Psychological monographs Journal Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: American Psychological Association

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Other titles Psychological monographs, Psychological review
ISSN 0096-9753
OCLC 1763055
Material type Series
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This report, concerned primarily with conditioned eyelid responses of normal monkeys, is the second of a series having as objectives the comparative study of the process of conditioning in different species of mammals and the analysis of the central mechanism of conditioning by experimental lesions of the nervous system. Five rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) were carried through a series of adaptation trials, conditioning, and extinction, following the routine described in the study with dogs. A daily conditioning session consisted of 50 reinforcements preceded and followed by 5-trial tests with the conditioned stimulus, and interspersed with control trials on which the unconditioned stimulus was presented alone. Four of 5 monkeys developed conditioned eyelid responses to a flash of light which preceded by 400 ms. an air-puff to one cornea. These responses occurred at a mean latency of 226 ms., definitely anticipatory with respect to the air-puff. All conditioned responses were complete closures, differing in this respect from those of dog and man. A protracted extinction series with one animal produced some decrease in frequency of response within 12 periods of non-reinforcement, but a single period of reconditioning restored the response to the value achieved after the 5 days of original conditioning.
    Psychological monographs 07/2015; 47. DOI:10.1037/h0093413
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    ABSTRACT: We are not content to explore surfaces and objects of interest with our elbows, our wrists or the backs of our hands. The visual fields, like the cutaneous, exhibit graded-preference zones, and as we are impelled manually to touch and to handle that which interests us, so with our eyes we seek as we are attracted the "contact" of direct central vision in preference to the vaguer peripheral experience. It is not sufficient that light from an object shall gain entrance to our eyes or even that the image of the object shall fall somewhere within our visual field. The fixation response, although a part of a more elaborate experience, constitutes in itself a pattern of behavior and one which is both prompt and of very frequent occurrence. Here the stimulus is a bright point of light near the free end of a second-pendulum. The angular distance from the preliminary fixation point to the stimulus was varied consistently in many of the eye-reaction experiments and illustrative data are available if only for two subjects and with contradictory implications. In this study an attempt has also been made to define the foveal drive and to measure under varying conditions the latency which is its temporal index. The shorter latency found for a larger (4-mm.) stimulus patch in comparison to a smaller (2-mm.) one when luminous intensity is constant for both, is a result in general accord with the subjective impressions of experience. We probably become more promptly aware of the larger stimuli in our environment because they activate greater numbers of retinal elements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):268-293. DOI:10.1037/h0093418
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence seems to indicate rather definitely that the higher cortical centers dominate the activity of the lower centers and that a hyper- or hypo-activity of the former results in a hypo- or hyper-activity of the latter. The aim of this present study is to determine whether this relationship between higher and lower centers was similarly modified in a wider variety of psychiatric and neurologic cases. For this purpose a number of unselected cases were used, representing both the organic and the so-called functional types of disorder. Not only were the reflex times determined, but records of the action currents incident to the voluntary contraction of the muscle group involved in the reflex contraction were secured. This permitted a comparison of both the gross qualitative and quantitative features of the action currents produced by voluntary and reflex innervation. A total of 66 individuals were used, a majority of whom were patients in the Psychopathic Hospital of the University of Iowa. The result shows that the reflex time as given is the average of all reflexes secured from the subject, usually five or more. In the determination of reflex frequency the number of peaks, regardless of their extent, in the action current discharge was counted throughout the entire duration of the volley and the frequency per sec. calculated from the result. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 43(1):31-52. DOI:10.1037/h0093285
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    ABSTRACT: Laboratory experimentation involves not only psychological but also instrumental variability. The two variabilities may be statistically separable but statistics are always approximate and not always applicable. The more generally adequate procedure is to assign low instrumental tolerances and to be independent of elaborate post-experimental analyses for the reduction of this source of error. An aim in the present instance was to help lower the instrumental error in a field where relatively high precision is becoming increasingly essential. The apparatus to be described was devised for investigating color perception, adaptation, after-images and allied transient phenomena. It provides for the presentation of stimuli and the colorimetric specification of responses. The present experimental model is relative large and heavy. A stimulator-colorimeter has been described which is applicable to the study of a variety of phenomena in the general field of color perception. It is believed that the scientific basis, international acceptance, and standard character of this system make it particularly desirable for use by psychologists who wish to express colorimetric data in generally acceptable and recognizable terms. The order of precision of measurement has been estimated by computing standard errors from data secured under relatively favorable conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):199-216. DOI:10.1037/h0093414
