frequencies. We obtained supplementary evidence of the enhancement of internal noise in the visual system of the patients with schizophrenia. The results help us to explain the clinical data on the development of visual perceptual diorders at different stages of schizophrenia.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):29-40.
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    ABSTRACT: We used the ratio of spectral characteristics of the EEG alpha and beta frequencies recorded in 10 apparently healthy subjects (university students) to control a computer cursor in the graphic interface in three scenarios with the use of neurofeedback. Our results showed that the scenario which uses the power of alpha- and beta-2-frequencies provided the highest accuracy and the best speed control. The parameters of beta-1-frequency were found to be less effective since an increase or a decrease of their power could result from an increase or a decrease of the power of alpha- and beta-2-frequencies. However, the subjects got the skill of cursor control with efficiency of 81%, gradually growing during learning, after a relatively short period of time (5 trainings per 2 weeks).
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):50-62.
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    ABSTRACT: DC-potential of the brain was performed in 97 women 55-74 years old living in the circumpolar region. Study and analysis of the distribution level DC-potential brain mapping was carried out by the measured values of monopolar constant potentials. The resulting distribution characteristics DC-potential compared with the average values for the corresponding normative age period. The features of the distribution of the level of DC-potential in women of circumpolar region at the age of 55-74 years, such as smoothing hemispheric asymmetry and increase total cerebral energy compared with reference values in most parts of the brain.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):134-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This is a comparative study of changes in blood flow rate in the popliteal artery, the arteries of bone regenerate and cerebral arteries in 45 patients with congenital and acquired diseases of the limbs at different stages of surgical lengthening of 3-15 cm shortened shin by Ilizarov method. We observed an increase in regional blood flow rate in all patients during the periods of distraction and fixation. A 25% increase in blood flow rate in the middle cerebral artery on the contralateral side was found only in patients of the first adult age with acquired limb shortening. Basing on the analysis of the reaction of cerebral arteries during a functional test with additional muscle work, we suggested that the absence of reaction in congenital diseases is caused by relative excess of somatic afferentation which results from morphological and functional immaturity of brain regulatory systems.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):74-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Participants of "Mars-500" experiment living in Syktyvkar (northerners) and Almaty (southerners) were studied throughout the year in various seasons. Latitude-caused differences of vegetative index values (RMSSD and pNN50) between groups were found in summer. Northerners were found to have significant seasonal shifts in thermoregulation parameters and RMSSD and pNN50 values. Southerners showed no seasonal changes in abovementioned indices. Participants from both groups were shown to have deviations of several physiological parameters from moderate latitude norms. Many participants from both groups demonstrated stress in adaptation mechanisms. Orthostatic tests performed in both groups revealed deficiencies in regulation of blood circulation.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):98-105.
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    ABSTRACT: The high density EEG was registered in 41 healthy subjects (20 males, 21 females) in the cardinal (horizontal and vertical) and oblique (45 and 135 deg) line orientation identification task. The analysis of the adaptive amplitude maximum (4 ms averaging) of P1 and N1 evoked potentials in the symmetrical occipital, parietal and inferior temporal areas and dipole source modelling showed the anisotropy of cortical responses in the 80-150 ms interval. The amplitude is higher on the oblique orientations as comparison with cardinal ones. The temporal and regional features of cortical answers were discovered. The earlier selective response (~90 ms latency) is the parietal areas, while the later (~145 ms latency) is found in the occipital ones. We discovered a number of sex-related differences in the early stages of line orientation detection. In males, the amplitude of components is higher; they have broader area of localisation of their dipole sources: in addition to the occipital and parietal regions, cortex of the temporal regions is involved. Theobtained data are discussed in the context of the idea of effective neural coding (Barlow, 1959) and the features of spatial information processing in the visual system of males and females.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):5-18.
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    ABSTRACT: The article presents data on the effect of magnetic stimulation of quadriceps muscle in the professional sportsmen: cyclists and long jumpers (Magstim Rapid 2 magnetic stimulator was used). In the experiments involving 3 cyclists and 4 long jumpers, both male and female, we observed an increase in the effect of FR muscle fibers (Burke classification) on the process of muscle tension during magnetic stimulation in the frequency range of the activity of motor units. We found some differences between these two types of sportsmen, which result from the characteristics of muscle tension during typical muscle activity.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):90-7.
