Fiziologiia cheloveka

Publisher: Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR, Springer Verlag

Journal description

Russian version of Human Physiology (0362-1197).

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Website Fiziologiya Cheloveka website
Other titles Fiziologija čeloveka
ISSN 0131-1646
OCLC 2244548
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to determine the spatial-frequancy characteristics of the visual system of healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia, we used the contrast comparison of two Gabor gratings with sinusoidal distribution of brightness. The Gabor gratings have low, medium or high spatial frequencies; the neurons of magnocellular and parvocellular channels are sensitive to these frequencies to different extents. We found an increase in sensitivity to the contrast when comparing the gratings with low frequencies (to which magnocellular channels are most sensitive) in the patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had not receive long-term antipsychotic treatment, as compared with the control group. On the contrary, the sensitivity to the gratings with medium and high spatial frequencies in this group of patients was lower, as well as in patients with first-episode schizophrenia who had received long-term treatment. The patients with chronic schizophrenia showed a decrease in contrast sensitivity in all tested ranges of frequencies. We obtained supplementary evidence of the enhancement of internal noise in the visual system of the patients with schizophrenia. The results help us to explain the clinical data on the development of visual perceptual diorders at different stages of schizophrenia.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):29-40. DOI:10.1134/S0362119715030159
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    ABSTRACT: DC-potential of the brain was performed in 97 women 55-74 years old living in the circumpolar region. Study and analysis of the distribution level DC-potential brain mapping was carried out by the measured values of monopolar constant potentials. The resulting distribution characteristics DC-potential compared with the average values for the corresponding normative age period. The features of the distribution of the level of DC-potential in women of circumpolar region at the age of 55-74 years, such as smoothing hemispheric asymmetry and increase total cerebral energy compared with reference values in most parts of the brain.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):134-6.
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    ABSTRACT: We used the ratio of spectral characteristics of the EEG alpha and beta frequencies recorded in 10 apparently healthy subjects (university students) to control a computer cursor in the graphic interface in three scenarios with the use of neurofeedback. Our results showed that the scenario which uses the power of alpha- and beta-2-frequencies provided the highest accuracy and the best speed control. The parameters of beta-1-frequency were found to be less effective since an increase or a decrease of their power could result from an increase or a decrease of the power of alpha- and beta-2-frequencies. However, the subjects got the skill of cursor control with efficiency of 81%, gradually growing during learning, after a relatively short period of time (5 trainings per 2 weeks).
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):50-62.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the vascular endothelial vasomotor function in healthy young individuals, depending on the type of character accentuation, levels of neuroticism, depression and anxiety. It is shown that the types of character accentuation effect on endothelial vasomotor function in healthy men and women. Personality characteristics of a person can be a significant risk factor for disease, the pathogenesis of which is the starting element of endothelial vasomotor dysfunction.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):106-11.
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    ABSTRACT: It was found that β-endorphin stimulates the PHA (phytohemagglutinin)-induced production of interleukin-4 and has no affect on the production of interferon-gamma in unfractionated leukocytic suspension. In the culture of purified CD4+ T cells, β-endorphin does not affect the concentration of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ, but stimulates the production of IL-4 and inhibits the production of IFN-γ when adding monocytes to the culture. Selective δ-agonist DADLE enhances the PHA-induced production of IL-4 in unfractionated leukocytic suspension and in CD4+ lymphocytes+monocytes system. The synthesis of IFN-γ by purified CD4+ lymphocytes is not afected by the presence of DADLE, DAGO ad Deltorphin II; but when adding monocytes to the culture, the synthesis rate decreases. β-endorphin and selective μ-agonist DAGO enhance the production of IFN-γ by stimulated neutrophils. The production of IFN-γ in CD8+ lymphocytes is not affected by β-endorphin. Thus, opioid peptides have a predominantly Th2 polarizing effect, which is monocyte-mediated, hindering the development of cell response by inhibiting IFN-γ, and stimulating the production of I L-4 by activating δ-receptor. On the other hand, neutrophils can enhance the production of IFN-γ by stimulating μ-receptor.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):112-7. DOI:10.1134/S0362119715030056
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    ABSTRACT: The article presents data on the effect of magnetic stimulation of quadriceps muscle in the professional sportsmen: cyclists and long jumpers (Magstim Rapid 2 magnetic stimulator was used). In the experiments involving 3 cyclists and 4 long jumpers, both male and female, we observed an increase in the effect of FR muscle fibers (Burke classification) on the process of muscle tension during magnetic stimulation in the frequency range of the activity of motor units. We found some differences between these two types of sportsmen, which result from the characteristics of muscle tension during typical muscle activity.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):90-7. DOI:10.1134/S0362119715030135
