IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (IEEE T CONSUM ELECTR )

Publisher: IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics; IEEE Consumer Electronics Society; IEEE Broadcast, Cable, and Consumer Electronics Society; IEEE Consumer Electronics Group, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers


The technical aspects of all consumer electronics products. Papers published concentrate on new technology oriented to consumer electronics. Many are selected from the International Conference on Consumer Electronics presentations. News of the Society's meetings and activities are also a part of this journal.

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    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics website
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    IEEE transactions on consumer electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers transactions on consumer electronics
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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Publications in this journal

  • IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 09/2014; 60(3):429.
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    ABSTRACT: — Users of modern portable consumer devices (smartphones, tablets etc.) expect ubiquitous delivery of high quality services, which fully utilise the capabilities of their devices. Video streaming is one of the most widely used yet challenging services for operators to deliver with assured service levels. This challenge is more apparent in wireless networks where bandwidth constraints and packet loss are common. The lower bandwidth requirements of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) provide the potential to enable service providers to deliver high quality video streams in low-bandwidth networks; however, packet loss may result in greater damage in perceived quality given the higher compression ratio. This work considers the delivery of HEVC encoded video streams in impaired network environments and quantifies the effects of network impairment on HEVC video streaming from the perspective of the end user. HEVC encoded streams were transmitted over a test network with both wired and wireless segments that had imperfect communication channels subject to packet loss. Two different error concealment methods were employed to mitigate packet loss and overcome reference decoder robustness issues. The perceptual quality of received video was subjectively assessed by a panel of viewers. Existing subjective studies of HEVC quality have not considered the implications of network impairments. Analysis of results has quantified the effects of packet loss in HEVC on perceptual quality and provided valuable insight into the relative importance of the main factors observed to influence user perception in HEVC streaming. The outputs from this study show the relative importance and relationship between those factors that affect human perception of quality in impaired HEVC encoded video streams. The subjective analysis is supported by comparison with commonly used objective quality measurement techniques. Outputs from this work may be used in the development of quality of experience (QoE) oriented streaming applications for HEVC in loss prone networks
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Journaling techniques are widely used to guarantee file system consistency of battery-powered mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In a journaling file system, system recovery is facilitated by first writing updated data blocks to a journal area and then periodically writing them to their home locations. However, these duplicated writes degrade the performance and shorten the lifetime of NAND flash storage in mobile devices. In particular, a lightweight database library, which is mainly used to manage application data in mobile devices, is a major cause of excessive journaling because it frequently triggers the costly file synchronization to guarantee the atomicity of transactional execution and thus generates a significant amount of synchronous random write traffic. This paper presents a novel journaling scheme, called Delta Journaling (DJ), to resolve this problem efficiently by using small-sized nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). DJ is based on a unique update pattern found in mobile devices, where file system updates are mostly very small. By exploiting the byteaddressable and the nonvolatile characteristics of NVRAM, DJ stores a journal block as a compressed delta in the smallsized NVRAM only when the compressed delta is small enough. Experimental results show that DJ outperforms a traditional journaling file system by up to 16.8 times for synthetic workloads. For a real-world workload, it enhances transaction throughput by 25.5% and 29.2% in ordered and journal modes, respectively, with only 16 MB NVRAM. Also, DJ enhances the lifetime of NAND flash storage by eliminating almost all journal writes without any loss of reliability.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 05/2014; 60(2):217-224.
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    ABSTRACT: As home energy use is increasing and renewable energy systems are deployed, home energy management system (HEMS) needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. This paper proposes a smart HEMS architecture that considers both energy consumption and generation simultaneously. ZigBee-based energy measurement modules are used to monitor the energy consumption of home appliances and lights. A PLC-based renewable energy gateway is used to monitor the energy generation of renewable energies. The home server gathers the energy consumption and generation data, analyzes them for energy estimation, and controls the home energy use schedule to minimize the energy cost. The remote energy management server aggregates the energy data from numerous home servers, compares them, and creates useful statistical analysis information. By considering both energy consumption and generation, the proposed HEMS architecture is expected to optimize home energy use and result in home energy cost saving.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 05/2014; 60(2):198-202.
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    ABSTRACT: Smart TV has been an increasingly important multimedia device in recent years due to its powerful functionalities that facilitate consuming multimedia contents. In smart TV environment where an interface for controlling multimedia contents is very limited, how to minimize user efforts while interacting with multimedia contents (e.g., searching for a specific video or browsing through images) is the most critical issue. To address this issue, various approaches using voice communication, gesture control, and gaze tracking systems have been proposed; however, their performance is still not satisfactory. In this paper, a new approach for providing multimedia contents to users with minimized human efforts in smart TV environment is proposed. The proposed approach is based on the recent smart TV equipped with a standard mouse as a remote controller and exploits a novel algorithm to infer user's search intent from mouse movement patterns, thereby improving the speed and accuracy of the contents search in smart TV environment. The experimental results show the strength and potentials of the proposed approach and further research directions.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):92-98.
