Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine (AVIAT SPACE ENVIR MD )

Publisher: Aerospace Medical Association

Description

The journal covers all of the scientific disciplines related to the following: Aviation, space, and environmental medicine; Case reports in clinical aviation, space, and environmental medicine; Private, commercial, and military aviation medicine; Medical problems for crews in high performance aircraft or in manned space travel; Occupational medicine; Flight safety; and Environmental and life support systems involving performance, acceleration, deceleration, weightlessness, radiation, bioinstrumentation, etc. Other regular features include letters to the editor, special aerospace medicine news items, editorials, book reviews, meeting notices, and news of members.

Impact factor 0.78

  • Hide impact factor history
     
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    0.91
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.13
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.28
  • Website
    Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine website
  • Other titles
    Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, Aviation space & environmental medicine
  • ISSN
    0095-6562
  • OCLC
    2245949
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Seven astronauts after 6-mo missions to the International Space Station showed unexpected vision problems. Lumbar punctures performed in the four astronauts with optic disc edema showed moderate elevations of cerebral spinal fluid pressure after returning to Earth. We hypothesized that lower body negative pressure (LBNP) imposed during head-down tilt (HDT) would reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and transcranial ultrasound pulse amplitude, a noninvasive intracranial pressure (ICP) surrogate.METHODS: Participating in this study were 25 normal healthy nonsmoking volunteers (mean age: 36 yr). Subjects were positioned supine (5 min), sitting (5 min), 15° whole body HDT (5 min), and 10 min of HDT with LBNP (25 mmHg). The order of HDT and HDT+LBNP tests was balanced. Right and left IOP, transcranial ultrasound pulse amplitude, arm blood pressure, and heart rate were measured during the last minute (steady state) of each testing condition.RESULTS: IOP significantly decreased from supine to sitting posture by 3.2 ± 1.4 mmHg (mean ± SD: N = 25), and increased by 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg from supine to the HDT position. LBNP during HDT significantly lowered IOP to supine levels. In addition, LBNP significantly reduced transcranial ultrasound pulse amplitudes by 38% as compared to the HDT condition (N = 9). Sitting mean blood pressure (BP) was significantly higher (+5 mmHg) than BP values after 10 min of LBNP during HDT. However, heart rate was not significantly different across all conditions.DISCUSSION: These data suggest that short duration exposures to LBNP attenuate HDT-induced increases in IOP and ICP.Macias BR, Liu JHK, Grande-Gutierrez N, Hargens AR. Intraocular and intracranial pressures during head-down tilt with lower body negative pressure. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):3–7.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):73.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pneumocephalus secondary to trauma or tumors can have varied symptom severity. It is important to recognize and quantify pneumocephalus for medical evacuation and treatment. This case presents current recommendations for travel in the literature and how they are applicable in returning to flying duties after neurosurgical interventions. This is the case of a Naval aircrew member who developed an osteoma and subsequently periorbital emphysema and pneumocephalus. This required medical evacuation from a remote territory, a team surgical approach, and later testing to allow him to return to flight duties in rotary aircraft. A search of the literature did not reveal any previous cases of civilian or military flight crew having returned to flying duties after pneumocephalus or neurosurgery. Barometric chamber testing was performed post-operatively to provide clearance. Literature review revealed mixed advice on when one can safely fly commercially after neurosurgery and may be applicable in a case series of medical evacuation or future clearance in returning to flight duties. Ruddick B, Tomlin J. Pneumocephalus and neurosurgery in rotary aircrew. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):59-61.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):59-61.
