Endodontics & dental traumatology (Endod Dent Traumatol )

Publisher: International Association for Dental Traumatology

Description

Discontinued in 2001 - now Dental Traumatology.

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  • Other titles
    Endodontics & dental traumatology, Endodontics and dental traumatology
  • ISSN
    0109-2502
  • OCLC
    11804935
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional shape of two nickel-titanium rotary instruments, namely ProFile and Quantec files, both ISO 25, 0.06 taper, and sought to relate this to the chips produced by cutting dentine. A limited comparison was made with stainless steel engine reamers. First, five files of each type were sectioned transversely at 12 mm, 8 mm and 4 mm from the tip and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The cutting angles were assessed by a direct measurement technique which allowed for the inclination of a cutting edge to the root canal. Second, eight samples of cutting debris were collected from instrumentation by each type of nickel-titanium file and four samples from the engine reamers. The major and minor axis, area and roundness of the dentine chips in each sample were measured using computerized particle analysis. The results demonstrated that all files had a negative cutting angle which varied at the different levels (ProFiles range 69.4 degrees to 58.4 degrees and Quantec range 74.8 degrees to 56.8 degrees). The consistency within files of the same type was good as demonstrated by low standard deviations, except for Quantec files at the 4 mm level where higher standard deviations of 4.1 degrees and 5.5 degrees for the two blades were found. The chip analysis showed significant differences between chips produced by ProFile and Quantec files (P < 0.05). The latter were larger and rounder. The chips from the ProFile and the engine reamer chips were similar in dimension (P > 0.05). No simple relationship existed between file geometry and the dentine chips produced during instrumentation.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):258-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of four root canal sealers: AH26, AH Plus, Diaket and Apexit. In the experiment two cell lines, human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells and mouse skin fibroblasts (L929), were used. Under aseptic conditions, the sealers were prepared according to the manufacturers' directions, and 0.01 mL of each material was placed in a 24-well plate. The sealers were covered with cell suspension. The cytotoxicity was estimated by determining the number of viable cells by a light microscope, as well as the total number of cells 24 h, 48 h and 120 h after the treatment with mentioned materials. The results obtained in this study showed the high cytotoxcity of the new AH Plus root canal sealer, which was shown to be equally or more toxic to the standard AH26 and Diaket materials. Apexit was the least toxic sealer.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):287-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the rate of hydroxyl ion release from commercially available setting and non-setting calcium hydroxide products. The rate of hydroxyl ion release is important, as this has been suggested to be the main factor in the therapeutic activity of these products. In total, hydroxyl ion release was measured from 1104 samples of Dycal, Life, Calasept and Hypocal in solution using in vitro titration. The rate of hydroxyl ion release was measured for up to 14 days, using two sizes of sample surface area. The dimensions of the exposed sample surface area was found to be an important physical constraint to the hydroxyl ion release from non-setting calcium hydroxide products, whereas this was not found to be the case with setting products. The range in hydroxide activity between products was found to be 298%. In rank order of hydroxide ion release, from the most to the least active was: Hypocal, Calasept, Life and Dycal. The differences in the rate of hydroxyl ion release from these products may have some implications for their clinical applications. It is suggested that in cases where the oral healing responses have been poorer than expected, the size and seal of prepared cavities could have negatively influenced the therapeutic release of hydroxyl ions from non-setting calcium hydroxide products.