Journal of Colloid Science (J Colloid Sci )

Publisher: Elsevier


Discontinued in 1965. Continued as Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (0021-9797).

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    Journal of colloid science
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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects produced by benzene or hexane as spreading solvents upon the surface pressure-area isotherms of octadecanol and stearic acid were investigated. Diluting the spreading solution resulted in an increase in the area/molecule at π = 1 dyne/cm. This expansion was greater with hexane than with benzene. Monolayers of stearic acid expanded more than those of octadecanol upon adding benzene liquid or vapor to the surface. Benzene vapor was irreversibly adsorbed on a monolayer of stearic acid. Octadecanol monolayers expanded when the concentration of benzene in the subphase was increased. An expansion of the monolayer with age was noted. This effect was greater for octadecanol than stearic acid monolayers. Aging could be attributed to changes in the structure of the monolayer as well as to contamination. Expansions resulting from both aging and solvent effects were greater at low surface pressures.A model based on the relative rates of solvent evaporation and diffusion into the subphase during the spreading process is proposed. The surface concentrations of benzene evaluated from experimental data and the model are compared. The two values agree within a factor of three.
    Journal of Colloid Science 04/2002; 15(2).
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    ABSTRACT: A theory is constructed describing the scattering from a liquid film (e.g., a soap film) of a light beam polarized normal to the plane of incidence. This scattering is due to the small irregular corrugations caused by thermal motion. The interference of the reflected incident beam with its multiple reflections (and refractions) and similarly the interference produced from the scattered beam have been taken into account. The corrugations of the two surfaces may be correlated depending on the forces holding the film in equilibrium. Where weak forces are operative, the corrugations of the two surfaces are not correlated. An estimation of the correlation between the corrugations of the two film surfaces was made from current theories of film stability in which the principal forces are attributed to an electrostatic repulsion between soap ions on the two surfaces of the film and van der Waals' attraction among the molecules in the film. Preliminary measurements on soap films formed from ionic and nonionic soap solutions with glycerol are reported. It was found that the dependence of the light scattering on wavelength and angle of observation was in agreement with theory. Light scattering from very thin (black) films gave data about interaction which could be interpreted in terms of electrical forces and van der Waals' forces and led to values of the surface potential ψ0 = 40 mv. and a van der Waals' constant A = 1.3 × 10−12 erg. However, the value of the reciprocal Debye-Hückel thickness, κ, found in this manner was three times larger than could be expected from the concentration of the electrolytes present in the soap solution.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1974;
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    ABSTRACT: A mechanism is proposed for the ionic fluxes in excitable membranes based on recent studies of monolayer permeation and of interfacial ionic transport. The excitable membrane is assumed to be a homogeneous lipid bilayer with anionic groups on the inner and outer surfaces and nonselectively adsorbed cations at these sites. The bound ions are in high concentration at the membrane surface and they cause the enhanced ionic fluxes when released during activity. The free ions, which are in equilibrium with the adsorbed ions, give rise to the resting ionic fluxes. Starting with the steady state ionic concentration gradients, the current due to “depolarizing electrodes” causes the concentration of potassium ions near the outer surface to increase, and it is assumed that these ions exchange with and release the bound sodium ions. Because of the increased sodium concentration at the membrane surface, there is an increased sodium ion flux across the membrane. This flux causes a release and a reverse flux of potassium ions by a similar process. The fluxes have been calculated in terms of several membrane parameters, and they can account qualitatively for the ion fluxes and permeability ratios at rest and during activity, the actions of some ions and pharmacologic agents, the effects of ion depletion, etc. Therefore, the mechanism provides a basis for explaining the ionic events at excitable membranes in terms of physical processes at the membrane level.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966;
  • Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):950-61.
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    ABSTRACT: In aqueous systems, fatty acid salts below their critical micelle concentration (CMC) diffuse through collodion membranes of graded porosity at a rate which varies indirectly as the chain length of the fatty acids and directly as the porosity of the membranes. For a given salt the rate is somewhat less than for a nonelectrolyte of the same molecular weight.When the concentration of the fatty acid salt is above the CMC, the rate is dependent on the size of the micelles relative to the pore size. Phospholipids, which exist in solution as very large micelles, are virtually impermeable even in very porous membranes. Cholesterol or benzene solubilized in lipid micelles can be transported through porous membranes, but the pores must be large enough to accommodate the micelles.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):923-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of swelling of a membrane during water imbibition is explained using time-independent properties of the membrane and an equation developed from physicochemical considerations. The corneal stroma is an example of a membrane for which sufficient experimental data are available to compare theory and experiment. When account is taken of the uncertainties in both theory and experimental data, there is good agreement between the predicted and observed time course of membrane swelling.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):962-89.
