Psychological monographs (Psychol Monogr )

Publisher: American Psychological Association

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  • Other titles
    Psychological monographs, Psychological review
  • ISSN
    0096-9753
  • OCLC
    1763055
  • Material type
    Series
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two important forms of appreciative ability in graphic art are the ability of the individual to analyze the manner in which a composition has been aesthetically organized, and the ability to recognize the effect of variations in the aesthetic organization of a picture upon its relative merit. This investigation concerns itself with the effect of two factors, direction and practice upon the development of aesthetic analysis and judgment in elementary school children, and upon the development of ability to produce an aesthetically meritorious composition. It would seem logical to suppose that aesthetic analysis and judgment can best be developed through cultivation of a knowledge of the criteria upon which aesthetic merit is based. Experiments in the study attempted to isolate the effect upon aesthetic judgment of the manner in which the problem of looking at pictures was approached. It is observed that the principles of art can be explained in such a manner that they can be understood and applied by children in the second, third, fourth, and fifth grades. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to judge between varying degrees of merit. An understanding of the principles of art produces a significant increase in the ability to analyze the aesthetic organization of a picture. Results also show that with complete cessation of the type of activities provided by the experimental procedure over a considerable period of time, there is failure to progress to a sufficient extent so that the experimental group retains a significant superiority over the control group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 48(1):1-39.
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    ABSTRACT: This study discusses the facial expression of emotions. We arranged for a series of sittings with one of the talented women students in the University who had had considerable training in dramatic performances. The plan consisted in drawing up a list of expressions that we desired to photograph and in selecting for each day three or four of these for practice. During her spare time in the morning, the student would practice the expression before a mirror, frequently with the assistance of some classical quotation which she had recalled in connection with this particular emotion. Our results shows that individuals vary not only with regard to suggestions from without but also in accordance with emotional experiences often concealed from another in interpreting the same facial expression on different occasions. Three of our observers allowed these experiences to color their judgment; one observer was apparently immune to all influences even of a highly emotional nature by way of changing his judgment. Often the change in interpretation is slight, as, for instance "pain" on one occasion, and "agony" on the other, or "amazement" at one time and "horror" at another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 30(3):30-35.
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    ABSTRACT: This article discusses the affective factors from the point of view of clinical psychology. Our scheme of personality description places sense feelings and instinct feelings at the first level of complexity. An attempt should be made, in regard to sense feelings, to show what the person does because his feeling of pleasure or displeasure is unusually strong in connection with certain auditory sensations and noises; in connection with certain gustatory sensations and disagreeable tastes; in connection with certain kinaesthetic sensations and the unpleasant feeling of physical restraint; in connection with certain olfactory sensations and nasty smells; in connection with some organic sensations, such as physical well being, relaxation, rhythmic changes in equilibrium, the unpleasantness of resisting fatigue, of feeling, tension, of sudden changes in equilibrium, of pain; in connection with some tactile sensations and irritations of touch; in connection with some temperature sensations and the painful feelings of heat and cold; in connection with certain visual sensations and disliked colors; and in connection with disagreeable intensities. One motive observed frequently in clinical work and dependent upon the self sentiments is the desire for attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):351-374.