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):251-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and yearly incidence of traumatic tooth injury between 1 and 16 years of age have been studied in a cohort of 16-year-olds, born in 1975, and residing in the County of Västerbotten. The study material comprised 3007 dental records from the Public Dental Health Service. Of these, 1040 contained information on dental injuries. Out of 1000 injured primary teeth, 32% were lost, either avulsed at the time of the accident or extracted due to complications. A majority (92%) of the extractions was performed at the first or second follow-up. A total of 690 tooth injury episodes had occurred in the permanent dentition, involving 981 teeth. In 10% of the teeth more than one diagnosis was recorded for the same tooth. 416 restorations were performed due to crown fractures, the majority at the emergency visit. 44% of the patients had to come back one or more times to revise the composite restoration. Complicated fractures or serious luxation injuries constituted only 5% of the total number of injuries in the permanent dentition. 77 (8%) of the traumatised teeth were treated endodontically. Two percent of the teeth with uncomplicated crown fractures required endodontic treatment due to pulp necrosis, while 28% of teeth with a combination of crown fractures and luxation injury were endodontically treated. Out of 6 avulsed incisors, 4 survived after endodontic treatment. A total of 7 incisors were lost as a consequence of the injuries. A specialist treated 4% of the patients.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):276-81.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine whether intracanal medication prior to root canal obturation has an inhibitory effect on corono-apical penetration of bacteria. 93 single rooted teeth were instrumented and sterilized with ethylene oxide. They were assigned to three control groups and four test groups with n = 20 each. For one week, they were dressed with different medicaments: The first group with a 5% chlorhexidine gel, the second with Ledermix, the third with a fresh mix of calcium hydroxide and water and the fourth without any medication. After obturation (lateral condensation, AH26) the roots were fixed between a top and a bottom chamber. The top chamber contained 3 mL trypticase soy broth with 10(8) Staphylococcus epidermidis CFU's/mL, whereas the bottom chamber contained sterile trypticase soy broth. For one year, the mounts were incubated at 37 degrees C. They were checked on a regular basis for turbidity in their bottom chambers indicating bacterial growth. None of the test samples leaked for three months. After one year, the calcium hydroxide group had only 6 leaking samples whereas the chlorhexidine group had 14, the Ledermix group 15, and the unmedicated group had 13 leaking samples. It may be concluded that under the conditions of this study, calcium hydroxide was the medicament of choice to avoid bacterial penetration of the root canal. Ledermix did not perform better than no premedication. Chlorhexidine was superior to Ledermix in the second third of the observation period.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):282-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the established anatomical relationship between the periodontal and pulpal tissues, bacterial migration between endodontium and periodontium is still under discussion. The objective of this study was an investigation of profiles of periodontal pathogens in pulpal and periodontal diseases affecting the same tooth by means of 16S rRNA gene directed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 31 intact teeth with both pulp and marginal infections were investigated. The diagnosis was based on clinical and radiological examination. Samples were taken from the gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket, respectively, with sterile paper points before trepanation of the teeth. After trepanation sterile paper points and Hedstroem files were used for taking samples from the root canal. Specific PCR methods were used to detect the presence of the following pathogens: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Eikenella corrodens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Treponema denticola. In addition, quantitative competitive PCR was used to determine the total bacterial count of the samples. The investigated pathogens were proven to be present in the endondontium in all disease categories. Particularly in endodontic samples of "chronic apical periodontitis" and "chronic adult periodontitis" profiles of the periodontal pathogens were found. The results confirmed that periodontal pathogens often accompany endodontic infections and supported the idea that the periodontic-endodontic interrelationships should be considered as critical pathways which might contribute to refractory courses of endodontic or periodontal diseases.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):269-75.
  • Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 17:27-35.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been claimed that eugenol has a detrimental effect on resin composites and dentin bonding systems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement would reduce the efficacy of a bonding system. Human third molars were selected for the study, and cylindrical posts of a resin composite (Z100) were bonded vertically to a standardized flat dentinal surface, prepared on the buccal surface of the teeth and treated with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. The tooth surfaces involved were either freshly cut, or had been exposed to ZOE cement for 6 days, with and without a subsequent thorough cleansing with ethanol. The bond strength in shear was measured after 24 hours. The results showed that ZOE cement had no negative effect on the bond strength of the resin composite (Z100) to dentin when this bonding system was used. The mean shear bond value for the specimens covered with ZOE cement for 6 days was 28.1 MPa. For specimens covered with ZOE cement and cleansed with 96% ethanol, the mean shear bond value was 23.5 MPa. The corresponding value for the controls was 19.0 MPa. These findings suggested that eugenol-containing temporary filling materials may be used safely prior to inserting resin based restorative materials, when Scotchbond Multi-Purpose is employed as the bonding agent.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):265-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the apical sealing ability of an epoxy resin root canal sealer (AH-26) when used with different gutta-percha obturation techniques (i.e. cold lateral condensation, warm vertical condensation, hybrid condensation) and with Thermafil and Soft-Core obturators. Straight single-rooted teeth with mature apices were prepared according to the crown-down/step-back technique and divided in five groups of 45 teeth and one group of 12 control teeth. After root canal filling 15 teeth of each group were kept for 1 day, another 15 teeth for 1 week, and another 15 teeth for 4 months at 37 degrees C in vacutainers in 80% relative humidity. The 237 teeth were immersed in india ink for 90 hours, each root was split and sectioned longitudinally, and the maximum extent of leakage was measured using a stereomicroscope at x6 magnification. It became clear that leakage occurred whatever technique was combined with AH26 and that leakage increased with time. The amount of apical leakage and the number of leaking teeth in the Soft-Core obturator groups was significantly higher than all other 4 gutta-percha obturation techniques combined with AH26. In this respect, the hybrid gutta-percha condensation technique turned out to be superior to the four other condensation techniques.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 01/2001; 16(6):291-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that some children and adolescents are effected only once with a dental trauma, while others seem to be accident-prone and suffer from multiple dental trauma episodes (MDTE). Studies have also shown that dental traumas mostly affect upper permanent and medial incisors. Less is known about treatment consequences related to teeth with repeated dental trauma episodes. The aim was therefore to evaluate the risk of MDTE to permanent teeth among children and adolescents by age and gender and to compare types of dental treatment modalities used for patients with one episode and those with MDTE and with single and repeated traumatized teeth. The study was based on a random sample of 83 Danish 6-18-year-old children and adolescents born in 1970 who suffered from dental trauma episodes. All patients were followed during a 12-year period (1976-1988). Forty-one of the patients were registered with MDTE with a range of 2-7 episodes and a mean of 2.9 episodes/patient (SD = 1.1). The mean age at single and MDTE was 11.4 years (SD = 3.6) and 8.6 years (SD = 2.1), respectively. No significant differences were found between age at first episode and the number of MDTE per patient. The number of patients with MDTE was significantly higher among those who suffered their first trauma episode in the age interval 6-10 years than in the age interval 11-18 years (P < 0.001). A survival analysis showed that the risk of sustaining another trauma episode increased by 14.9-30.3% when the first trauma occurred before the age of 11, compared to 0-7.4% after the age of 10. The risk of sustaining multiple injuries was 8.4 times higher when the first trauma episode occurred at 9 years of age, compared with those occurring at age 12. The survival analysis also showed that for every new trauma episode, the interval between them became closer. Forty-five per cent of the MDTE affected teeth had already sustained an injury. With an increased number of trauma episodes per patient followed an increase in the number of follow-ups, filling therapy, information and prosthetics, whereas the rates of endodontics, surgery, and consultations were unchanged or even decreased.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):205-10.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of topical treatment with doxycycline and/or the application of unfilled resin to the anatomical crown on the occurrence of revascularization in reimplanted dog teeth. Ninety-six teeth in 4 young mongrel dogs were used. Eighty one teeth were atraumatically extracted and divided into four groups. Group 1, 17 teeth were kept dry for 5 min and then replanted. Group 2, 21 teeth were soaked with a freshly prepared solution of doxycycline (1 mg/20 mL saline) for 5 min before replantation. Group 3, 23 teeth were soaked with the doxycycline solution for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were coated with 2 layers of light cured unfilled resin. Group 4, 20 teeth were kept dry for 5 min, and then replanted. The crowns were treated as with the teeth in Group 3. Three months after surgery, radiographic evaluation revealed that 27 teeth had continued root development and 32 teeth showed arrested root development with periradicular pathosis. The remaining 17 teeth, which had arrested root development but no signs of periradicular pathosis, were all histologically evaluated for final assessment. The occurrence of revascularization according to treatment group was 29.4%, 60%, 60%, 36.8% in Group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis in SAS indicated there was no significant association between vitality and dog (P = 0.7564). Soaking for 5 min in doxycycline significantly increased the revascularization rate (P = 0.024) while the addition of resin to the crown did not result in an increased incidence of pulp revascularization (P = 0.823).
