Psychological monographs (Psychol Monogr )

Publisher: American Psychological Association

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  • Other titles
    Psychological monographs, Psychological review
  • ISSN
    0096-9753
  • OCLC
    1763055
  • Material type
    Series
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sixty-three persons, of whom twenty-nine were male and thirty-four female, volunteered to act as subjects for the experiments. The majority were Scottish university students, between eighteen and twenty-four years of age. Twenty-six odorous substances (osmyls) were employed. For various reasons not all the subjects could be tested with all the osmyls, nor were the same series of odorous substances invariably employed in any repeat experiment with the same subject. Moreover, some subjects were tested with very few osmyls only, and some osmyls were used as stimuli only with very few subjects, so that the comparison of reactions by presenting all the reactions in percentages is not expedient in many cases. Male subjects appear to give a somewhat higher percentage of pleasant reactions (69.7) than do female subjects (65.5). Marked deviations from the mean affect may also be indicative of sex difference, 19.3 per cent, of the reactions being unusual in the case of the female, and only 13.6 per cent, in the case of the male. All the experiments tend to show that an increasing knowledge of mean affects to a wide range of odors, and of olfactory syndromes, in health and disease, will provide many data of diagnostic value. The question particularly of the relation between odor preferences and state of physical and mental health, requires further elucidation. A number of considerations arise from the experiments made, and while further experimental investigation is needed with regard to the various problems mentioned, it is possible to draw certain definite conclusions. Each odor causes a feeling of pleasantness or of unpleasantness, an affect characteristic of the stimulus, and which may be expressed by the mean of the affective reactions given by an adequate number of subjects. The degree of pleasantness or unpleasantness may also be expressed by the percentage of the number of pleasant affects recorded. The fact that most olfactory associations are formed unconsciously makes their investigation one of some considerable practical importance, especially when linked up with the olfactory associations occasionally recorded in dreams. It is desirable that the mean affect due to as many different odors as possible, as well as different intensities of the same odor, should be determined in different races, also the nature and extent of the associations formed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 37(2):i-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The work to be described in this paper is a direct continuation of the work done by the author in 1897-98 and described in Monograph Supplement No. 8 of the Psychological Review under the heading, "Animal Intelligence; an Experimental Study of the Associative Processes in Animals." This monograph affords by far the best introduction to the present discussion and the author assumes an acquaintance with it on the part of the readers. It will be remembered that evidence was there given that ordinary mammals, barring the primates, did not infer or compare, did not imitate in the sense of 'learning to do an act from seeing it done,' did not learn various simple acts from being put through them, showed no signs of having in connection with the bulk of their performances any mental images. Their method of learning seemed to be the gradual selection of certain acts in certain situations by reason of the satisfaction they brought. Nothing has appeared since the 'Experimental Study' to negate any of these conclusions in the author's mind. The present study of the primates has been a comparative study with two main questions in view. (1) How do the monkeys vary from the other mammals in the general mental functions revealed by their methods of learning; (2) How do they, on the other hand, vary from adult civilized human beings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 01/1970; 3(5):i-57.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aims to formulate certain principles of intellectual growth on the basis of experimental inquiry into certain more or less generally accepted theories. Our major experimental study is based on ten years of re-examining feeble-minded subjects of all ages, mental ages and degrees of relative retardation. Our minor experimental study is based on three years of re-examinations of superior children between the ages of 9 and 13 with Intelligence Quotients of at least 110 at one or more of the examinations. A large number of the subjects of our experimental study were examined by the Stanford Scale as well as by the Goddard Scale. Both methods are employed in measuring intelligence, indeed they have given rise to two schools in applied mental measurement. The argument is of course crucial to the validity of our conclusions with respect to the feeble-minded. Our other results are above reproach in these respects, being based on the Stanford Scale. The conclusion of this argument is, then, that when the Goddard Scale is applied to unselected average normal subjects whose mental ages are below 10 years, the rate of growth of unselected subjects will be approximately 100 for all ages except mental age 7.5 to 8.5 years. Variations from the approximate standard of 100 will be equally marked in the Stanford Scale except for one year. From all these considerations we may conclude that the Goddard Scale is a valid scale for our purposes no matter from what angle it is viewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 29(2):i-126.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is the analysis of certain content of the world of ideas which confronts children in the process of education, from the point of view of the probable effect of that content on the motivation of their behavior. The material chosen for analysis consisted of certain portions of the content of general readers intended for use in the third grade. We chose for our purpose all of the general third-grade readers we were able to find which had been published since 1930. The observations that have been reviewed on the treatment of various categories of behavior in children's readers can leave no doubt that this treatment is such as to encourage the development of certain motives and to discourage others. The categories are arranged here in order of relative frequency of reward, and this order may be taken as one indication of the degree of encouragement or discouragement of the development of each one. In considerable part, of course, this order reflects general cultural norms—for example, in the high value placed on affiliation, nurturance and cognizance, and in the frequent punishment of aggression, retention and rejection. But the entire impact of cultural forces on personality manifested in these readers is not shown in a simple listing of the treatment of the several categories separately. There are also certain generalities which can be found running through the whole series of categories, generalities about particular ways of achieving ends which are most likely to lead to success or to failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 60(3):i-54.