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with certain auditory sensations and noises; in connection with certain gustatory sensations and disagreeable tastes; in connection with certain kinaesthetic sensations and the unpleasant feeling of physical restraint; in connection with certain olfactory sensations and nasty smells; in connection with some organic sensations, such as physical well being, relaxation, rhythmic changes in equilibrium, the unpleasantness of resisting fatigue, of feeling, tension, of sudden changes in equilibrium, of pain; in connection with some tactile sensations and irritations of touch; in connection with some temperature sensations and the painful feelings of heat and cold; in connection with certain visual sensations and disliked colors; and in connection with disagreeable intensities. One motive observed frequently in clinical work and dependent upon the self sentiments is the desire for attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):351-374. DOI:10.1037/h0093422
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    ABSTRACT: This study is based on data from 18 institutions which may be classified as follows: Four state universities, three of which are located in the Mid-West, and one in the South. Six Lutheran colleges of which three are located in the Mid-West, two in the East (east of Chicago), and one in the South. Three institutions are affiliated with the Society of Friends, all of which are in the Mid-West. The study is based on responses from a total of 3,758 students attending these 18 institutions, a total of nearly a quarter million responses. In reporting this investigation, we shall first consider the attitudes of students in four state universities. This will be followed by a study of the attitudes of students in 14 church affiliated colleges which are arranged by denomination in the order of the number of students participating in this study. Possible sex differences will be briefly presented and the data from the entire group of institutions summarized. Of the four state universities participating in this investigation, it will be recalled that three are located in the Mid-West and one in the South. Most of the 1,032 students studied are attending the colleges of liberal arts or the teachers colleges in these universities. In this group of 18 colleges and universities we find not the radicalism attributed to the campus of today, but to the contrary, our data indicates that these students are definitely on the side of conservatism. Only 22 individuals out of 3,758 students showed mean scores in the lowest 10 point area which might be termed " radical". (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 50(4):i-32. DOI:10.1037/h0093492
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    ABSTRACT: Comments on the articles by M. Schoen (see record 2011-14619-012) & M. Mctfessel (see record 2011-14979-001). Schoen was the first to publish measurements in connection with the nature and form of the vibrato in artistic singing. The fact that the results of succeeding investigators have differed consistently from his findings in regard to the extent of the pitch oscillation in the vibrato has made it necessary to repeat his measurements and discover, if possible, the source of error in his work. According to Schoen "in terms of vibrations the extent of the vibrato is about the same throughout the entire range of the voice, being 10, 11, and 12 d.v. for the lowest, middle, and highest ranges respectively, or 0.25, 0.15, 0.09 in terms of a part of a whole tone". Mctfessel, on the other hand, finds that this extent "varies from one-quarter to over one half tone." He also states that "the results of the present research show that the extent in terms of part of a tone is far more constant throughout the range of the voice than in terms of vibrations". As a correction to Schoen's original article, then, the value assigned by him for the extent of the vibrato at the lowest range, 25 per cent, of a tone, should be multiplied by 2, the value given for the middle ranges, by 3, and the value given for the highest range, 9 per cent, of a tone, by 4. For an explanation similar to this see Metfessel. Metfessel explained the discrepancy in terms of overtones, whereas, in the opinion of the present writer, overtones are not essential to the account. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 38(4):226-231. DOI:10.1037/h0093269