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    ABSTRACT: Among the conditions which affect the difficulty of recalling a nonsense syllable are (1) the length of the series in which the syllable occurs and (2) the time interval intervening between presentation and recall. In the present experiment the difficulty (on the average) of naming any syllable in a list was varied by means of changes in the above two conditions. Length of list was varied from 3 to 36 syllables and the time of recall was either 116 sec. (measured from the presentation of the middle syllable of a list) or two days, both intervals being used with each of the ten different lengths of list. In all, therefore, the recall of the syllables was measured under twenty different sets of conditions. The chief purpose of the study was to determine whether the difficulty due to these various conditions could be measured in units which would permit comparison of the difference in difficulty under any pair of sets of conditions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 52(3):21-38.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that a combined use of expressive and interpretive technique yield a superior therapeutic result than the use of expressive methods alone. Within the limits of the experimental situation, this hypothesis seems to have been established at least tentatively. Thirty subjects were tested in an experimental situation in an attempt to distinguish between the effects of two widely used therapeutic techniques. The first of these aim at free expression of feeling by creating a permissive atmosphere and by consistent reflection and clarification of feeling and attitudes expressed by the client. This was named the expressive technique. The second technique agrees with the first in trying to obtain as free an expression of emotion as possible, but goes beyond it in attempting to infer the unexpressed emotional attitudes and conflicts that are said to determine abnormal behavior, and make the client aware of these conflicts and attitudes. This was called the interpretive technique. It was found that, in the experimental situation described, the combined use of expressive and interpretive methods proved consistently superior to the expressive method used alone. The nature of the experimental design was such that the results could be quantified and submitted to statistical analysis. This analysis confirmed the result already indicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 62(7):i-56.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been the purpose of the present investigation to study the effect of intensity of light, state of adaptation of the eye, and size of photometric field on the visibility curve. We shall consider here only the data on the visibility of normal subjects at low intensities for comparison with the other investigations in this section. The observations were made under dark adaptation. Ten observers were used, each of whom made from one to six separate sets of measurements. The curve for one observer was determined at nineteen points in the spectrum. Results obtained by this method obviously are not equivalent to visibility data determined for a constant level of brightness, unless we assume that, for the range of intensities used, the ratio of the lumen to the watt for a given point in the spectrum is a constant. A number of investigators have claimed that the Purkinje phenomenon does not occur when a sufficiently small stimulus is used. All the cases in which a Purkinje effect has been found in the fovea might, as we have seen, be explained as due, either to the use of too large a field size, or to lack of proper control of fixation. The results obtained by any given observer in heterochromatic photometry are subject to the influence of the following variables: wave-length of light, intensity of light, length of exposure of the eye, state of adaptation of the eye, and size of the photometric field. The effect of any or all of these factors may differ from observer to observer. Although it is difficult to make the judgment of equality of brightness in the presence of difference in hue, as is required in heterochromatic photometry by the equality of brightness method, a great deal of improvement could be made in the use of that method if due regard were paid to the influence of these factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 38(1):i-87.
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    ABSTRACT: This study is part of a previously described program of research concerned with the general problem of language behavior. The present investigation is concerned primarily with the objective of developing reliable and differentiating measures of language behavior, and, to a limited extent, with determining the intercorrelation of the measures, their relation to other pertinent variables, and with indicating the normal characteristics of language behavior as contrasted with disorder in such behavior. Adult schizophrenic patients were selected as the subjects from whom samples of 'inadequate' language were to be obtained. At the time the data were secured the patients were all confined in the Mt. Pleasant State Hospital at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa. The data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of the type-token ratios for one-hundred-word segments. This study is concerned primarily with the specific problem of determining whether and in what respects 'adequate' and 'inadequate' language might be differentiated quantitatively. Of the measures used in this study the type-token ratios appear to offer the most fruitful means of differentiating quantitatively written language samples of the type investigated. With the exception of the adjective-verb quotient, and perhaps certain other ratios of parts of speech, the grammatical analysis did not prove useful in this respect. Further development and modification of such quantitative measures may provide a means of constructing scaled continua with reference to which any given language sample might be evaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 56(2):39-74.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the specific question, "Which sense departments show the most rapid and which the least rapid adaptation?" There are several obvious difficulties in accepting existent results as relevant to this topic. Our desire to obtain comparable stimulus values in all sense modalities before measuring their adaptive effects met its first stumbling block in connection with the problem of sensory quality. These experiments were performed in a dark room, the subject being dark-adapted for over fifteen minutes prior to beginning the experiment. Our results do show that the three senses receiving extensive stimulation had the longer adaptation times. Furthermore, unless area of stimulation is a different factor in different senses, it cannot properly be thought to operate when threshold and adaptation values were obtained under the same areal conditions. Regardless of how the problem is viewed, one sees the necessity for further experimentation. Perhaps the truly adequate answer to the question of relative adaptation time lies in a combination of our approach with the study of action potentials in nerves leading from individual receptor units in each modality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):94-107.