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study an analysis was made of the performances of a group of feeble-minded male subjects on a battery of mental, educational, and special aptitude tests to determine if there existed any special abilities not commonly found in normal boys who have the same mental age. Each group, the feeble-minded group and the normal group, contained 41 subjects. The selection of these subjects was based on their chronological and mental ages. Their mental ages were determined by the Stanford revision of the Binet-Simon test. Many feeble-minded subjects have remnant capacities far above their general mental level, but these remnants are not systematically organized into constellations of abilities. Many of them have depressions of capacities far below their general mental level but which are not organized into constellations of abilities. The development of capacities among the feebleminded is uneven. They are not uniformly high in one subject nor uniformly low in another. In general they have greater motor skill than mental alertness, greater speed of performance than accuracy. Their ability to follow directions is not developed in proportion to some of the other skills. They are only slightly below their general mental level in reading ability. Their general ability to synthesize scattered impressions into wholes is not developed beyond their general level of intelligence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 43(1):202-217.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to discover whether mirror drawing under conditions in which movements in both the left-right direction and the up-down (sagittal) direction appear reversed from normal would be more difficult than under conditions in which movements in only one of these directions appear reversed. Three groups of subjects (A, B, and C) performed the task of tracing a pattern under similar conditions except for the position of the mirror. The quantitative results indicate that learning to adjust to a situation in which both left-right and up-down movements appeared reversed (Group C) is not any more difficult than learning to adjust to a situation in which movements in only one direction appeared reversed. The results indicate that Group C was about equal to Group A, and was consistently superior to Group B. The slightly inferior results for Group B probably represent an artifact, and are attributable to the unnatural conditions under which the subjects in this group were forced to trace from an image appearing at their left instead of in the usual front position. These results carry the strong implication that one may not think of the learning process in mirror-drawing simply as one in which just so many previously learned eye-hand coordinations are broken down and relearned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 46(6):66-77.
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that the perception of visual extent depends in part upon the nature of the physical form by means of which the extent is presented. The interest is in the relation between the physical pattern of stimulation and the apparent length of the interval. This is the field of inquiry of the present study. The specific problem of this investigation originated in the observation that in the Seashore test for time discrimination the intervals to be judged are empty durations bounded by short clicks, whereas in the actual situation of musical performance accuracy of perception of filled tonal intervals is called for, as well as accuracy of perception of empty intervals, or rests. In view of the consideration, mentioned above, that in musical performance temporal estimation is a motor response, the method of reproduction was chosen for experimentation. This first part of the study bears on the problem of the present experiment only in a general way. In summarizing the work with filled intervals it may be said that in general the smaller times tend to have positive, the larger to have negative errors. The requirement of this experiment for a source of sound which would produce a number of homogeneous tones of different pitches was met by the use of the Western Electric 2-A audiometer. The results relating to the effect of pitch upon the reproduction were largely negative. Its slight influence in the case of some individuals may possibly be explained on the basis of a difference in pleasantness between the tones, yet the largest and most reliable differences between pitches can not be explained in this manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 41(4):201-265.
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates some of the different types of fear, to determine if possible some basis for these differentiations, and to throw some light on the nature of the emotion or emotions of fear. In order to study the nature of different types of fear, we have combined the measurement of the psychogalvanic reflex and the respiratory response with introspective reports of the Os. The result shows that the psychogalvanic reflex which is characteristic of " startle " fears is a very abrupt rise which is ordinarily of greater magnitude than the reflexes caused by other emotions. In correspondence with this the introspective reports indicate sudden and intense organic and muscular reactions to such fears to a far greater extent than to other emotions. It may be possible that the absence of fear in startles is only apparent, because recognition of the situation as harmless comes so soon under laboratory conditions, but if fear is apprehension of a harmful event, then startle is quite possibly qualitatively different. These introspective distinctions agree with the results of the psychogalvanic reflex in the two types of "fear." Introspectively startle fears are very short-lived, more so than the duration of the reflex would indicate, except for the more lasting physical effect. This is apparently because of the perception of their cause and their harmlessness. This study indicates, both quantitatively and introspectively, that there are at least two types of fear, namely startle, and apprehension. They are distinguished by the difference in the immediateness of the reaction, and in its duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 38(4):1-38.
