Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (P ACAD NAT SCI PHILA )

Publisher: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; BioOne (Organisation)


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    ABSTRACT: Ossancora, new genus, is diagnosed within Doradidae by having the unique combination of posterior coracoid process approximately as long as posterior cleithral process in adults, posterior cranial fontanel occluded, long maxillary barbel with smooth elongate fimbriae, and teeth present on dentary and premaxilla. A similarly long posterior coracoid process is found in only one other doradid species, Trachydoras paraguayensis, which is distinguished, as are its congeners, from Ossancora by having a small posterior cranial fontanel retained in adults, a relatively short maxillary barbel with stout fimbriae, and edentulous jaws. Three nominal species are recognized as valid and redescribed in Ossancora: Doras punctatus Kner 1853, in both the Amazonas and Paraná-Paraguay basins, Oxydoras eigenmanni Boulenger 1895, in the Paraguay basin, and Doras fimbriatus Kner 1855 in the Amazonas basin. The younger name Doras fimbriatus Kner 1855 is considered valid as a nomen protectum according to Article 23.9 of the ICZN, and its older synonym, D. loricatus Kner 1853 qualifies as a nomen oblitum. A fourth new species, Ossancora asterophysa, is described and diagnosed in part by a gas bladder morphology that is distinctive among congeners. Three species, O. eigenmanni, O. fimbriata and O. asterophysa, form a monophyletic group based on three shared characteristics: smooth elongate fimbriae inserted in more than one row, one dorsally and one ventrally, along anterior margin of maxillary barbel (uniquely derived among Doradidae), elongate fimbriae on mental barbels, and anterior nuchal plate reduced, not sutured to epioccipital (latter two features uniquely derived among Ossancora). Ossancora is typical of lowland floodplain lakes and river channels, and its occurrence in the both the Amazonas and Paraná-Paraguay supports a historical link between these two basins. A key to species and detailed anatomical descriptions are provided. Type specimens are discussed and lectotypes are newly designated for Oxydoras eigenmanni Boulenger 1895, D. fimbriatus Kner 1855, and Doras (Corydoras) punctatus Kner 1853, respectively.
    Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Frustulia weinholdii and Frustulia neomundana are unusual species of Frustulia that possess a set of incomplete longitudinal ribs and unilaterally deflected proximal-raphe ends. This peculiar combination of traits clearly contrasts these species from most congeners, including the generitype. We reexamined material investigated by J. H. Wallace in order to determine diversity within this species group. We compared the specimens from his South Carolina sample with morphologically similar specimens collected in Hawaii, USA. Our investigation of specimens from both Hawaii and South Carolina with light and scanning electron microscopy revealed a previously undocumented amount of morphological diversity in species from the F. weinholdii complex. We describe this morphological variation and present three new species, F. capitata, F. latita, and F.soror, which can be distinguished from similar species by general valve shape, striae density, and longitudinal rib appearance. Presence of incomplete longitudinal ribs and curved raphe ends may be features used to distinguish this group of species from other, typical Frustulia taxa.
    Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10/2011; 161:43-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term observations of a marine planktonic plicate Thalassiosira species, T. cedarkeyensis Prasad, from the Gulf coasts of Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi and the Atlantic coasts of Florida and Georgia demonstrate its wide occurrence in the southeastern United States and its ability to form extensive blooms. We also report for the first time its ability to form typical Thalassiosira chains, linking sibling cells by threads of chitin. A closely related and co-occurring diatom, T.livingstoniorum, is described on the basis of investigations conducted during 2000-2011 as a new species from many localities in Apalachee Bay on the Gulf coast and Indian River Lagoon on the Atlantic coast of Florida. It differs from T. cedarkeyensis in areola density, presence of continuous cribra on loculate areolae, arrangement and distribution of valve processes, and the number of satellite pores surrounding the valve-face fultoportulae. We have not yet found any evidence of chain formation in T. livingstoniorum. Thalassiosira cedarkeyensis and T. livingstoniorum can be easily distinguished in Naphrax-mounted preparations in light microscopy (LM), and they represent two different groups (lineages?) of plicate species with reference to internal cribrum structure of the loculate areolae. Their differences may justify placement in two different genera. Although T. cedarkeyensis (which has individual cribra on the proximal siliceous layer like T. hyperborea) is abundant and widespread on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts of the southeastern United States, T. livingstoniorum (which has continuous cribra like T.lacustris) has been found, thus far, only in Florida coastal waters. Comparisons are made between these two species and the other morphologically similar extant and extinct plicate species. Thalassiosira livingstoniorum and T. cedarkeyensis, although widespread and frequently encountered during warmer months, may be easily overlooked sources of primary production in the nutrient-rich northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
    Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10/2011; 161:1-34.
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    ABSTRACT: Large raptors have complicated primary flight feather molt cycles because they cannot afford to be grounded for any significant amount of time. Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) use Staffelmauser molt, the replacement of remiges in waves, allowing for constant mobility. Since their remiges are always in a molting cycle, Ospreys may grow feathers on their breeding and wintering grounds, each location providing its own distinctive stable isotopic signature. Herein we demonstrate that multiple analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from several locations along the primary flight feathers of Mid-Atlantic Ospreys document the location of the individual during feather growth. Any previous studies regarding Ospreys feather growth locations were carried out through wear studies, a highly subjective practice. We document three distinct signatures, a breeding ground signature for the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, and two wintering ground signatures, one in the Caribbean and one in northern South America. By analyzing multiple locations along each feather, a technique not executed before, we also document the continuation of molt during migration in a few specimens.
    Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10/2011; 161:61-72.
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    ABSTRACT: Three new species of Limoniidae are described from specimens collected during the fieldwork of the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey Project in north-central Mongolia: Gonomyia (Gonomyia) oyunaae (Bulgan, Hovsgol and Selenge Provinces), Molophilus (Molophilus) virginijae (Selenge and Tov Provinces), and Phyllolabis mongólica (Tov Province). Descriptions and illustrations of the distinguishing morphological features are provided. Habitat information for each species is presented.
    Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 10/2011; 161:73-86.