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    ABSTRACT: Mobile device-centric multi-device collaborative computing has been proved as an optimal alternative, which satisfies the mobile users?? increasing expectations towards richer people-centric computing services on mobile platforms. However, many non-smart embedded devices, which are characterized by poor processing power and limited wireless network connection capabilities, are not utilized effectively in current collaborative computing paradigm yet. In this paper, a universal mobile platform, Ver-Comp (Versatile Companion), with a dedicated processor, wireless connectivity and customized mobile OS (Operating System), is proposed to serve as the smart companion device of various non-smart electronic devices (such as digital camera, printer, electronic toy, microwave oven, heart rate monitor and etc.). Non-smart embedded electronic devices are therefore turned to be smart objects so as to cooperate with current smart mobile devices or cloud platforms seamlessly. The processing capabilities of current smart mobile devices are thus augmented indirectly and their battery lives are also extended significantly by migrating partial tasks to the smart objects. In order to meet the requirements of high energy efficiency and quick boot time, an uneven-dual-core architecture processor with multi-OS support is proposed. Furthermore, a Multipleclient Raindrop File System (MRFS) and a File Allocation Table eXtension (FAT-X) file system are also developed to make the data synchronization and virtual access across multiple heterogeneous computing platforms easy and flexible. Finally, three fascinating applications are implemented to demonstrate the flexibility and promising usage of the proposed platform.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):137-145.
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    ABSTRACT: Disparity estimation is a common task in stereo vision and usually requires a high computational effort. High resolution disparity maps are necessary to provide a good image quality on autostereoscopic displays which deliver stereo content without the need for 3D glasses. In this paper, an FPGA architecture for a disparity estimation algorithm is proposed, that is capable of processing high-definition content in real-time. The resulting architecture is efficient in terms of power consumption and can be easily scaled to support higher resolutions.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, consumer-centric cloud computing paradigm has emerged as the development of smart electronic devices combined with the emerging cloud computing technologies. A variety of cloud services are delivered to the consumers with the premise that an effective and efficient cloud search service is achieved. For consumers, they want to find the most relevant products or data, which is highly desirable in the "pay-as-you use" cloud computing paradigm. As sensitive data (such as photo albums, emails, personal health records, financial records, etc.) are encrypted before outsourcing to cloud, traditional keyword search techniques are useless. Meanwhile, existing search approaches over encrypted cloud data support only exact or fuzzy keyword search, but not semantics-based multi-keyword ranked search. Therefore, how to enable an effective searchable system with support of ranked search remains a very challenging problem. This paper proposes an effective approach to solve the problem of multi-keyword ranked search over encrypted cloud data supporting synonym queries. The main contribution of this paper is summarized in two aspects: multi-keyword ranked search to achieve more accurate search results and synonym-based search to support synonym queries. Extensive experiments on real-world dataset were performed to validate the approach, showing that the proposed solution is very effective and efficient for multikeyword ranked searching in a cloud environment.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):164-172.
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    ABSTRACT: Phase-change memory (PCM) is the best candidate for the storage device of next-generation mobile consumer electronics. PCM has the potential to replace NAND flash memory, due to its non-volatility, in-place programmability, and low power consumption. Even though the lifetime of PCM is longer than that of flash memory, wear leveling is still required to cope with the non-uniformity of storage workload or malicious attack. In this paper, a novel wear-leveling algorithm for PCM storage is proposed, where more physical pages are allocated to frequently updated logical pages, to balance the wear counts of PCM cells. In comparison with the previous techniques, the proposed algorithm improved the lifetime of PCM by at maximum 14 times and on average 8 times.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):45-51.