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    ABSTRACT: In an earlier paper, monolayer permeability was derived on the basis of the fluctuations that occur in monolayer density at equilibrium. In this paper, the same model is used to derive the monolayer transport properties. First, expressions are developed for the probability and for the frequency of local expansions. These expressions are then used to derive the self-diffusion coefficient (D), the viscosity (η), and the thermal conductivity (κ) of a monolayer in terms of properties that are related to the surface isotherm. Whereas D has a reasonable magnitude, η is extremely small and many orders of magnitude lower than measured surface viscosities. The differences are discussed in terms of the monolayer model and the effect of the subphase. The utility of the model for processes involving natural membranes is also considered.
    Journal of Colloid Science 11/1965; 20(8):789-800.
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    ABSTRACT: The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of long-chain cationic and anionic surfactants in water are lowered by the addition of ordinary salts like NaCl. This is usually ascribed to electrostatic effects. It has been found that the CMC of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in water at 30°C. is at first decreased by the addition of the lower quaternary bromides and then increases markedly at higher salt concentration. The initial CMC decrease is in the order K+ < (CH3)4N+ < (C2H5)4N+ < (n − C3H7)4N < (n − C4H9)4N+. There is a continually decreasing value of the CMC in increasingly concentrated KBr solutions. However, there is a minimum CMC value for each added quaternary salt. Those for (CH3)4N+ and (C2H5)4N+ are found in approximately 0.09 M and 0.01 M salt, respectively, that for the n-propyl compound is at 10−3M solution. In more concentrated salt solutions the CMC is three to five times greater than in water, with the greatest increase found in (n − C4H9)4 NBr solution, and the smallest increase in (CH3)4NBr at equal concentrations. The results are interpreted in terms of the effects of added electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded structure of water. It is concluded that micelle formation is rendered more difficult by electrolytes which organize the solvent structure, and occurs at lower soap concentrations in the presence of structure-disrupting electrolytes like the alkali halides.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(7):732-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous micelles of phosphatidic acid are prepared by ultrasonic radiation. In the pH range studied, ≧ 7, these dispersions consist of highly charged polyanions and have low turbidities. The interactions of buffered systems of phosphatidic acid with cations can be studied by turbidimetric titrations. At pH 7.2, increased turbidity occurs in 0.2 N LiCl or 0.4 N NaCl, however, KCl and tetramethylammonium chloride produce no change up to concentrations of 0.75 N. In 10−5M CaC12 the turbidity increases and rises steeply to 2 × 10−4M. Somewhat higher concentrations are necessary with MgCl2 . Additions of univalent cations to phosphatidic acid containing Ca reduces the turbidity by exchange with Ca.In systems containing sodium citrate, the concentrations of CaCl2 required to produce given turbidity changes are greater than in comparable systems containing NaCl. This gives a measure of the concentration of CaCit− formed. From the known formation constant of CaCit−, the Ca+2 concentration in equilibrium with the anions of citric and phosphatidic acids is calculated. This permits the evaluation of the formation constant of CaPA. Values obtained at pH 7.2, 8.8, and 9.6 are 1.2 × 104.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(7):777-87.
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    ABSTRACT: An aerosol spectrometer was used to determine the size distribution of sulfur-containing particulate materials in urban areas of northern and southern California. Based on a limited number of summer daytime samples, a typical Menlo Park size distribution had a mass median diameter of about 0.3 μ with upper and lower quartiles at about 0.9 and 0.1 μ, respectively. A typical Pasadena size distribution would be about one-tenth micron larger. The diameters given are for equivalent unit-density spheres of the same settling velocities as the sampled particles.
    Journal of Colloid Science 09/1965; 20(6):571-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Coated aerosols consisting of silver chloride spheres encased in a concentric shell of linolenic acid have been prepared and their particle size distribution analyzed by light scattering. The procedure involves preparation of a silver chloride aerosol of uniform particle size by condensation of silver chloride vapor upon sodium chloride nuclei in a high temperature generator. The size distribution of the silver chloride aerosol particles is determined by light scattering using the polarization ratio method and is confirmed by electron microscopy. The vapors of linolenic acid are next condensed upon the silver chloride particles forming the coated aerosols. These are then analyzed by the polarization ratio method using the theory of scattering by concentric spheres. In order to simplify the computations a model is assumed for which either the thickness of the coating on each particle is constant or the volume of coated material is constant. For the range of parameters used here, both models give equivalent results. The linolenic acid can be fixed by OsO4 and the size distribution of the coated aerosols also confirmed by electron microscopy.
    Journal of Colloid Science 09/1965; 20(6):501-21.
  • Journal of Colloid Science 09/1965; 20(6):585-601.
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    ABSTRACT: The variation of c.m.c. with temperature for dodecyl pyridinium bromide over the range 5° to 70°C. has been measured by electrical conductivity methods. The values obtained have been expressed as a power series in T. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated for the same temperature range and their values have been shown to be consistent with current theories of the role of solvent in micelle formation.
    Journal of Colloid Science 08/1964; 19(6):495-500.
