Journal of Colloid Science (J Colloid Sci)

Publisher: Elsevier

Journal description

Discontinued in 1965. Continued as Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (0021-9797).

Current impact factor: 0.00

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Website Journal of Colloid Science website
Other titles Journal of colloid science
ISSN 0095-8522
OCLC 1778710
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are discussed two factors controlling the thickness h of a free film of liquid between two bubbles of radius R pressed against one another, the mechanical properties of the film and the temperature. The role of the viscosity, η, is analyzed on the basis of the formula (σ surface tension, u the receding velocity of the film perimeter), which is the simple consequence of the formula for the thickness of the film left behind the receding wetting perimeter (Derjaguin, 1943). A similar formula is also used for the analysis of the role of yield value of the film. The temperature does not change the thickness of the black free films (∼100A.) in contrast to the thicker films governed by electric repulsion. The jumpwise thinning of free films is studied by microfilming.The method of crossed polarized metal wires is described, which permits measurement of the potential barrier preventing metallic contact in liquid media. The measurements of this barrier in water solutions of electrolytes as a function of potential of the wires are interpreted on the basis of our theory of colloid stability. The existence of repulsive forces (disjoining pressure) at high electrolyte concentrations independent of the potential proves their nonelectrostatic origin. These measurements were also used to calculate Hamaker's constant of molecular attraction and to determine the potential of zero charge of some metals.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1993; 19(2-19):113-135. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(64)90023-6
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    ABSTRACT: The separation of adsorption complexes formed by the interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with gelatin at pH values below the isoelectric point has been investigated. Two pH conditions were employed. In one, the pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted to 4.1 after the component solutions had been mixed. In the other, the pH of each of the component solutions was adjusted to 4.1 before the solutions were mixed and the pH of the reaction mixtures was allowed to vary with the reaction. Concentration regions of complex solubility, complex precipitation, maximum gelatin precipitation, and complex solubilization characterized these reactions. Analyses of the supernatant solutions for both gelatin and SDS indicate that the adsorption is not exclusively continuous. Under the first pH condition, the reaction mechanism appears to be all-or-none in the region of complex precipitation forming a complex in which only one-half of the cationic sites are occupied, and predominantly statistical in the region of maximum gelatin precipitation, terminating in a complex in which all the cationic sites are occupied. Solubilization of the precipitated complex is achieved by the physical adsorption of additional SDS with the hydrophilic groups oriented toward the water. Under the second pH condition, an exclusively all-or-none mechanism appears to prevail in the regions of complex precipitation and solubilizations. The reactions result in the formation of an insoluble complex in which one-half the cationic groups on the gelatin are involved and a soluble complex in which all the cationic groups are involved.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1970; 20(2):177-186. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90007-3
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    ABSTRACT: The time course of swelling of a membrane during water imbibition is explained using time-independent properties of the membrane and an equation developed from physicochemical considerations. The corneal stroma is an example of a membrane for which sufficient experimental data are available to compare theory and experiment. When account is taken of the uncertainties in both theory and experimental data, there is good agreement between the predicted and observed time course of membrane swelling.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):962-89. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90068-1
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    ABSTRACT: In aqueous systems, fatty acid salts below their critical micelle concentration (CMC) diffuse through collodion membranes of graded porosity at a rate which varies indirectly as the chain length of the fatty acids and directly as the porosity of the membranes. For a given salt the rate is somewhat less than for a nonelectrolyte of the same molecular weight.When the concentration of the fatty acid salt is above the CMC, the rate is dependent on the size of the micelles relative to the pore size. Phospholipids, which exist in solution as very large micelles, are virtually impermeable even in very porous membranes. Cholesterol or benzene solubilized in lipid micelles can be transported through porous membranes, but the pores must be large enough to accommodate the micelles.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):923-32. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90065-6
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    ABSTRACT: A mechanism is proposed for the ionic fluxes in excitable membranes based on recent studies of monolayer permeation and of interfacial ionic transport. The excitable membrane is assumed to be a homogeneous lipid bilayer with anionic groups on the inner and outer surfaces and nonselectively adsorbed cations at these sites. The bound ions are in high concentration at the membrane surface and they cause the enhanced ionic fluxes when released during activity. The free ions, which are in equilibrium with the adsorbed ions, give rise to the resting ionic fluxes. Starting with the steady state ionic concentration gradients, the current due to “depolarizing electrodes” causes the concentration of potassium ions near the outer surface to increase, and it is assumed that these ions exchange with and release the bound sodium ions. Because of the increased sodium concentration at the membrane surface, there is an increased sodium ion flux across the membrane. This flux causes a release and a reverse flux of potassium ions by a similar process. The fluxes have been calculated in terms of several membrane parameters, and they can account qualitatively for the ion fluxes and permeability ratios at rest and during activity, the actions of some ions and pharmacologic agents, the effects of ion depletion, etc. Therefore, the mechanism provides a basis for explaining the ionic events at excitable membranes in terms of physical processes at the membrane level.
    Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9-20):933-949. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90066-8