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):211-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The insertion of metal objects into intraoral and perioral sites is growing in popularity. However, there are numerous oral and dental complications associated with tongue piercing. Fifteen patients with tongue piercings (pierced in the body of the tongue, anterior to the lingual frenum) attending the dental office of the authors, with and without complaints, were clinically and radiographically examined. The most common dental problem registered was chipping of teeth. Furthermore, two cracked teeth and four teeth with cusp fractures were also seen. One case of selective dental abrasion was registered. Trauma to the lingual anterior gingiva was the most common gingival problem. A salivary flow stimulating effect was only reported by 2 of the 15 individuals. None of the patients complained of interference with speech, mastication and swallowing. One case of galvanic currents produced by the appliance was registered. On the basis of the registered data, we concluded that patients need to be better informed of the potential complications associated with tongue and oral piercings, and that the dental profession can serve this role.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):232-7.
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study the "checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization technique was used to identify bacteria in periapical endodontic lesions of asymptomatic teeth. Thirty-four patients with root-filled teeth and apical periodontitis were divided into two groups, each containing 17 patients. In Group 1, a marginal incision was performed during surgery to expose the lesion, and in Group 2, a submarginal incision was applied. The gingiva and mucosa were swabbed with an 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution prior to surgery. Bacterial DNA was identified in all samples from the two groups using 40 different whole genomic probes. The mean number (+/- SD) of species detected was 33.7 +/- 3.3 in Group 1 and 21.3 +/- 6.3 in Group 2 (P < 0.001). The majority of the probe-detected bacteria were present in more lesions from Group 1 than from Group 2. The differences were most notable for Campylobacter gracilis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Propionibacterium acnes, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. nucleatum, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. polymorphum, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, Streptococcus constellatus and Actinomyces naeslundii I. Bacterial species such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Bacteroides forsythus were detected in more than 60% of the lesions from both groups. Also, P. endodontalis was abundant in periapical tissue. The data supported the idea that following a marginal incision, bacteria from the periodontal pocket might reach the underlying tissues by surgeon-released bacteremia. The study provided solid evidence that bacteria invade the periapical tissue of asymptomatic teeth with apical periodontitis. The detection of much more bacteria with the "checkerboard" DNA-DNA hybridization method than has previously been recovered by anaerobic culture indicated that the endodontic (and periodontal) microfloras should be redefined using molecular methods.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):191-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to evaluate a possible relationship between the quality of the coronal restoration, the root canal obturation and the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth. Full mouth series of radiographs from randomly selected patient charts at the Dental Faculty, University of Oslo were examined. A total of 1001 endodontically treated teeth restored with a permanent restoration were evaluated independently by two examiners. According to a predetermined set of radiographic criteria, the technical quality of the root filling of each tooth was scored as either good (GE) or poor (PE), and the technical quality of the coronal restoration was scored as good (GR) or poor (PR). The root and the surrounding structures were then evaluated and according to the periradicular findings, the treatment was categorized as success or failure. The success rate for all endodontically treated teeth was 67.4% (n = 1001). Teeth with root canal posts had a success rate of 70.7% (n = 527) and teeth without posts had a success rate of 63.6% (n = 472). The two groups with technically good endodontics had the highest success rates. In combination with technically good restorations the success rate was 81% (GE + GR, 81%) and combined with technically poor restorations the success rate was 71% (GE + PR, 71%). The two groups with technically poor endodontics combined with either good restorations or poor restorations had significantly lower success rates (PE + GR, 56% and PE + PR, 57%). The technical quality of the endodontic treatment as judged radiographically was significantly more important than the technical quality of the coronal restoration when the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth was evaluated.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):218-21.