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    ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this article to analyze differences due not necessarily to the arrangement of stimuli but to basic physiological and mental characteristics of the subjects ( Os). A second purpose was to determine whether sex groups differed in this response and, if so, how greatly. The method, in brief, was to record all dermal changes in an adult O during a period of constant stimulation by motion pictures. In recording electrodermal changes, a form of the apparatus was used. The data collected were thus of two kinds, electrodermal responses and verbal observations. Both of these were synchronized with the stimulus picture and with each other. It was evident that the Os actually were cognizant of affective changes or qualities in the majority of their observations. The close relation between the electro-dermal response (EDR) and the conscious affective life thus was once more sustained. There was evidence, however, to show that the relationship between the EDR and the felt affective quality or change was not perfect. In a small minority of cases, verbal reports were given of feeling changes unaccompanied by any dermal response. Furthermore, reported feeling changes were of slight intensity where the EDR was quite obvious. Thus it served as an indicator of many subtle affective changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 48(2):1-27.
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation was designed, first, to discover the nature of equivalence reactions in normal animals which had learned a "size" discrimination, and how these equivalence reactions are altered with retesting. Secondly, it was designed to find out how cortical injury affects the equivalence reactions of rats which had learned a "size" discrimination. Thirdly, an attempt was made to construct a highly diagnostic series of critical cards, which would indicate properties serving as a basis for the discrimination, and which would also serve to test the role of relational responses. Finally, an effort was made to determine whether alterations in procedure have any effect on equivalence reactions. The particular factors chosen for variation were the training procedure, and the order of presentation of critical pairs. The nature of the technique used is to provide reward for a correct choice and punishment for an incorrect choice. An analysis of the group variability again provided evidence for the opposite effects of operation and retesting. The individual differences with respect to "total brightness" and size preferences decreased after operation, in contrast to the increase in individual differences that resulted from retesting. It was shown that whenever a critical pair was regarded as equivalent, there was a marked consistency of preference for a particular card of the pair. No evidence was found of a relationship between the behavioral criteria and locus, shape, depth, and extent of lesion. The interrelations of the results, their relation to the findings of other investigators and the bearing which they may have on theoretical issues was considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 57(2):i-59.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the investigation reported in this paper was twofold: (1) To study reasoning, under controlled conditions, as it appears in adults whose thinking has undergone modifications in a rather common form of disorganization; and (2) by analysis of the form and structure of schizophrenic reasoning and the relation of its content to the stream of personal preoccupations, to attempt to introduce greater clarity and definition into conceptions of this notoriously vague type of human thinking. Our chief interest lay in the psychology of reasoning. In order to induce simple reasoning in our subjects we confronted them with a series of previously prepared uncompleted causal sentences. This study was extended further to gather material on the notion of exception or discordance and the concept of relationship. The material was obtained under as nearly uniform conditions as possible. In our study we have focused attention upon disturbances in the functional use of symbolization, as they appear in schizophrenic disorganization, and have compared our results with the data of genetic psychology. The reasoning of the child has been shown to follow a certain general order as he progresses toward maturity. Quite early he develops an ability to handle causal relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 50(1):i-34.