  • Journal of Colloid Science 01/1966; 20(9):950-61. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90067-X
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of various salts on the miscibility gap of the glycerol triacetate (GTA)water system was examined at 25°C. Whereas addition of NaCl and KC1 reduces the mutual solubility of GTA and water, the addition of certain other salts, e.g., perchlorates, thiocyanates, iodides, bromides, salicylates, and zinc chloride, increases the mutual solubility of GTA and water to such an extent that complete miscibility may result.For the anions listed the “salting-in” effects are, in general, insensitive to the cation used or its charge. Plots of equivalents of salt required to produce miscibility vs. wt. percent GTA showed curves with maxima usually at about 40% GTA. Miscibility at the maximum required ca. 1 mole of perchlorate or salicylate ions per kilogram of solvent; for thiocyanates, iodides, bromides, and zinc chloride, the corresponding concentrations were usually larger.For several salts measurements were made in the temperature range 2° to 75°C. The mutual solubility of GTA and water in the absence of salts increases slightly with increasing temperature. Less NaC7H5O3 was required for miscibility at a higher temperature. However, for Mg(ClO4)2, KCNS, NaI, and CdBr2, more salt was required for miscibility at a higher temperature.
    Journal of Colloid Science 12/1965; 20(9):1000-1013. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90070-X
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    ABSTRACT: A previously developed description of multi-process near-equilibrium systems in terms of individual kinetically independent processes is extended to some membrane processes. For the examples considered it is shown that this description is at least as convenient as the application of irreversible thermodynamics; for example, it leads to quite obvious criteria for “anomalous” osmosis. Moreover, irreversible thermodynamics does not properly describe systems in which solution leaks through the membrane. A by-product of the process description is that it aids in understanding equilibrium systems such as classical Donnan equilibria and the electromotive force of Donnan cells both with and without the separating membrane.
    Journal of Colloid Science 12/1965; 20(9):990-999. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90069-3