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    ABSTRACT: In our present small investigation, we have tried to isolate one of the "typographical" conditions; the factor of "leading" or—more accurately—of the vertical distance between printed lines. The "leaded page" is a page in which the typesetter has inserted one or more thin metal strips, called "leads," between the successive lines. We do not here directly consider the typewritten page, where only two spaces between lines, single-space and double-space, are commonly used. The type-face used was of the style "monotype," a close approximation to "news gothic", a style which Roethlein found to stand relatively high in legibility. Results shows that the general trend of the reading-times at the various distances and with the ten leadings, 0-9, is shown upon our graphs. Here the number of leads (separation of the lines) is set down at the bottom of the sheet and the time (sec.) expended on reading the ten lines of printed matter is set upon the line of ordinates. It appears upon the evidence of the experiments that facility and rate of reading the printed page are dependent, among other factors, upon the vertical space left between the lines (leading). Under our conditions, unleaded, or closely set, matter was read with relative slowness. With increase of the interlinear space, the rate of reading increased and then rapidly declined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 30(3):48-61.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study (a) to develop quantitative techniques for the study of experimentally induced fantasies of preschool age children, (b) to contribute to the feasibility of predicting actual social behavior from clinical measurements of these fantasies, and (c) to discover some of the variables that seem to be causally related to different types of fantasy responses. The three main methodological criteria permitted the use of children enrolled in the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station's preschool as subjects. A stylized doll house, which represented the preschool building and its contents, was used as play equipment for the experimental sessions. The majority of these analyses involved the combining of the data for the four separated play sessions. A few "progression analyses" have been made when interpretation of the other data has necessitated knowledge of the development of certain responses from session to session. The implication of these findings of sex differences in play fantasies for clinical purposes is obvious: the same amount of thematic aggression, for example, shown by a girl and a boy are probably diagnostic of different degrees of instigation to aggression. For experimental work in projective fantasy (especially play) these results points to the necessity for careful control of the sex factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 59(2):i-69.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to determine the direction and strength of the behavior modifications which occur with the experience of success or failure. The behavior of the individual is defined before it has been modified by the experience of success or failure and again defined as it has been experimentally modified by this intervening experience. The results shows that the experience of success or failure has an influence upon the mental activity which immediately follows such an experience. That a successful experience raises the average scores on a mental test. That the experience of failure serves as a depressant, significantly inhibiting the expected test-retest increases in average score. That the experience of failure has a more serious effect upon mental processes than does the experience of success, affecting more significantly those questions involving thinking and reasoning than rote and visual memory processes. That the experience of success tended to increase the average ratings on those traits and attitudes that favor better personality adjustments. The experience of failure, on the contrary, tended to decrease the average ratings on socially important traits. That significant variations in personality and behavioral patterns are related to dynamic factors arising within, or produced by, content of the comments made by the the experience of success or failure is two groups and by the presence of excess shown by the variations in psychological activity in the failure group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 59(1):i-40.
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses the early grasping response, the exact nature of the response and the sort of stimulation which evokes it. The experiment was carried out on infants of ages 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. The grasping response is frequently absent early in life. The early grasping response is commonly a two-phase activity of closing and tightening the fingers. At the time the rod is presented the hand of the infant may be open or closed. From birth to 8 weeks the hand is predominantly closed, although there are frequent occasions when the fingers are sufficiently extended for insertion of the rod against mid-palm. Therefore a relatively greater number of closed hands is encountered in these early weeks than at 12 and 16 weeks. A survey of responses by the open hands showed: Of 13 hands at 4 weeks, 8 or 62% grasped the rod; of 17 open hands at 8 weeks, 9 or 53% grasped the rod. The results show that grasping is an activity which is not confined to the hand. It is part of a total dynamic corralling pattern which in most cases leads to closer contact of infant to object. The amount of palmar stimulation required to evoke the grasping response varies considerably for the individual infants in the five age groups. In the case of the closed hand, the amount of palmar stimulation required before grasping starts, diminishes perceptibly with increase in age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):47-63.