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate one phase of the creative process in music. That phase, generally stated, is the effect on the resultant creative product of a visual design when used as a stimulus by a composer. The study has its orientation in two general areas of psychological investigation, synesthesia and the psychology of the creative process. The themes were inspected and analyzed, and the composers' themes were played for one group of auditors to check a list of characteristics heard in the themes and for other auditors to associate the themes with the designs and to state their bases for making the associations. Certain characteristics were found generally to be predominant in the themes to each design and these predominant characteristics were different and distinct from each other according to the designs to which the themes were written. The results were essentially the same whether they were ascertained from the statements by an authority after an inspection of the themes, from observations made from the scores, from a catalogue of elements found in the themes, or from a check of the characteristics heard in the themes by expert auditors. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a carry-over from an abstract design to the resultant musical theme when the theme is composed to the design. This provides an indication that the creative product is influenced by an abstract design or possibly some other visual object when the design or object is used as a stimulus by the creative worker. In future studies similar to this one it would seem advisable to furnish one design to which composers who are not familiar with the process of composing to designs might compose a preliminary theme not to be used in the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 57(1):i-76. DOI:10.1037/h0093536
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken as a solution not to a practical problem, but to one of a general psychological nature. Its purpose is to add to our knowledge of adult human personality. It was undertaken with the conviction that the study of trends of personality and agreements and disagreements in the reactions of adults to their environment over a period of time, was fundamental to and afforded richer and more valuable fields for psychological inquiry than the analysis of momentary mental states or acts. The men who served as subjects for this study fall into two general classes: those who are mechanically inclined and those who are socially inclined. Each of the classes may be subdivided into primary and secondary groups. There is nothing in the results submitted to prove the existence of types of people; rather can we conclude that extremes exist with regard to any trait or combination of traits. If we assume the normal probability distribution for any trait or combination of traits, the persons lying beyond sigma, to be dogmatic, may be said to belong to extremes. We find some evidence for a bimodal distribution, which Thorndike sets up as a criterion of types, in the distribution curves of total scores. The measures of personality used in this study are open to criticism on several points. The test results may be interpreted as measures of any one or more of a number of traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 33(4):i-101. DOI:10.1037/h0093204
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of apparent movement, the perception of two stationary objects exposed in quick succession as a single object in motion, are numerous in the visual and tactual modalities, but surprisingly little searching work has been done on the subject in the auditory field. Perhaps this is because of the greater difficulties with physical and psychological controls in audition, and because the phenomenon seems to be more subtle and less stable in this field than in the others. Apparent auditory movement, however, occasionally intrudes itself into studies in sound localization. Three direct approaches have been made to the problem of apparent auditory movement with the particular aim of comparing it with the visual phi-phenomenon. In view of these facts the need for finding reliable conditions for the arousal of this phenomenon becomes obvious. It was in the interest of finding and describing compulsory conditions for apparent auditory movement with the presentation of pairs of very brief stimuli that this study was made. The apparatus consisted of two main units, the timing and click-producing apparatus, and the signalling and reporting unit, besides a number of accessory parts. By way of conclusion we can say that under our conditions (1) we did not find compulsory conditions for apparent auditory movement; (2) we found, in so far as we got reports of movement, that the range of intervals within which movement occurred did not closely correspond to the range of phenomenal shortening of distance; (3) we found that differences in the quality of telephone receivers had, in a limited range of intervals, no appreciable effect upon the range and kind of movement; (4) we found in preliminary series certain conditions of dichotic hearing most favorable of all our conditions for movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 41(4):74-131. DOI:10.1037/h0093274
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    ABSTRACT: Two important forms of appreciative ability in graphic art are the ability of the individual to analyze the manner in which a composition has been aesthetically organized, and the ability to recognize the effect of variations in the aesthetic organization of a picture upon its relative merit. This investigation concerns itself with the effect of two factors, direction and practice upon the development of aesthetic analysis and judgment in elementary school children, and upon the development of ability to produce an aesthetically meritorious composition. It would seem logical to suppose that aesthetic analysis and judgment can best be developed through cultivation of a knowledge of the criteria upon which aesthetic merit is based. Experiments in the study attempted to isolate the effect upon aesthetic judgment of the manner in which the problem of looking at pictures was approached. It is observed that the principles of art can be explained in such a manner that they can be understood and applied by children in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to judge between varying degrees of merit. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to analyze the aesthetic organization of a picture. Results also show that with complete cessation of the type of activities provided by the experimental procedure over a considerable period of time, there is failure to progress to a sufficient extent so that the experimental group retains a significant superiority over the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 48(1):1-39. DOI:10.1037/h0093364
