Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health (J Toxicol Environ Health )

Publisher: Taylor & Francis


Discontinued in 1996. Split into Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A (1528-7394) and Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews (1093-7404).

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    Journal of toxicology and environmental health (Online), Journal of toxicology and environmental health
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Taylor & Francis

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    • Publisher last contacted on 25/03/2014
    • 'Taylor & Francis (Psychology Press)' is an imprint of 'Taylor & Francis'
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In radiation-induced carcinogenesis the stages of initiation, transformation, and promotion can be identified. Radiation carcinogenesis is a stochastic phenomenon that does not exhibit any threshold in the dose-response relationship. The most important risk to be controlled is that of the population--either industrial or medical--exposed to radiation at low levels and low dose rates. Despite the expanding use of radiation, the average doses in most industrialized societies have not been increasing during the last few years. However, sensitive subpopulations with high cancer risks are included within the present low-level average exposure figures.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 6(5-6):971-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 200 female Swiss-Webster mice, six to eight weeks of age, were divided into eight groups. Three of these groups were fed 10, 100, or 250 ppm Aroclor 1254. One group was treated with 1000 ppm lead. Three groups were exposed simultaneously to lead and Aroclor 1254 at concentrations of 10 ppm PCB + 1000 ppm Pb, 100 ppm PCB + 1000 ppm Pb, and 250 ppm PCB + 1000 ppm Pb. Control mice received deionized water and rat food only. All groups were exposed for a period of 12 wk, then bred, with exposure continued throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet at 3 wk of age. Results from this study indicate a varied effect of lead and/or PCBs on body and organ weights of both dams and their pups, no noticeable detrimental effect on reproduction, and very little effect on the pups' ability to mount an immune response upon challenge with foreign antigens.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 12(2-3):337-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Air and dust samples from iron foundries were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by glass capillary gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and thin-layer chromatography. Fifty compounds were identified as PAH, among them known carcinogens and cocarcinogens. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) was measured quantitatively. The results were grouped according to the types of organic additives in the molding sand. The B[a]P concentrations were highest in foundries using coal tar pitch and in the work phases of shake-out, casting, and molding. In the Ames assay the dust samples showed mutagenic activity, but in most cases lower than that calculated from the concentration of B[a]P. It is suggested that B[a]P can be used as a hygienic marker in branches of industry with PAH problems.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 6(5-6):1187-94.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to correlated autopsy findings with the effects on cage behavior, laboratory values, and mercury clearance of long-term, low-dose exposure of primates to methylmercury. Six rhesus monkeys were given daily methylmercury hydroxide (MeHg) orally in apple juice on a preplanned dosage schedule. Three were sacrificed while receiving MeHg (group I) and the other 3 were sacrificed 2-5 mo after cessation of MeHg administration (group II). Whole-blood Hg levels (organic and inorganic) were assayed weekly, and major organ levels were assayed at autopsy. Whole-blood Hg levels were maintained between 1 and 2 micrograms/ml when the monkeys were given a MeHg dose of 80-125 micrograms/kg . d for up to 1 yr. The Hg burden of the major organs appeared to be dose- and duration-related. After periods of clearance (2.5-5 mo), intestinal wall Hg burden decreased to less than 1 microgram/g, and the hepatic Hg burden was still between 1.12 and 2.37 micrograms/g. However, the kidneys had a higher concentration of Hg, ranging from 10.34 to 29.54 micrograms/g. Whenever there was a high concentration of Hg, significant ultrastructural changes were observed. In the kidneys there were intracytoplasmic vacuoles and electron-dense inclusion bodies. In the small intestine of the animals cleared of mercury (group II), there were normal Paneth cells, as well as some degenerative cells characterized by dilation of endoplasmic reticulum and the presence of intracellular inclusion bodies. These findings suggest the long turnover time of Hg in these cell populations. During the period of study, weekly routine laboratory data including hematology, blood chemistry, and liver and kidney function tests did not reveal any significant changes.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 12(2-3):407-16.