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    ABSTRACT: The present investigation is an experimental study of the mental processes involved in the solution of certain novel problems and in the utilization of experiences so gained for the subsequent mastery of other problems of a similar nature. The problems were chosen with a view to the possibility of accurate measurement of the progress. in their mastery. They are arranged roughly in the order of increasing complexity, and are so related that the solutions for later problems are, for the most part, simply more generalized statements of solutions for earlier ones. Explicit generalization did not often occur until the number of beads presented was high enough to preclude the possibility of direct, perceptual foresight of the consequences of all possible draws, i.e., until the numbers presented were high enough to place a premium on the use of symbols in their solution. Several fairly distinct stages in the development of the critical- number concept were found. False analogies arising from the observation of superficial relations often resulted in confusion and error. Sometimes the solution of new problems was much retarded by the attempted application of inadequate or irrelevant generalizations formulated from the elements of earlier series. The only originality which is claimed for the present study is to be found in the experimental verification of some of these ideas and in the development of a technique which, it is hoped, may prove to be of value in the further investigation of some of the problems in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 28(7):i-121.
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    ABSTRACT: Several problems, all solvable by one somewhat complex procedure, are presented in succession. If afterwards a similar task is given which can be solved by a more direct and simple method, will the individual be blinded to this direct possibility ( Einstellung)? If a blinding effect does result, will it be of characteristically different strength in groups that differ in educational level, age, etc.? Moreover, if we introduce means to save the subjects or to rescue them from such blindness, will these means readily work? Will they operate differently in various groups? And what may be the real cause for the blinding effect? How are we to understand this phenomenon? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 54(6):i-95.
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    ABSTRACT: The problem investigated in this experiment deals specifically with the emergence of insightful behavior. Light stimuli were arranged in two pairs which could be varied in intensity so that each member of a pair presented, with its neighbor, a relation of greater difference or lesser difference or greater summation or lesser summation when compared with the other pair. This method carries the conventional apparatus employed in experiments on relational judgment and transposition a step farther and requires the subject to compare the relationship between the lights of one pair with the relationship between another pair rather than to compare directly the intensity of one light with that of another. In order to bring out the insightful mode of response from its very beginning in the problem situation, no verbal instructions were given the subjects who were left to their own ingenuity both in discovering the problem character of the experiment and in ascertaining the principle of the correct choice. Overall, this experiment would seem to justify the following results: Insightful behavior can be represented by a performance curve showing an upward drift; The light intensities may be shifted within the limits of clearness and if the ratio remains the same, the experiment is unchanged, showing transposition and satisfying this criterion of insight; This experiment shows transfer in the solution of problems of relationships; There is a pause or period of deliberation just previous to full insight; Neither too rapid nor too deliberate responses are conducive to the early emergence of full insight; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject; The technique of this experiment gives promise as an accurate approach to the measurement of the insight of the subject. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 44(1):98-124.
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    ABSTRACT: Professor Dodge was a charter member of the Institute of Human Relations. As a prominent figure in the Institute of Psychology, which was merged into the Institute of Human Relations, he participated in the deliberations that led to the organization of the latter. As soon as the Institute building was completed, Professor Dodge began a series of cooperative studies which continued until his retirement. His cooperative work with members of the medical faculty was by no means confined to psychology. His wide range of scientific interests enabled him to carry on collaborative work with both the clinical and pre-clinical divisions of the School of Medicine. The main conclusion of this informal discussion may be summarized by reemphasizing the complexity of the conditions of mutual mental nearness. This is particularly obvious in the attitude of the graduate students and assistants, who have often spontaneously combined in the experimental study of normal and abnormal material. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):xiii-xviii.
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    ABSTRACT: The term nystagmus has commonly been applied to the phenomenon of alternating slow and quick ocular excursions. There are many forms of nystagmus, elicited under a wide variety of conditions, both normal and pathological. Despite the fact that eye movements are a highly practiced type of muscular reaction and show very little variability under normal conditions, there have been very few studies of ocular reactions as an indication of the effects of drugs. This is perhaps because there are available more practical and more thoroughly investigated indicators. The study of nystagmus has depended upon the development of adequate techniques for the observing and the recording of eye movements. In the present investigation the eye movements involved in optic nystagmus were photographically recorded on moving sensitized paper by means of the Dodge mirror-recorder. One of the essential controls in all drug experiments is the maintenance of ignorance on the part of the subject as to when he is receiving the drug and when he is not; otherwise, one may question whether the effects revealed are due to the drug itself or to the subject's knowledge of what the effects ought to be. The administration of alcohol to the human subject presents almost insurmountable difficulties in this particular control, difficulties which have never been completely avoided. The investigation suggests that optic nystagmus may be used as an index of the effects of alcohol and caffeine upon motor performance, but that unequivocal conclusions wait upon more adequate methods of quantifying the eye movement records than have heretofore been applied in such studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 47(2):217-241.