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    ABSTRACT: In the experimental work on memory, for instance, the subject is given some kind of material to learn; but in no case does the experimenter offer him any assistance or suggestion during either the process of memorizing or recall. In acquiring acts of skill, the subject does not receive any coaching from the experimenter during the period of practice. In learning a maze the subject is asked to master the problem in as short a time and with as few errors as possible. The experimenter may purposely introduce some suggestion, advice or guidance from time to time, in order to study its effect upon the process of learning. Such an attempt on the part of the experimenter to give some assistance to the subject while learning may be called a process of tuition. The purpose of the present investigation was to study the influence of verbal means of tuition upon maze learning. Two forms of tuition were employed: (1) The method of Instruction and (2) The method of Information. Three hundred and fifteen subjects mastered the maze under twenty-six different conditions. Almost all of the subjects were drafted from the classes of introductory psychology. In this study of the influence of tuition upon learning a stylus maze, two forms of tuition were employed; namely, the method of verbal instruction and the method of verbal information. This attitude of caution induced by the tuition seemed to be the reason for the effectiveness of tuition in learning. Without exception tuition affected the records for the final speed most, the error records next, and the trial records least. In the study of the effect of various amounts of tuition upon learning the maze, it was brought out that the effectiveness at first increased and then decreased, as the number of the controlled trials was increased. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 34(1):i-51. DOI:10.1037/h0093236
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    ABSTRACT: In this report, the assumption is made, at the outset, that changes of muscle tonus provide the immediate conditions for variations of kinaesthetic threshold. The relationship between degree of tonus and number intensity of afferent impulses is probably a direct one. Although it may be argued that changes of muscle tonus are merely variations of local conditions in the region of threshold determination, evidence will be presented to indicate the apparent significance of afferent impulses reflected from the muscles involved. For the investigations to be reported here, a hand-controlled pallesthesiometer was employed. The instrument consists essentially of an electromagnetically controlled rod which vibrates vertically. The pallesthesiometer was tested on the patient's legs in order to familiarize him with the nature of the vibration. Preliminary observations indicated that there was definite loss and return of vibratory sensibility during the seizures. This seemed to be the case on both the left and right sides, although the right side was never involved in the convulsion. Changes of muscle tonus induced by exercise and by varied postures are associated inversely with sensitivity to vibration as measured by its threshold. Our clinical observation, in which vibration loss was concomitant with the initial phase of clonus, the period when proprioceptive impulses are probably most frequent and intense, is adduced as evidence of this theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):83-93. DOI:10.1037/h0093405
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    ABSTRACT: The problem investigated in this experiment deals specifically with the emergence of insightful behavior. Light stimuli were arranged in two pairs which could be varied in intensity so that each member of a pair presented, with its neighbor, a relation of greater difference or lesser difference or greater summation or lesser summation when compared with the other pair. This method carries the conventional apparatus employed in experiments on relational judgment and transposition a step farther and requires the subject to compare the relationship between the lights of one pair with the relationship between another pair rather than to compare directly the intensity of one light with that of another. In order to bring out the insightful mode of response from its very beginning in the problem situation, no verbal instructions were given the subjects who were left to their own ingenuity both in discovering the problem character of the experiment and in ascertaining the principle of the correct choice. Overall, this experiment would seem to justify the following results: Insightful behavior can be represented by a performance curve showing an upward drift; The light intensities may be shifted within the limits of clearness and if the ratio remains the same, the experiment is unchanged, showing transposition and satisfying this criterion of insight; This experiment shows transfer in the solution of problems of relationships; There is a pause or period of deliberation just previous to full insight; Neither too rapid nor too deliberate responses are conducive to the early emergence of full insight; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 44(1):98-124. DOI:10.1037/h0093317
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    ABSTRACT: Presents the bibliography of the writings of Joseph Peterson. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 50(5):5-11. DOI:10.1037/h0093553