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    ABSTRACT: The data supporting this study were obtained by means of the Bergstrom Ergograph. The data finally incorporated in this study were preceded by an unusually long period of preliminary practice. The study is divided into three sets of experiments; each set is divided into four series: ascending and descending known and ascending and descending unknown. In the three sets of experiments there are six unknown and six known series which together constitute one hundred twelve work periods. Within the limits operative for the present study both the absolute amount of work and the rate of work done under conditions of knowledge of results exceed that done under conditions of ignorance of results. The two sets of conditions do not maintain the same degree of discreteness throughout the entire duration of the experiment. As the latter conditions, indicated by reproductive imagination, approximate the former conditions, the relation of the work value becomes ambiguous. The commonly observed staircase contractions appear irregularly and for the most part in the closing subdivisions of a work period. This is probably due to the fact that each lift represents maximal contraction and that each lift is negotiated by muscles thoroughly trained. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 28(3):i-41.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken in an effort to improve the prediction of success in learning to pilot light aircraft. It featured a new psychomotor test which, it was hoped, would contribute materially to the solution of this timely problem. The results of this experiment are summarized in the four tables. The correlation coefficients were computed by the product-moment method from raw scores. The Indirect Vision Test shows a marked degree of uniqueness. In only one instance is the inter-correlation above .103. The .103 is with Mechanical Comprehension. The higher one, .264, is with the Desire-to-Fly Inventory. Perhaps those who had the greatest desire to fly were the most highly motivated on the Indirect Vision Test. The beta weights for the Indirect Vision Test reveal that although the original validity coefficients were low they are used almost into in the final predictive value of the test battery. The greatest contribution of the Indirect Vision Test is in the prediction of landing ability as measured by the O.S.F.I. technique in the fourth check flight. It may well be that the future usefulness of this test will be highest in relation to this particular maneuver, involving as it does a rapidly changing visual pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 61(5):18-29.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study attempts to trace out some of the factors, both social and psychological, found with a group of children purported to be superior. The selection of the subjects may be divided into two phases: (1) Preliminary selection; (2) Final selection. Preliminary selection. In a general way, through classes of students in the Los Angeles State Normal School, principals, teachers, and educational friends, the writer secured all the information possible of cases purporting to be of superior intelligence, capability, or talents. Final selection. Final selection was based upon two factors: ( I ) Binet Test scores; (2) Special ability along some line. Result shows that the superior group, throughout, surpasses the norm group both in the Binet and the psychological tests. In the Binet Test, the absolute number of years in advance remains more nearly constant. The I. Q.'s decrease with increase in age. The fifteen-year superiors, in averages, are slightly superior to the fifteen-year norm group in every test, and much superior in the majority of tests; however, it is with the younger superiors (ages six to nine) that the contrast between norm and superior averages is most noticeable. Marked individual differences from test to test are found throughout as clearly indicated in the rank-orders. On the whole, the general social history is contributory to, and more or less explanatory of the superior performance in all of the linguistic tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 29(4):i-85.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment has been to develop a personality test of the paper and pencil type which would embody the principles of projective methods. This rather ambitious program must, of course, be broken down into a series of steps, if a contribution to method is to result. The first necessity is a clear definition of the specific principles which are to be transferred from clinical experience to group application. The first question related to the problem of constructing a paper and pencil test which met certain projective requirements, including neutrality of subject matter; that is, sufficient ambiguity of the material itself to justify interpretation of response variations in terms of a subject's own attitudes, rather than as resulting from characteristics of the stimuli. Analysis of the armature items on the "Insight Test" indicated that complete neutrality could not be assumed. Certain categories appeared more frequently in response to certain questions than would be predicted on grounds that only chance factors were operating. Although a test of the verbal type is more vulnerable to the influence of meaning factors than pictures, ink-blots and other less structured materials, the finding calls into question an assumption of equivalent stimulus-value which has been given scant attention except in the Rorschach test and the TAT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 57(5):i-57.