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    ABSTRACT: It is only within the last decade or so that the psychology of movement and the broader aspects that it involves has been coming to its own. This monograph investigates free will, impulses and in what way they effect one another. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 25(5):i-158.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken as a solution not to a practical problem, but to one of a general psychological nature. Its purpose is to add to our knowledge of adult human personality. It was undertaken with the conviction that the study of trends of personality and agreements and disagreements in the reactions of adults to their environment over a period of time, was fundamental to and afforded richer and more valuable fields for psychological inquiry than the analysis of momentary mental states or acts. The men who served as subjects for this study fall into two general classes: those who are mechanically inclined and those who are socially inclined. Each of the classes may be subdivided into primary and secondary groups. There is nothing in the results submitted to prove the existence of types of people; rather can we conclude that extremes exist with regard to any trait or combination of traits. If we assume the normal probability distribution for any trait or combination of traits, the persons lying beyond sigma, to be dogmatic, may be said to belong to extremes. We find some evidence for a bimodal distribution, which Thorndike sets up as a criterion of types, in the distribution curves of total scores. The measures of personality used in this study are open to criticism on several points. The test results may be interpreted as measures of any one or more of a number of traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 33(4):i-101.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to investigate one phase of the creative process in music. That phase, generally stated, is the effect on the resultant creative product of a visual design when used as a stimulus by a composer. The study has its orientation in two general areas of psychological investigation, synesthesia and the psychology of the creative process. The themes were inspected and analyzed, and the composers' themes were played for one group of auditors to check a list of characteristics heard in the themes and for other auditors to associate the themes with the designs and to state their bases for making the associations. Certain characteristics were found generally to be predominant in the themes to each design and these predominant characteristics were different and distinct from each other according to the designs to which the themes were written. The results were essentially the same whether they were ascertained from the statements by an authority after an inspection of the themes, from observations made from the scores, from a catalogue of elements found in the themes, or from a check of the characteristics heard in the themes by expert auditors. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a carry-over from an abstract design to the resultant musical theme when the theme is composed to the design. This provides an indication that the creative product is influenced by an abstract design or possibly some other visual object when the design or object is used as a stimulus by the creative worker. In future studies similar to this one it would seem advisable to furnish one design to which composers who are not familiar with the process of composing to designs might compose a preliminary theme not to be used in the study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 57(1):i-76.
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    ABSTRACT: Previous investigators of the lag in the responses of the retina to lights of different compositions and intensities have worked with one method alone and have not, as a rule, specified their conditions of experimentation with sufficient definiteness and precision that their work can be reproduced or their results be compared with each other. The object of the present study has been to devise new methods and to compare the results obtained by them with those obtained by the more promising of the older methods with the same observer, under the same conditions of experimentation and with the same wave-lengths and intensities of light. A very close agreement in the rate of rise of sensation was obtained by the new methods for each kind and intensity of light used. A close agreement also was obtained by all of the new methods, and two of the old for the time required for sensation to reach its maximum in each of the cases compared. With increase of intensity of light there was a decrease in the time required to produce the maximum response. A different rate of rise of sensation is found for the different wave-lengths and for white light. With increase of intensity of light there was a decrease in the time required to produce the maximum response. This decrease was more rapid for green and blue and slower for red and yellow. An investigation of this kind is already in progress in the Bryn Mawr laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological monographs 28(5):i-101.