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    ABSTRACT: Critical micelle concentrations for a number of pure alkyl polyglycol surface-active agents of general formula CnH2n+1O·CH2·CH2)mOH (where n = 10, 12, or 16 and m = 4 to 9) have been measured by the surfacetension and the iodine methods. The values are affected by the alkyl and polyglycol chain lengths in the manner expected, except for the compounds in the hexadecyl series. The following equations, which have a similar form to those found for ionic surface-active agents, describe the results for the various series studied. For m = 6, log Cm = −0.5n + 1.03; n = 10, log Cm = 0.08m − 3.37; n = 16, log Cm = − 0.15m − 3.09, where Cm is the critical micelle concentration. Results for the dodecyl series agree closely with those reported by Lange (6). It seems possible that the anomalous results for the C16 glycols are due to the prolonged aging effects observed for these compounds. Although there is qualitative agreement with previous results which have been reported for nonionic glycols prepared by condensation reactions, good correlation is found only with results which have been given for alkyl glycols prepared by similar synthetic methods (6,7).
    Journal of Colloid Science 03/1964; 19(3):201-212.
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    ABSTRACT: The electrophoretic mobility of kaolinite sols has been studied as a function of electrolyte concentration in NaHCO3-Na2CO3 buffer at pH 10.4. The positive charges which occur on the edges of the kaolinite particles in acid solution are no longer present at this pH and the particles are negatively charged owing to defects in the crystal lattice. Most of the exchangeable cations are evidently quite firmly attached to the particles in a Stern layer.The calculated ζ-potentials are considered to give a measure of the potential (Ψδ) at the outer edge of the Stern layer (i.e., the diffuse double layer potential), and this is used to calculate the potential energy of repulsion between the particles as a function of distance. Rapid coagulation of the sol by a uni-univalent electrolyte at this pH occurs at an ionic strength of about 0.016 g. ion/l.; this is consistent with a value for the van der Waals' constant, A, of 2 × 10−12 erg, in agreement with the values previously suggested by Street and Buchanan, Ottewill and Watanabe, and Overbeek.
    Journal of Colloid Science 12/1963; 18(9):820-832.
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    ABSTRACT: By using the ring torsion pendulum method and applying the mathematical analysis developed here, measurements of viscoelasticity were carried out on polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polymethyl acrylate (PMA), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) monolayers. It was found that the PMMA monolayer showed viscoelastic behavior that could be represented by a four-parameter model, with values of viscoelasticity sharply increasing with decreasing area. On the other hand, the PMA monolayer gave viscous flow only and the PVAc monolayer exhibited no viscoelastic behavior within experimental error. These results explain fairly well the meaning of the term w/kT for the monolayers defined in the preceding paper.
    Journal of Colloid Science 04/1963; 18(4):295-306.
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    ABSTRACT: A range of crosslink densities has been introduced into poly(ethylene tetrasulfide) by use of the trifunctional agent, 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The formation of a cross-linked structure has been established by torsional modulus measurements over a range of temperatures from the glass transition region to a region of rapid stress decay due to interchange reactions between polysulfide linkages. Estimates have been made of the deviation from ideal rubber elasticity by calculating the front factors times the crosslink efficiency.
    Journal of Colloid Science 04/1963; 18(4):359-369.
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    ABSTRACT: A study was made of the uniformity of aerosol particles generated by the atomization of monodispersed polystyrene latices. It was found that the stabilizer associated with the latices formed extraneous particles as well as increased the size of the polystyrene particles. This was due to the fact that the stabilizer binds water strongly even in the presence of dry air. Heat drove the bound water off but adversely affected the polystyrene particles.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1963; 15(4):357-360.
  • Journal of Colloid Science 10/1962; 17(8):726-748.
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    ABSTRACT: A number of emulsions have been prepared in which one of the important variables determining their behavior, namely, the size of the droplets, has been controlled. This control will permit more quantitative and meaningful researches in future studies of emulsions.The preparation of monodisperse emulsions of oil in water was accomplished by passing electrically charged, monodispersed aerosols exhibiting the higher order Tyndall spectra through a liquid medium containing an emulsifier. The aerosol became emulsified without appreciable change in size distribution as shown by measurements of the higher order Tyndall spectrum. This was confirmed by more precise determinations of size and number with the Coulter Counter, an electronic sizing instrument. The reliability of this counter was verified by measurements on 36 samples in the range of diameters 0.5 to 1.6 microns. Dilute monodisperse Dow polystyrene latices were used for calibration.The mechanism of the emulsification process of aerosols was studied. The rate of emulsification increased when the aerosol particles were charged electrically, but the rate did not depend significantly upon the radius of the particles nor upon the nature of the emulsifying agent. Monodisperse emulsions could not be prepared when the concentration of the emulsifying agent was below its critical micelle concentration.Emulsification took place mainly in the foam produced by bubbling the aerosol through the emulsifier solution and not by contact with the bulk solution. Contact with the foam-air interface was shown to be sufficient for emulsification to occur.
    Journal of Colloid Science 08/1962;