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    ABSTRACT: The author expresses deep interest in the mental mechanisms Freudian psychology suggests. In this article, he examines the analogical argument and hypnotic analogies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 27(4):387-400. DOI:10.1037/h0093181
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    ABSTRACT: In the realm of special ability there is a widespread belief that artistic ability is inborn and remains more or less fixed throughout life. The objective of this study was to test the possibility of art ability at the childhood level being changed, with an attempt to identify the factors that might be involved if such a change were brought about. This investigation has been directed toward the nature of these capacity-limits, in an attempt to discover whether it is possible to produce a definite extension of the usual limits. This plan was specifically attempted, first, through the use of a number of subjects who, at the start of the investigation, were definitely inferior, and a few who were definitely superior in art ability, and secondly, through the examination of a section of the general population at the same age-level. The technique of using a reliable scale in judging actual achievement in art appeared to be the best method for use in this field. The factors of aesthetic sensitivity differentiating children artistically superior and artistically inferior were identified to a certain degree by the comparison of responses of a large number (Group B) of normal children, previously measured in artistic ability, to aesthetic situations of five types. Results show that the lack of aesthetic sensitivity, as shown by the methods and materials of this study, is practically the normal condition at the Grade 1 level, sensitivity becoming more evident as a differentiating agent in the subsequent grades, resulting in Grade 4 in a significant or nearly significant difference between inferior and superior subjects in all of the art elements considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 48(1):126-154. DOI:10.1037/h0093368
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    ABSTRACT: The term nystagmus has commonly been applied to the phenomenon of alternating slow and quick ocular excursions. There are many forms of nystagmus, elicited under a wide variety of conditions, both normal and pathological. Despite the fact that eye movements are a highly practiced type of muscular reaction and show very little variability under normal conditions, there have been very few studies of ocular reactions as an indication of the effects of drugs. This is perhaps because there are available more practical and more thoroughly investigated indicators. The study of nystagmus has depended upon the development of adequate techniques for the observing and the recording of eye movements. In the present investigation the eye movements involved in optic nystagmus were photographically recorded on moving sensitized paper by means of the Dodge mirror-recorder. One of the essential controls in all drug experiments is the maintenance of ignorance on the part of the subject as to when he is receiving the drug and when he is not; otherwise, one may question whether the effects revealed are due to the drug itself or to the subject's knowledge of what the effects ought to be. The administration of alcohol to the human subject presents almost insurmountable difficulties in this particular control, difficulties which have never been completely avoided. The investigation suggests that optic nystagmus may be used as an index of the effects of alcohol and caffeine upon motor performance, but that unequivocal conclusions wait upon more adequate methods of quantifying the eye movement records than have heretofore been applied in such studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):217-241. DOI:10.1037/h0093415
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    ABSTRACT: Among the conditions which affect the difficulty of recalling a nonsense syllable are (1) the length of the series in which the syllable occurs and (2) the time interval intervening between presentation and recall. In the present experiment the difficulty (on the average) of naming any syllable in a list was varied by means of changes in the above two conditions. Length of list was varied from 3 to 36 syllables and the time of recall was either 116 sec. (measured from the presentation of the middle syllable of a list) or two days, both intervals being used with each of the ten different lengths of list. In all, therefore, the recall of the syllables was measured under twenty different sets of conditions. The chief purpose of the study was to determine whether the difficulty due to these various conditions could be measured in units which would permit comparison of the difference in difficulty under any pair of sets of conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 52(3):21-38. DOI:10.1037/h0093561
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    ABSTRACT: The subject of this study will be referred to as J. H. He began the experiments with the pre-established conviction that he was blind to blue and yellow, and was allowed to continue in that belief without discussion. Family history shows that some other members of his family are color blind as well. The report of this case, though apparently extensive, should be regarded as a preliminary survey; and it is hoped that at some future time the study may be continued at the Nela Research Laboratory. The color names as used by J. H. have been quite disregarded. Control observers, usually three in number, were used in all tests where relative values only were obtainable. For the most part the several experiments are reported in their chronological order. The tests have all been conducted by the writer and are reliable to the extent claimed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 25(2):1-30. DOI:10.1037/h0093117