  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):2.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Positive pressure breathing (PPB) can cause circulatory dysfunction due to peripheral pooling of blood. This study explored a better way at ground level to simulate pure oxygen PPB at 59,055 ft (18,000 m) by comparing the physiological changes during PPB with pure oxygen and low oxygen at ground level.METHODS: Six subjects were exposed to 3 min of 69-mmHg PPB and 3 min of 59-mmHg PPB with pure oxygen and low oxygen while wearing the thoracic counterpressure jerkin inflated to 1× breathing pressure and G-suit inflated to 3 and 4× breathing pressure. Stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured. Subjects completed a simulating flying task (SFT) during 3-min PPB and scores were recorded.RESULTS: HR and SV responses differed significantly between breathing pure oxygen and low oxygen. CO response was not significantly different for pure oxygen and low oxygen, the two levels of PPB, and the two levels of G-suit pressure. Spo2 declined as a linear function of time during low-oxygen PPB and there was a significant difference in Spo2 response for the two levels of PPB. The average score of SFT during pure oxygen PPB was 3970.5 ± 1050.4, which was significantly higher than 2708.0 ± 702.7 with low oxygen PPB.CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia and PPB have a synergistic negative effect on both the cardiovascular system and SFT performance. PPB with low oxygen was more appropriate at ground level to investigate physiological responses during PPB and evaluate the protective performance of garments.Liu X, Xiao H, Shi W, Wen D, Yu L, Chen J. Physiological effects of positive pressure breathing with pure oxygen and a low oxygen gas mixture. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):15–20.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Weightlessness results in negative physiological changes. Excessive iron in organisms likewise leads to numerous damages. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of iron overload and weightlessness simulated by tail-suspending on rats.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control (CON), iron overload (IO), simulated weightlessness (SW), and iron overload plus simulated weightlessness (IO+SW). After the experiment, the rats were evaluated through routine blood, serum ferritin, histology, and micro-computed tomography analyses.RESULTS: As compared to CON, a combination of IO and SW resulted in a 15.9% loss of rat bodyweight versus treatment with each alone (3.3% in IO, 11.7% in SW group). Although iron overload is mainly responsible for an increase in hemoglobin (4.7% in IO the group) and serum ferritin (71.7% in IO group) concentration, simulated weightlessness facilitates such increase (5.3% and 118.4% in IO + SW group, respectively). Similarly, iron overload resulted in severe iron deposition on the liver and spleen, and the deposition became more serious in the combined model. In contrast, the simulated weightlessness is mainly responsible for the damage to the femur.DISCUSSION: All the results demonstrated that the combined conditions exhibited a significantly different effect on rats from those with either simulated weightlessness or iron overload alone, and that these different effects are organ-dependent.Wang A, Zang J, Wang J, Nie G, Zhao G, Chen B. Excessive iron and weightlessness effects on the femurs and livers of rats. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):8–14.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Habitual exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected, but it is not proven, to dull ventilatory sensitivity to co2 by reducing hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) as it is expressed by the slope of the derived response curve (CO2 sensitivity: VE/Petco2). It was hypothesized that HCVR is decreased by repeated breath hold maximal efforts (RBHE) before and after apnea training in comparison with no training and the control condition.METHODS: Two groups of breath holders, a control (CBH) group and novices to breath hold activities (NBH), visited the laboratory on four different occasions. In the first visit, subjects performed a HCVR test, whereas in the second visit they completed five successive RBHE separated by 2-min intervals. Another HCVR test was performed 2 min after cessation of the last apnea. For the next 14 d, only the NBH group trained by performing daily five RBHE separated by 2-min intervals. Subsequently, in a third and a fourth condition, subjects repeated the experimental protocol of the second and first visit.RESULTS: Although breath hold time (BHT) increased after apnea training in the NBH group by 46%, CO2 sensitivity slopes were not different among experimental conditions and groups (2.8 0.3, 2.9 0.4 L min1 mmHg1 in the CBH and 2.7 0.5, 2.7 0.3 L min1 mmHg1 in the NBH during the second and third visit, respectively).CONCLUSION: HCVR after five RBHE or 14 d of apnea training was not decreased despite the achieved BHT enhancement. Hypercapnic dullness of ventilation is a complex biological process which takes more than 14 d of training to develop.Bourdas DI, Tsakiris TS, Pavlakis KI, Triantafillou DV, Geladas ND. Repeated apneas and hypercapnic ventilatory response before and after apnea training. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):2733.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neck pain occurs at a significant rate in the military helicopter community. It is often attributed to the use of night vision goggles (NVG) and to a number of additional factors such as anthropometrics, posture, vibration, mission length, physical fitness, and helmet fit or load. A number of research studies have addressed many aspects of this epidemic, but an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the literature is not currently available. This paper reviews the spinal anatomy in general and then summarizes what is known about the incidence and prevalence of neck injuries, how the operational environments and equipment may contribute to these injuries, and what can be done to address them from a prevention and/or rehabilitation perspective.Harrison MF, Coffey B, Albert WJ, Fischer SL. Night vision goggle-induced neck pain in military helicopter aircrew: a literature review. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):46–55