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    ABSTRACT: The level of endotoxin and indicators of activity of antiendotoxin immunity (antibody concentration to glycolipid Re-chemotype and general antigen of enterobacteria) were estimated in serum of 174 patients with persistent viral infections (viruses: herpes simplex, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency). The presence of markers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (interleukin IL-1β) and acquired immunodeficiency (CD4+) in HIV-infected patients were also determined. Persistent viral infections are accompanied by endotoxin aggression intestinal origin (caused by them), which is able to induce the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. In HIV-infected patients with this syndrome is cyclical, when the phase of hyperactivity replaced immunodeficiency. Schematically, this process can be represented as the following sequence of events: HIV-mediated damage to the intestinal barrier--the development of endotoxin aggression--induction ofsystemic inflammatory response syndrome--the depletion of the immune system, which is transient and is related to the duration of activity of the virus replication cycle, i.e., with damage to enterocytes. Using antiendotoxin component (means of reducing levels of endotoxin in the blood) in the scheme of treatment of persistent viral infections can serve as an element of a successful prevention of complications.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):118-26. DOI:10.1134/S0362119715030020
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 05/2015; 41(3):63-73. DOI:10.1134/S0362119715020048
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    ABSTRACT: The article is devoted to investigation of unconscious aggression in patients with multiple sclerosis. We carried out comparison of the relative assessments of metabolism speed of glucose (according to positron emission tomography) and indicators of unconscious aggression (in the Hand test). It is shown that an increased tendency to open aggression (unconscious aggression) in patients with multiple sclerosis, is mainly linked with a reduction in the functioning of different departments of the frontal lobes of the brain on the left and with changes of the metabolism speed of glucose in the structures of the limbic system of the left and right hemisphere. With increasing of unconscious aggression we observed decrease of glucose metabolism speed in certain areas of the lower and middle frontal gyrus.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 04/2015; 41(1):35-42.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work was the study of neuromuscular characteristics of healthy infants and infants with movement disorders by method of surface electromyography. 76 children at the age from 6 months till 3 years participated in the investigation: 61 with movement disorders (13--with ataxic form of cerebral palsy (CP), 48--with spastic form of CP) and 15 without movement disorders. Passive flexing and extending of knee and hip joints was conducted to the child in a recumbent position, EMG activity of the basic muscles groups of a hip and a shin was recorded. Characteristic properties of electromyographic activity were assessed with wavelet transform and subsequent analysis of obtained time dependencies. As a result of work the parameters connected with diagnosis of infants with movement disorders were revealed.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 04/2015; 41(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper investigates the study of features of brain activity by the process of change the regimes of information associated with the stages of understanding of the meaning of visually presented texts in adult subjects (n = 148). Researchers have developed an original methodology of step-by-step presentation of the texts. This technology has allowed the researchers "to catch" a psycho-physiological markers of understanding and identify the stages in a temporal sequence of the process of understanding. EEG data was analysed using spectral and non-linear methods. Was highlighted three stages: "before understanding", "understanding" and "after understanding". The study discovered the phenomenon of V- shaped changes to the values of the fractal dimension of EEG. The first stage is characterized by the increasing of the power spectrum of EEG in the high frequency range and increase the value of the fractal dimension of EEG, what probably reflects the process of the generation of ideas and the search of solutions. At the next stage ("understanding") a decrease in the value of the fractal dimension of EEG was registered, and an increase of the power spectrum of the low-frequency range. This seems to reflect the simplification of the invariance of reality to the only valid alternative. The last stage is characterised by the increasing power spectrum of EEG in the high frequency range and increase the value of the fractal dimension of EEG, which can reflect the process of intensification of activity of the brain associated with the verification of the correctness of the decision. The results obtained allow an approach to the understanding of the physiological mechanisms of the reorganization of the system of brain activity in the process.of understanding of the meaning of visually presented texts. This, therefore, outlines the path to the elimination of existing contradictions in the literature relating to the role of high- and low-frequency components of the EEG as markers of the state of understanding.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 04/2015; 41(1):17-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Investigations were carried out on 36 patients with reactive depressive states and repeating depressive episodes with severe manifestation of anxiety syndrome. The spatial organization of brain activity by cross-correlation analysis was studied. Shown, that clinical depression and anxiety syndrome is reflected in the structure of the spatial organization of EEG depending on options manifestation of anxiety disorder.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 04/2015; 41(1):43-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Forced expiratory wheezes (FEWs) are examined for the diagnosis of pulmonary disease. However there is no clarity in the mechanisms and possible localization of their formation. Purpose--Clarification of the formation of FEWs in bronchial levels in different types of dynamic compression. Peak frequency mid-frequency (400-600 Hz) of FEWs of maximum power and peak frequency of high frequency FEWs (600 Hz) of maximum power and speed of the flow at the mouth were measured in the sample of 85 healthy male volunteers (16-23 years). Strouhal coefficients were calculated for variuow levels of bronchial tree according to Weibel's morphometry. It is shown that for FEWs, formed by the vortex shedding with Strouhal coefficients of 0.2-0.3, the trend is shifting their formation zone to the proximal region with increase of dynamic compression of the airways. The most reliable estimates of dynamic compression result in formation of mid-frequency FEWs in the area of exit of intrathoracic portion of trachea into its outer part and in bifurcation of trachea, while the most probable formation zone of early high FEWs are bifurcations of trachea and main bronchi.
    Fiziologiia cheloveka 04/2015; 41(1):65-73.