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    ABSTRACT: It was found that β-endorphin stimulates the PHA (phytohemagglutinin)-induced production of interleukin-4 and has no affect on the production of interferon-gamma in unfractionated leukocytic suspension. In the culture of purified CD4+ T cells, β-endorphin does not affect the concentration of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ, but stimulates the production of IL-4 and inhibits the production of IFN-γ when adding monocytes to the culture. Selective δ-agonist DADLE enhances the PHA-induced production of IL-4 in unfractionated leukocytic suspension and in CD4+ lymphocytes+monocytes system. The synthesis of IFN-γ by purified CD4+ lymphocytes is not afected by the presence of DADLE, DAGO ad Deltorphin II; but when adding monocytes to the culture, the synthesis rate decreases. β-endorphin and selective μ-agonist DAGO enhance the production of IFN-γ by stimulated neutrophils. The production of IFN-γ in CD8+ lymphocytes is not affected by β-endorphin. Thus, opioid peptides have a predominantly Th2 polarizing effect, which is monocyte-mediated, hindering the development of cell response by inhibiting IFN-γ, and stimulating the production of I L-4 by activating δ-receptor. On the other hand, neutrophils can enhance the production of IFN-γ by stimulating μ-receptor.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):112-7.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the vascular endothelial vasomotor function in healthy young individuals, depending on the type of character accentuation, levels of neuroticism, depression and anxiety. It is shown that the types of character accentuation effect on endothelial vasomotor function in healthy men and women. Personality characteristics of a person can be a significant risk factor for disease, the pathogenesis of which is the starting element of endothelial vasomotor dysfunction.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):106-11.
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    ABSTRACT: The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):118-26.
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):63-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of the processes of studying human instructions relevant follow-up in terms of systemic mechanisms of learning and memory processes, and moreover affects such a fundamental issue as psychophysiology focused attention, understanding the meaning of the information provided and the formation of social motivation in human activities. Analysis of heart rate variability in reading the instructions compared to the initial state of operational rest showed that this stage of the activity causes pronounced emotional stress, which is manifested in increased heart rate, decrease in variability and pronounced changes in the spectral characteristics of heart rate. Besides, it was revealed that heart rate variability in a state of operational rest before testing, and in the process of reading instructions positively correlated with the duration of the instruction reading and inversely correlated with effectiveness and the level of resistance of the subjects to the error after error when follow-up activities. Showing pronounced gender differences in the relationships between changes in the variability of heart rate when reading the instructions and the subsequent execution indicators of visual-motor test.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):29-37.
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    ABSTRACT: The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):38-45.
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    ABSTRACT: Results of long-term research of becoming circadian rhythm of temperature (CRT) of human skin of shoulder during puberty are presented. For this purpose, 48-hour monitoring T at children, teenagers and mature young men and female from 8 till 22-th years with application of a method "Thermochron iButton" has been led. Age dynamics of mesor, reflecting process of becoming thermoregulation of organism during puberty, has wave character. The first wave with maximum T was observed at children of 10-11 years, second maximum T--at teenagers of 14-15 years. And at persons man's and female dynamics of mesor is synchronous, however, at girls from 8 till 17 years mesor authentically above. At adult people mesoris above at young men. Dynamics of amplitude CRT does not vary till 12-13 years, in 14-15 years at boys the size of amplitude decreases, and at girls increases. In 16-17 years at children amplitude sharply increases with the subsequent significant decrease by the period of a maturity (20-22 years). At boys, amplitude of CRT it is authentic more, than at girls, at adult people this parameter does not differ. At research of a cycle a dream-wakefulness periods in which changes daily thermoregulation are revealed: at boys in the age of 10-11 years, and at girls at 10-11 and in 16-17 years. During these periods T at night is above, than in the afternoon.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):74-84.
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to ENMG-assess effectiveness of the short combined neurorehabilitation course (temporal epidural stimulation of the spinal cord combined with a robotic kinesotherapy) in the restorative treatment of patients with traumatic spinal cord disease. Before and after completion of the combined instrumental neurorehabilitation (course duration--2-3 weeks) were tested 75 patients with spinal cord injury consequences. The authors used global and stimulation (H-reflex, M-response) electromyography methods. On the ENMG-data basis were calculated indices of sensorimotor deficit (ISD) and their postrehabilitation trends. ENMG-signs of sensorimotor deficit regression in the lower extremities were observed in 46.6% of events, in the upper extremities (if damaged cervical spine)--in 78.6% of events. The stabilizing effect of the used neurorehabilitation technology was identified an average of 24.0% of events. In 18.8% of events, the using of the combined neurorehabilitation technology has been ineffective. As indications for the use of combined neurorehabilitation courses series may be employed ENMG-signs of the partial corticospinal tracts conduction safety and a positive ISD trend after the each course completion.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):98-104.
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    ABSTRACT: The type of the image shown to the subject could be an important factor in traditional stabilometric tests or tests with biofeedback, which could affect the test results. There is important aspect for medical practice, sport and other. The obtained results in 9 healthy volunteers might indicate the preference of using simple visual picture for stance stabilizing, which is probably associated with basic mechanisms of visual information processing.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):60-3.
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    ABSTRACT: In the sample of 44 volunteers forced expiratory time values obtained in spirometers, equipped with flow sensor of Lilly type and turbine flow sensor, and acoustic duration of tracheal forced expiratory noises are compared. It is shown that spirometric forced expiratory time is dependent on flow sensor type. Therefore it can't be used in diagnostic aims.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 03/2015; 41(2):105-8.