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) formulations can be a useful adjunct treatment for decompression sickness (DCS) when staged decompression procedures cannot be followed due to time constraints or lack of equipment. The benefit of PFC treatment is believed to result from its ability to transport more dissolved gas than can be transported by blood alone. Dodecylfluoropentane (DDFPe) is a unique nanodroplet compound that expands into a gaseous state when exposed to physiological temperatures, resulting in a higher dissolved gas-carrying capacity than standard PFC formulations.METHODS: We investigated the efficacy of DDFPe in reducing morbidity and mortality in a rat model of severe DCS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-280 g) were compressed to 210 fsw for 60 min before rapid decompression. Animals were immediately injected with 2% DDFPe (0.07 ml · kg−1, 0.5 ml · kg−1, 1.0 ml · kg−1) or saline, and were transferred to a 100% O2 environment for 30 min.RESULTS: Of the animals in the saline group, 47% (18/38) did not survive the decompression event, while ∼98% (46/47) of the animals in the DDFPe group did not survive. Of the animals that died during the observation period, the saline group survived on average 89% longer than DDFPe treated animals. Seizures occurred in 42% of the DDFPe group vs. 16% in the saline group. Histological analysis revealed the presence of large, multifocal gas emboli in the liver and heart of DDFPe treated animals.CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that DDFPe is not an effective nonrecompressive treatment for DCS in rodents.Sheppard RL, Regis DP, Mahon RT. Dodecafluoropentane (DDFPe) and decompression sickness-related mortality in rats. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):21–26.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accurate color vision is essential for optimal performance in aviation and space environments using nonredundant color coding to convey critical information. Most color tests detect color vision deficiency (CVD) but fail to diagnose type or severity of CVD, which are important to link performance to occupational demands. The computer-based Cone Contrast Test (CCT) diagnoses type and severity of CVD. It is displayed on a netbook computer for clinical application, but a more portable version may prove useful for deployments, space and aviation cockpits, as well as accident and sports medicine settings. Our purpose was to determine if the CCT can be conducted on a tablet display (Windows 8, Microsoft, Seattle, WA) using touch-screen response input.METHODS: The CCT presents colored letters visible only to red (R), green (G), and blue (B) sensitive retinal cones to determine the lowest R, G, and B cone contrast visible to the observer. The CCT was measured in 16 color vision normals (CVN) and 16 CVDs using the standard netbook computer and a Windows 8 tablet display calibrated to produce equal color contrasts.RESULTS: Both displays showed 100% specificity for confirming CVN and 100% sensitivity for detecting CVD. In CVNs there was no difference between scores on netbook vs. tablet displays. G cone CVDs showed slightly lower G cone CCT scores on the tablet.CONCLUSIONS: CVD can be diagnosed with a tablet display. Ease-of-use, portability, and complete computer capabilities make tablets ideal for multiple settings, including aviation, space, military deployments, accidents and rescue missions, and sports vision.Chacon A, Rabin J, Yu D, Johnston S, Bradshaw T. Quantification of color vision using a tablet display. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):56–58.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Deep dives using rebreather devices result in oxygen exposures that carry a risk of cerebral oxygen toxicity. Elevation of arterial CO2 levels increases this risk. CO2 retention may occur during the deep working phases of dives, but it has not been investigated in ‘real world’ dives at the end of resting decompression when oxygen exposures are peaking, often to levels higher than recommended maxima.METHODS: We conducted an observational field study to measure end tidal CO2 (Petco2) in divers surfacing after decompression. Sixteen rebreather divers conducted two dives and two completed one dive (a total of 34 dives) to depths ranging from 44–55 msw. Bottom times ranged from 35 to 56 min and time spent on decompression ranged from 40 to 92 min. The first breaths on reaching the surface after removing the rebreather mouthpiece were taken through a portable capnograph. The Petco2 was recorded for the first breath that produced a clean capnography trace. Petco2 measurement was repeated for each subject 2–3 h after diving to give paired observations.RESULTS: There were no differences between mean surfacing Petco2 [36.8 mmHg (SD 3.0)] and the mean Petco2 made later after diving [36.9 mmHg (SD 4.0)]. One subject on one dive returned a surfacing Petco2 higher than a nominal upper limit of 45 mmHg.DISCUSSION: We found no general tendency to CO2 retention during decompression. It is plausible that breaching oxygen exposure limits during resting decompression is less hazardous than equivalent breaches when exercising at deep depths.Mitchell SJ, Mesley P, Hannam JA. End tidal CO2 in recreational rebreather divers on surfacing after decompression dives. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):41–45.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1).