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    ABSTRACT: Thumb- and finger-sucking habits in young infants were studied primarily in relation to the variable of hunger, though also in relation to age, sex, teething condition, location and body position of the child, and the number of adults working in the room while the child was observed. Finally, individual differences in sucking trends were also analyzed. Analyses are based upon 28,000 short samples of the behavior of 143 infants in the first year of life. All babies studied were charges of one orphanage and, as such, were subject to relatively similar routines. Results indicated that sucking-frequency increased as time elapsed after feeding, whether the infants were asleep or awake. The amount of sucking correlated positively with the liquid volume of the formula taken by the infant when age and weight of the infant were controlled. The amount of sucking correlated negatively with the caloric value of the formula consumed, when the controls included the volume of formula consumed and the age, weight, and sex of the infant. We cannot emphasize too strongly that our data pertain to institution babies who do not ordinarily experience the attention that is usually given to infants in their own homes. Our results do not preclude the interpretation that sucking may be an emotional response to a frustration other than food lack. Indeed it is difficult to analyze minutely the various sorts of meanings that hunger might have for an infant. It is not difficult to understand why an infant would choose the sucking act in his search for the fulfillment of a need. Such sucking readily increases in frequency and becomes a habit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 62(3):i-71.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the investigation was to ascertain the contributions of factors both to the description of tests and to the predictive values of these tests in two pilot populations of the United States Army Air Forces. Two samples, consisting of 815 West Point Cadets and of 356 Negro cadets, were administered respectively the November, 1943, Classification Battery, consisting of twelve pencil-and-paper tests and of six apparatus tests and the September, 1944, Classification Battery consisting of fifteen pencil-and-paper tests (of which seven were identical with those of the first battery) and of the same six psychomotor tests. That the two samples were nonhomogeneous was demonstrated by the application of the Fisher i-test to the differences between mean composite scores (stanine standings) of the two groups, and to the differences between mean scores of tests identical to the two batteries. All differences between sample means were significant beyond the one per cent level. Two rather surprising results in the factor analyses were: first, the relatively high loadings for Negroes in the verbal factor in pencil-and-paper tests not intended to measure the verbal factor; second, the negative loading of the psychomotor factor in the pilot criterion for Negroes. In the former instance, the hypothesis was proposed that the level of reading difficulty of the lengthy directions of several pencil-and-paper tests more nearly approximated the true level of the Negroes than did the test in reading comprehension. For the second result, an hypothesis was suggested of inhibition in learning, or negative transfer effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 63(3):i-55.
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    ABSTRACT: This study represents a preliminary search for factors that may be associated with changes in Binet IQ of preschool children. The subjects were the children enrolled in two age groups of the preschool laboratories of the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station during the years 1940-41, 1941-42 and 1949-43. All children who completed a preschool year were included. The younger group enrolled children whose ages at the opening of the fall semesters were within the ranges of 35 to 49 months and the older group 43 to 58 months. The younger children attended morning sessions and the older children afternoon sessions. The relation between frequency of teacher-child contacts obtained by the of 53.0 months. The fall IQ's of the younger group ranged from 98 to 153, with a mean of 120.6; the fall IQ's of the older group ranged from 109 to 159, with a mean of 130.1. Changes in IQ for the younger group ranged from +4 to +39 points, with a mean of +15.2 points; for the older group the changes in IQ ranged from -15 to +21, with a mean change of +2.3 points. The conclusion is that these results do not point to a significant relationship ranged from 17 to 128 for the younger group, with a mean of 48.6; and from 17 to 63 for the older group, with a mean of 36.2. The children who were above the mean in teacher contacts in the younger group gained +1.3 more IQ points than those below the mean; in the older group the children above the mean gained +5.1 more IQ points than those below the mean, but most of the difference is accounted for by one child who made an extremely large gain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 60(2):i-29.
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    ABSTRACT: The preceding review of the literature leaves no definite conclusions to be drawn as to the effectiveness of praise and blame as incentives to learning. This has been brought about, it is felt, through there being no clear-cut conception of the basic principles involved, or through a nonrealization or non-differentiation of what was being sought and what was actually being done. The groups employed as subjects in this experiment were comprised of the following: 85 boys and 81 girls from six 7th grade classes, and 84 boys and 102 girls from six 8th grade classes, all from the Woodland Way Junior High School in Hagerstown, Maryland (population, approximately 35,000); 192 boys from six high school classes at McDonogh School, McDonogh, Maryland (a private boys' school near Baltimore); and a college group of 30 men. The apparatus employed with the college subjects was standard laboratory equipment for measuring the physiological changes of blood pressure, pulse, and breathing rate. The purpose of this investigation is threefold: to seek an answer to the question of the effects of Praise and Blame as incentives in learning; to observe the effects of different testers; and to determine the attendant emotional aspects, as evidenced from physiological changes recorded on a kymograph. This investigation was not concerned with testing the effects of Praise or Blame as psychological opposites, but rather their effectiveness, per se, in producing a change in the learning situation. The statements of Praise or Reproof were administered rather much as would be done in any routine classroom situation of like nature; but with the precaution that no external factors of either tester would bias the results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 53(3):i-56.

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