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    ABSTRACT: Cadmium was injected sc into female Wistar rats at a dose of 3.0 mg Cd/kg body weight, 4 times a week for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 wk. Concentrations of cadmium in the spleen and pancreas were determined, together with essential metals, by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Cadmium in both tissues increased even after maximum concentration was attained in the liver. Contents of zinc, calcium, and magnesium in the spleen increased with splenomegaly, while content of iron decreased. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron decreased in the pancreas, while concentration of zinc showed a transitory increase. Cadmium in the spleen and pancreas supernatants was mostly bound to metallothionein, and metallothionein in the pancreas was highly susceptible to oxidation reaction. The spleen and pancreas were histologically less affected by cadmium loading compared to the liver and kidney, and the pancreas showed only slight alterations after injections for 5 and 6 wk.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 11(4-6):727-37.
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental protocol was designed to assess humoral immune responses in animals antigenically challenged without the aid of adjuvants. The antigen selected was keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized as the technique to measure serum antibody levels. The procedure was tested for sensitivity by use of a known immunosuppressant (cyclophosphamide), two metals (lead and selenium), and three chlorinated hydrocarbons (polychlorinated biphenyls, pentachlorophenol, and toxaphene). KLH without adjuvant provoked an adequate humoral immune response when assessed by the ELISA. The antibody response was greater on d 15 than on d 8 following primary KLH challenge, while secondary challenge resulted in an additional 10-fold increase in antibody levels. Cyclophosphamide suppressed the later primary response (d 15) and the secondary response more so than the early primary response (d 8). Of the 5 chemicals tested, 4 resulted in significantly impaired antibody levels to KLH at some time during the response. The magnitude of the immune response elicited to KLH is compared to that reported for bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin administered with Freund's adjuvant.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 12(2-3):173-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Flow-through, acute (96-h), and early life stage (28-d after hatch) toxicity tests were performed with eight chemical on a saltwater fish, sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Chemical effects on survival, growth, and development were determined. Maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations (MATCs) were greater than 3.2 less than 7.7 mg/l for toluene, greater than 0.52 greater than 0.97 mg/l for acenaphthene, greater than 80 less than 156 mg/l for isophorone, greater than 10 less than 16 mg/l for 4-nitrophenol, greater than 4.8 less than 8.5 mg/l for bromoform, greater than 0.39 less than 0.79 mg/l for 1-chloronaphthalene, greater than 0.09 less than 0.18 mg/l for 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrachlorobenzene, and less than 0.36 mg/l for 2, 4-dichloro-6-methylphenol; application factors were 0.25-0.59, 0.17-0.31, greater than or equal to 0.57, 0.31-0.50, greater than or equal to 0.68, greater than or equal to 0.56, 0.27-0.54, and less than 0.10. respectively. Test results reported here were compared with results of static, acute toxicity tests conducted previously with six species of aquatic organisms and the same chemicals.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 8(1-2):225-40.
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    ABSTRACT: 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD) pretreatment potentiated CHCl3-induced hepatotoxicity. 2,5-HD significantly increased hepatic cytochrome P-450, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, aniline hydroxylation, p-nitroanisole O-demethylation, and aminopyrine N-demethylation in both male and female mice. 2,5-HD pretreatment potentiated CHCl3-induced centrilobular necrosis and increased serum alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity by 20 times more than CHCl3 alone. Similarly, 2,5-HD pretreatment potentiated CDCl3-induced hepatotoxicity as well as CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice, but did not potentiate trichloroethylene-, 1,1,2-trichloroethane-, or perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity. In female mice, 2,5-HD pretreatment potentiated CHCl3- and CDCl3-induced hepatotoxicity as well as trichloroethylene-, 1,1,2-trichloroethane-, and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity, but not perchloroethylene-induced hepatotoxicity. 2,5-HD pretreatment had no preferential effect on either CHCl3- or CDCl3-induced hepatotoxicity in females. However, phenobarbital pretreatment did differentiate CHCl3- and CDCl3-induced hepatotoxicity in females. 2,5-HD-induced potentiation of halocarbon hepatotoxicity is sex dependent.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 9(5-6):761-81.