  • Journal of Colloid Science 12/1965; 20(9):1034-1056. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90072-3
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    ABSTRACT: A new class of ion exchange membranes has been developed for possible use in conversion of brackish water to fresh water. These membranes are based primarily on inorganic ion exchangers and have small quantities of extremely stable high temperature resistant organic polymers as binders.The best cation exchange membranes to date utilize zirconium phosphate as the exchange material and Teflon or Kynar as the binder. The optimum anion exchange membranes have hydrous thorium oxide as the exchange material and the same organic binders.The membranes are still in an early state of development but can be expected to show certain advantages over organic membranes. These include stability to high temperatures and to wetting-drying cycles. Resistance values and transference numbers of the membranes have not yet reached those of the organic ion exchange membranes but are in the process of improvement.
    Journal of Colloid Science 12/1965; 20(9):913-922. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90064-4
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    ABSTRACT: In an earlier paper, monolayer permeability was derived on the basis of the fluctuations that occur in monolayer density at equilibrium. In this paper, the same model is used to derive the monolayer transport properties. First, expressions are developed for the probability and for the frequency of local expansions. These expressions are then used to derive the self-diffusion coefficient (D), the viscosity (η), and the thermal conductivity (κ) of a monolayer in terms of properties that are related to the surface isotherm. Whereas D has a reasonable magnitude, η is extremely small and many orders of magnitude lower than measured surface viscosities. The differences are discussed in terms of the monolayer model and the effect of the subphase. The utility of the model for processes involving natural membranes is also considered.
    Journal of Colloid Science 11/1965; 20(8):789-800. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90053-X
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    ABSTRACT: Aqueous micelles of phosphatidic acid are prepared by ultrasonic radiation. In the pH range studied, ≧ 7, these dispersions consist of highly charged polyanions and have low turbidities. The interactions of buffered systems of phosphatidic acid with cations can be studied by turbidimetric titrations. At pH 7.2, increased turbidity occurs in 0.2 N LiCl or 0.4 N NaCl, however, KCl and tetramethylammonium chloride produce no change up to concentrations of 0.75 N. In 10−5M CaC12 the turbidity increases and rises steeply to 2 × 10−4M. Somewhat higher concentrations are necessary with MgCl2 . Additions of univalent cations to phosphatidic acid containing Ca reduces the turbidity by exchange with Ca.In systems containing sodium citrate, the concentrations of CaCl2 required to produce given turbidity changes are greater than in comparable systems containing NaCl. This gives a measure of the concentration of CaCit− formed. From the known formation constant of CaCit−, the Ca+2 concentration in equilibrium with the anions of citric and phosphatidic acids is calculated. This permits the evaluation of the formation constant of CaPA. Values obtained at pH 7.2, 8.8, and 9.6 are 1.2 × 104.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(7):777-87. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90051-6
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    ABSTRACT: The relative surface acidity of several alumina powders with a variety of specific surface areas has been measured by a microcalorimetric technique. The alumina surfaces studied here are those for which the catalytic activity for alcohol dehydration has been measured. The technique used was to measure the heats of immersion (ΔHi) in pyridine and 2,6-dimethyl pyridine. A maximum in ΔHi for both liquids was observed as a function of a particle size corresponding to a maximum in the catalytic activity. The technique was also applied to NiSO4·xH2O samples, and the results were compared to other surface acidity measurements for these samples.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):838–845. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90056-5
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    ABSTRACT: The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of long-chain cationic and anionic surfactants in water are lowered by the addition of ordinary salts like NaCl. This is usually ascribed to electrostatic effects. It has been found that the CMC of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide in water at 30°C. is at first decreased by the addition of the lower quaternary bromides and then increases markedly at higher salt concentration. The initial CMC decrease is in the order K+ < (CH3)4N+ < (C2H5)4N+ < (n − C3H7)4N < (n − C4H9)4N+. There is a continually decreasing value of the CMC in increasingly concentrated KBr solutions. However, there is a minimum CMC value for each added quaternary salt. Those for (CH3)4N+ and (C2H5)4N+ are found in approximately 0.09 M and 0.01 M salt, respectively, that for the n-propyl compound is at 10−3M solution. In more concentrated salt solutions the CMC is three to five times greater than in water, with the greatest increase found in (n − C4H9)4 NBr solution, and the smallest increase in (CH3)4NBr at equal concentrations. The results are interpreted in terms of the effects of added electrolytes on the hydrogen-bonded structure of water. It is concluded that micelle formation is rendered more difficult by electrolytes which organize the solvent structure, and occurs at lower soap concentrations in the presence of structure-disrupting electrolytes like the alkali halides.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(7):732-41. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90047-4
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    ABSTRACT: A thermodynamic analysis of adsorption from a single-component fluid, either vapor or liquid, on the surface of a single-component solid is systematically developed. The analysis is based on the Gibbsian treatment of surface regions and assumes only that the interfaces are planar, that the solid and fluid phases are mutually insoluble, and that the solid is inert. The treatment is then applied to the interpretation of adhesional wetting (contact angle) and immersional wetting (heat of wetting) measurements. A relationship between the quantities obtained from these two types of wetting measurements is derived. This relationship is of the GibbsHelmholtz form and involves the dependence of the contact angle on temperature. Problems which arise in a proposed experimental test of the relationship are discussed.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):801-821. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90054-1
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    ABSTRACT: The absolute angular scattered intensities for a Mie scattering system have been determined. A Dow polystyrene latex of large diameter (DEM = 1.305 μ) was studied with unpolarized, vertically polarized, and horizontally polarized incident light. The necessary expressions relating the geometrical, optical, and calibration constants of a Brice-Phoenix photometer with the quantities directly related to the Mie intensity functions were developed. Two features of the experimental technique were explored in detail: the use of polarized incident radiation and the effect of the solid angle subtended by the receiver aperture. Generally, excellent agreement between the theoretical Mie intensity functions and the corresponding experimental absolute intensities was obtained over the whole angular range.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):875-892. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90060-7
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    ABSTRACT: The interaction of nitrous oxide with real (oxide-coated) surfaces of both n- and p-type germanium has been investigated in the range of 10–300 torr and 200–400°C. The n-type samples promoted greater decomposition than the p-type samples. In all cases studied, not a trace of oxygen resulting from the decomposition could be detected in a mass spectrometer; obviously, the oxygen was incorporated in further oxide film formation. Pretreatment of germanium with oxygen decreased the extent of its interaction with nitrous oxide.Experiments with a 34% enriched 15N14N16O clearly showed that the decomposi tion mechanism primarily consists of the rupture of the NO bond to set a nitrogen molecule free.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):857-866. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90058-9
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    ABSTRACT: Isotherms for the adsorption of nitrogen and argon on poly(methylmethacrylate) were obtained at three temperatures over a pressure range from a few microns to the saturated vapor pressure of the adsorbing gas. Differential and integral enthalpies and entropies were calculated and indicate a heterogeneous surface with adsorption energies higher than those observed for unsubstituted hydrocarbons. Clustering functions were calculated and indicate that the adsorption occurred in clusters throughout the range investigated.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):846-856. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90057-7
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    ABSTRACT: The mathematical relationships have been developed for describing the penetration of fluids into the void spaces of a collection of uniform solid spheres. The pressure required for initial penetration or “breakthrough” pressure is defined in terms of the porosity of the spherical model and the contact angle of the fluid. Calculated data, covering the porosity range of 47.64% to 25.95%, and contact angles of 90° to 180°, are presented. These relationships allow the determination of particle radius from standard mercury penetration and porosity data.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):893-911. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90061-9
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    ABSTRACT: The theory for the kinetics of coagulation of particles in Brownian motion is reviewed briefly. The relationship between the classical solution of Smoluchowski and the similarity solution to the kinetic equation is discussed. When the classical result is placed in the form of the similarity solution, a simple exponential expression results. In spite of the theoretical limitations, this expression for Smoluchowski's relation can be used to predict satisfactorily a substantial range of the size distribution which has a similar or a self-preserving form.
    Journal of Colloid Science 10/1965; 20(8):867-874. DOI:10.1016/0095-8522(65)90059-0