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    ABSTRACT: Possible inclusion of contaminant bacteria during surgery has been problematic in studies of periradicular lesions of endodontic origin. Therefore, in this study, two different surgical techniques were compared. A second problem is that some difficult to cultivate species may not be detected using bacteriological methods. Molecular techniques may resolve this problem. DNA-DNA hybridization technology has the additional advantage that DNA is not amplified. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if bacteria from periradicular endodontic lesions could be identified using DNA-DNA hybridization. A full thickness intrasulcular mucoperiosteal (IS) flap (n = 20) or a submarginal (SM) flap (n = 16) was reflected in patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis. DNA was extracted and incubated with 40 digoxigenin-labeled whole genomic probes. Bacterial DNA was detected in all 36 lesions. Seven probes were negative for all lesions. In patients with sinus tract communication, in teeth lacking intact full coverage crowns, and in patients with a history of trauma 4-13 probes provided positive signals. Seven probes were positive in lesions obtained by the IS, but not the SM technique. Two probes were in samples obtained with the SM technique, but not the IS. Only Bacteroides forsythus and Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 2 were present in large numbers using either the IS or the SM technique. The SM flap technique, in combination with DNA-DNA hybridization, appeared to provide excellent data pertaining to periradicular bacteria. These results supported other studies that provide evidence of a bacterial presence and persistence in periradicular lesions.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):197-204.
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary catecholamines have been used to measure emotionally stressful states which may have an impact on dentofacial injuries. This prospective study investigated the hypothesis that urinary catecholamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine do not affect significantly the incidence of dentofacial injuries in children. As a test of this hypothesis 204 children, males and females, aged 8 to 10 years, were included in the study. After a first examination, each subject was re-examined, at one-year intervals, over a period of two years. Dentofacial injuries were recorded by a clinical examination and a questionnaire. Three 24-h urine samples, with an interval of one year between each, were collected and analyzed by the high performance liquid chromatography technique to assay the catecholamine content. Socio-economic factors were recorded by a questionnaire. Using the panel of data collected, the logistic multiple regression model was employed to test whether the incidence of dentofacial injuries was affected by the studied variables. The 95% probability level was used. Specificity and sensitivity as well as the positive and negative predictive rates were computed. The results showed that epinephrine had a significant correlation with the incidence of dentofacial injuries. Other factors found to have a significant impact were child's age and gender. The values of sensitivity and specificity were 81% and 69% respectively, while the positive and negative predictive rates were 68% and 82% respectively. The data, therefore, provided evidence that emotionally stressful states measured by the urinary catecholamines were prominent etiologic factors of dentofacial injury.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):222-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of a ledge in 141 cases treated in an undergraduate clinic and in 103 cases treated by endodontists, and to identify the clinical factors associated with ledging. A total of 626 root canals were examined and the factors analyzed were canal location, tooth number and canal curvature. The results indicated that 51.5% of the canals treated by students had been ledged, whereas the percentage was 33.2% for intact pulp cavities treated by endodontists and 40.6% in cases of endodontic retreatment. Canal location was found to have an effect on the incidence of ledging as the mesiobuccal, mesiolingual and distal buccal root canals exhibited a significantly higher ledge incidence rate than the distal and palatal root canals. Canal curvature was the most significant variable affecting the incidence of ledging.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 11/2000; 16(5):229-31.
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    ABSTRACT: A 12-year-old girl, with a previous history of bronchial reaction and contact dermatitis to sodium hypochlorite, was referred for root canal treatment. Complete immunologic evaluation revealed a mild hypersensitivity condition, as it was assessed by the RAST investigation to different allergens and the DTH reactivity expressed though migration inhibition test. The absence of a serious immunologic disregulation in the patient's immunologic profile justified the term 'non-allergic hypersensitivity' to sodium hypochlorite to describe the condition.
    Endodontics & dental traumatology 09/2000; 16(4):184-7.