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    ABSTRACT: A mathematical description of inhaled particle behavior suitable for analysis of factors affecting deposition in the human upper respiratory tract (nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal compartments), larynx, and ciliated airways is presented. When upper respiratory tract and larynx filtering efficiencies are incorporated in the model, theoretical calculations of aerosol deposition agree with tracheobronchial (TB) data reported in the open literature. The model predicts the sigmoidal shape of TB deposition patterns measured in human subjects, the slopes of the quasilinear segments of these curves, and the positions of their two asymptotes. The model could therefore be used to evaluate the health effects of toxic airborne particles.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 12(4-6):787-800.
  • Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 10(4-5):613-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of dietary Cd and Zn with Cu, Hg, and Ag in relation to tissue metallothionein (MT) was studied with rats. Dietary Cd was found to increase the deposition of Cu and Ag in liver and kidney MT. Cd also caused accumulation of Hg in liver MT but depletion of Hg in kidney MT. In contrast to Cd, high dietary levels of Zn had no influence on the deposition of these metals in MT when they were included in the diet. When Zn was fed in the diet and Cu, Cd, Hg, and Ag were injected into rats, Zn caused increased deposition of these metals in MT, suggesting an interaction at the intestinal level. Hg and Cd were distributed between the two species of MT, but Cu was found predominantly in one of the MT species. Evidence was obtained that Ag was bound to a different MT species than Hg, Cu, or Cd when included in the diet containing Cd.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 10/2009; 7(3-4):547-60.
  • Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/2007; 70:1798-1805 strong.
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    ABSTRACT: Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid that belongs to a group of insecticides with low mammalian toxicity but high insecticidal activity. The present study was designed to investigate the toxicity of cypermethrin on freshly isolated hepatocytes from male and female rats. Hepatocytes were harvested by a collagenase perfusion technique and were exposed to different concentrations of cypermethrin (100, 200, 400, or 800 ng/2 x 10(6) cells) for up to 2 h. Cell viability and the leakage of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined throughout the incubation period. The cell viability of the hepatocytes from male and female rats exposed to 400 ng and 800 ng was significantly reduced after 60 and 30 min of incubation, respectively. With cells from female rats, viability was also reduced upon exposure to 200 ng cypermethrin for 2 h. The decrease in cell viability was dose and time dependent. The leakage of ALT and AST was significantly increased with 400 and 800 ng concentrations at 60 and 30 min, respectively. ALT leakage from female hepatocytes was significantly increased at 60 min of incubation with the 200-ng dose, whereas 2 h of incubation was required for the leakage of ALT from the cells of male rats. The present data indicate that cypermethrin has toxic effects on male and female rat hepatocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The data suggest that female rat hepatocytes may be more sensitive to the toxic effects of cypermethrin than male cells.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1998; 52(5):461-74.
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    ABSTRACT: The chlorinated acetic acids monochloroacetic acid (MCA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCA) are found as chlorine disinfection by-products in finished drinking-water supplies. TCA has been demonstrated to be a mouse liver carcinogen. A chronic study in which male Fischer 344/N rats were exposed for 104 wk to TCA and MCA in the drinking water is described. Animals, 28 d old, were exposed to 0.05, 0.5, or 2 g/L MCA, or 0.05, 0.5, or 5 g/L TCA. The 2.0 g/L MCA was lowered in stages to 1 g/L when the animals began to exhibit signs of toxicity. A time-weighted mean daily MCA concentration (MDC) of 1.1 g/L was calculated over the 104-wk exposure period. Time-weighted mean daily doses (MDD) based upon measured water consumption were 3.5, 26.1, and 59.9 mg/kg/d for 0.05, 0.5, and 1.1 g/L MCA, respectively; TCA MDD were 3.6, 32.5, and 363.8 mg/kg/d. Nonneoplastic hepatic changes were for the most part spontaneous and age related. No evidence of hepatic neoplasia was found at any of the MCA or TCA doses. The incidence of neoplastic lesions at other sites was not enhanced over that in the control group. Drinking water concentrations of > or = 0.5 g/L MCA produced a moderate to severe toxicity as reflected by a depressed water consumption and growth rate. A no-observed-effects level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of 0.5 g/L (26.1 mg/kg/d) MCA was calculated. TCA at drinking water levels as high as 5 g/L produced only minimal toxicity and growth inhibition and provided a NOEL of 364 mg/kg/d. Our results demonstrate that under the conditions of this bioassay, MCA and TCA were not tumorigenic in the male F344/N rat.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1998; 52(5):425-45.