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    ABSTRACT: Visual discomfort is caused by several factors such as accommodation-vergence conflict and window violation in conventional stereoscopic displays. To ensure comfortable conditions in the stereoscopic viewing, it is essential to develop an effective way of improving visual comfort in stereoscopic displays. This paper proposes a new method for visual comfort improvement that adjusts the disparity of a scene under the guidance of an objective assessment metric of visual comfort. The proposed method employs a visual comfort assessment metric that takes into account various discomfort factors in the stereoscopic viewing. The results of subjective assessment experiments demonstrate that the proposed method can efficiently improve visual comfort in the stereoscopic viewing.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):1-9.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper compares the quality of AVC/H.264 and HEVC encoded video in low bandwidth mobile environments. In this study, the focus within the mobile environment is smart phones. The key characteristics of a smart phone are smaller screen size, which is usually 3.5 inches diagonal to 5.0 inches diagonal for high end smart phones and typical cellular network bandwidth, which is 3G or faster. Subjective evaluations were conducted to evaluate the user experience on a mobile device with a small screen size and video coded at 200 and 400 Kbps. The studies showed compelling evidence that a user's experience in low bandwidth mobile environments is very similar between HEVC and AVC/H.264. The results suggest the benefits of HEVC over AVC/H.264 in a mobile environment with lower video bitrates and resolutions are not as clear.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 02/2014; 60(1):116-123.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main imperfections in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques is a peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) or crest factor (CF). High crest factor signal forces a power amplifier in communication systems to back-off which leads to power efficiency degradation. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to mitigate the high peaks in OFDM signal; however most of them suffer from complexity and PAPR performance. In conventional SLM (C-SLM), increasing the number of inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) leads to excessive hardware resources requirement and increases system cost. In this paper a novel crest factor scheme based on recursive optimum frequency domain matrix is proposed which requires only two IFFT which results in significant reduction in the computational complexity. Simulation results show both the complexity and crest factor are reduced significantly compared to the conventional methods.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 01/2014; 60(2):179-183.
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    ABSTRACT: Various fall-detection solutions have been previously proposed to create a reliable surveillance system for elderly people with high requirements on accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. In this paper, an enhanced fall detection system is proposed for elderly person monitoring that is based on smart sensors worn on the body and operating through consumer home networks. With treble thresholds, accidental falls can be detected in the home healthcare environment. By utilizing information gathered from an accelerometer, cardiotachometer and smart sensors, the impacts of falls can be logged and distinguished from normal daily activities. The proposed system has been deployed in a prototype system as detailed in this paper. From a test group of 30 healthy participants, it was found that the proposed fall detection system can achieve a high detection accuracy of 97.5%, while the sensitivity and specificity are 96.8% and 98.1% respectively. Therefore, this system can reliably be developed and deployed into a consumer product for use as an elderly person monitoring device with high accuracy and a low false positive rate.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 01/2014; 60(1):23-29.
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    ABSTRACT: For gain-shape split vector quantization, an incremental M (IM) search algorithm is proposed. In the conventional M search, every possible combination of subvectors is evaluated. However, in the proposed IM search, an intermediate subvector is constructed by merging adjacent subvectors in an incremental and recursive way. Based on the IM search, the high-dimensional Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) based speech coder is designed in practice. IM search requires 1800 times lower complexity than M search in designing a high-dimensional KLT-CVQ. Based on the proposed KLT based speech coder, a novel voice over IP (VoIP) system is designed, which produces superior voice quality and rate-distortion performance to conventional VoIP systems.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 01/2014; 60(1):130-136.
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    ABSTRACT: Unpredictable battery lifetime arising from multitasking can have a significant negative effect on availability for mobile devices. In practice, some applications are prioritized and required to remain in operation for certain duration. This paper suggests a battery lifetime guaranteeing scheme for prioritized applications in multitasking mobile systems. The proposed approach profiles and analyzes the battery usage pattern of each task dynamically, and preserves the energy budget for operation of prioritized tasks for a guaranteed time. In addition, this paper proposes an energyconstrained scheduler that limits the energy consumption of tasks while preserving scheduling patterns, which translates to the QoS. The suggested scheme is implemented in a commercial smartphone and evaluated. The evaluation showed that the proposed scheme successfully provides guaranteed operation time for prioritized tasks.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 01/2014; 60(1):155-163.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a vision based voice activity detection (VVAD) algorithm is proposed using chaos theory. In conventional VVAD algorithm, the movement measure of lip region is found by applying an optical flow algorithm to detect the visual speech frame using a motion based energy feature set. However, since motion based feature is unstable under illumination changes, a new form of robust feature set is desirable. It is propositioned that contextual changes such as lip opening or closing motion during speech utterances under illumination variation can be observed as chaos-like and the resultant complex fractal trajectories in phase space can be observed. The fractality is measured in phase space from two sequential video input frames and subsequently any visual speech frames are robustly detected. Representative experiments are performed in image sequence containing a driver scene undergoing illumination fluctuations in moving vehicle environment. Experimental results indicate that a substantial improvement is obtained in terms of achieving significantly lower false alarm rate over the conventional method.
    IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 01/2014; 60(2):251-257.