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    ABSTRACT: To date, numerous correlative studies have implicated metallothionein in the detoxification of heavy metals and in the regulation of metal distribution within an organism. In the present study cadmium-binding proteins (metallothionein equivalents), cadmium acute toxicity, and cadmium distribution in tissues and subcellular fractions were compared in metallothionein-I and -II deficient (MT-/-) mice and the parental strain carrying intact metallothionein genes (MT+/+) to determine if the absence of metallothionein altered any of these parameters. In an uninduced state, MT-/- mice expressed lower levels of cadmium-binding proteins relative to MT+/+ mice in several tissues. Administration of zinc enhanced the levels of cadmium-binding proteins in liver, small intestine, kidney, pancreas, and male sex organs, but not in cecum or brain of MT+/+ mice compared to zinc pretreated MT-/- mice. The cadmium LD50 was similar for MT-/-, MT+/+, and zinc-pretreated MT-/- mice (15-17 mumol CdCl2/kg body weight delivered i.p.). However, zinc-pretreated MT+/+ mice had a cadmium LD50 of 58-63 mumol CdCl2/kg body weight. Over two-thirds of cadmium was found in liver, cecum, small intestine, and kidney in both MT+/+ and MT-/- mice; therefore, metallothionein levels do not appear to play a major role in the tissue distribution of cadmium. However, after zinc pretreatment, MT+/+ mice accumulated more cadmium in the liver and less in other tissues, whereas the amount of cadmium in the liver was not altered by zinc pretreatment in MT-/- mice. In general, the cytosolic/particulate ratio of cadmium was significantly higher in tissues of noninduced MT+/+ mice relative to MT-/- mice. This difference was accentuated after zinc pretreatment. Together these results indicate that basal levels of metallothionein do not protect from the acute toxicity of a single i.p. cadmium challenge. Furthermore, it does not appear that the cytosolic compartmentalization of cadmium is correlated with reduced toxicity.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1998; 52(6):527-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The remedial investigation/feasibility studies conducted at certain Army installations showed a need to clean up contaminated sites, where high levels of ammunition chemicals such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), and their degradation products/metabolites were detected in surface soil and groundwater. TNB is a photodegradation product of TNT; it is not easily degraded, and persists in the environment. The toxicity data on TNB are scanty. Hence the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1988 (U.S. EPA, 1997) developed a reference dose (RfD) for TNB (0.00005 mg/kg/d for chronic toxicity) based on the toxicity of DNB, which is structurally similar to TNB. Since then we have completed acute, subacute, subchronic, chronic, reproductive, and developmental toxicity studies and toxicokinetics studies. We have reviewed the mammalian toxicity data for TNB and have determined the no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and low observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) for subchronic, chronic, reproductive, and developmental toxicity. Based on the newly determined NOAEL and LOAEL values, we have now developed a new RfD for TNB (0.03 mg/kg/d), based on the chronic toxic effects on hematology and histopathological changes in testes and kidney.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1998; 52(5):447-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of Dodine on the intestine was studied after a single administration of 1000 mg/kg, which corresponds to the LD50 in male Wistar rats. At this dose, a significant decrease in body weight was observed, accompanied by diarrhea, which may be associated with intestinal alterations. The chemical induced a significant reduction of the protein content and in sucrase activity in the jejunum. Morphological alterations included a significant decrease in crypt height and in villus length and depth. The intestinal modifications observed in animals after Dodine administration may explain the observed loss in body weight and diarrhea.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 01/1998; 52(6):545-56.