  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 12/2014; 85(12):1231-1232.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is characterized by normal fluctuations in heart rate in phase with the respiratory cycle. There are many proposed mechanisms underlying the RSA phenomenon, including respiratory-induced cardiac loading (i.e., Bainbridge reflex), arterial baroreflex activation, vagal feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors and central neural mechanisms. It is currently unclear to what extent these mechanisms are responsible for eliciting RSA in humans, particularly in response to stressors. Case Report: Here we present a case report of a healthy 26 year old woman (BMI 22.95 kg/m2) who developed extreme RSA when exposed to the simultaneous cardiac loading stressors of 45° head-down tilt (HDT) and increased tidal volume during CO2 rebreathing. During baseline breathing in both supine and 45° HDT position, RSA magnitude was similar (mean ~10-14 BPM). RSA was tidal volume-dependent, whereby in supine position the RSA magnitude doubled with an approximate doubling in tidal volume during rebreathing (mean ~20 BPM). However, when HDT and rebreathing were superimposed, extreme RSA was elicited (mean ~45 BPM; range ~38-110 BPM), approximately 450% over baseline breathing in supine position. ECG analysis and follow up medical assessment revealed no underlying cardiac pathology. Discussion: The existence of extreme RSA when HDT and increased inspired volumes were superimposed suggests that the dual cardiac loading stimuli acted synergistically, increasing RSA magnitude over either stimulus alone. This case report may be relevant to situations where orthostatic stress and augmented tidal volumes are superimposed, or more generally when conflicting sympathetic and parasympathetic activation is simultaneous.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 12/2014; 85(12):1-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Knapik JJ, Steelman R, Hoedebecke K, Rankin S, Klug K, Collier K, Jones BH. Injury incidence with T-10 and T-11 parachutes in military airborne operations. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1159-69. The T-10 parachute has been the U.S. Army standard parachute since 1952 and is now being replaced by the T-11, which has a capacity for heavier loads. This investigation compared injury rates between the two parachute systems during mass tactical parachute training exercises at Fort Bragg, NC. Investigators were on the drop zone for all parachute operations. Data on injured jumpers were collected on the drop zone and supplemented with medical records. Operational data were collected from standard reports and weather data were obtained using a Kestrel(®) Model 4500 pocket weather tracker. There were a total of 131,747 jumps resulting in 1101 injured service members for a crude incidence of 8.4 injuries/1000 jumps. Most injuries (88%) with a known injury mechanism were associated with ground impact. In univariate analysis, risk of injury with the T-10 was 9.1/1000 jumps and that with the T-11 was 5.2/1000 jumps [odds ratio (T-10/T-11) = 1.72, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.45-2.08, P < 0.01]. Other factors that independently increased injury risk included night jumps, combat loads, higher wind speeds, higher temperatures, certain aircraft, and entanglements. After controlling for these factors in a multivariate analysis, injury risk was still higher for the T-10 parachute when compared to the T-11 [odds ratio (T-10/T-11) = 1.56, 95%CI = 1.28-1.89, P < 0.01). For virtually all strata of the independent risk factors, the T-11 had a lower injury rate. Compared to the T-10, the T-11 parachute had a lower injury incidence under virtually all the operational conditions examined.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 12/2014; 85(12):1159-1169.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Signal TL, Mulrine HM, van den Berg MJ, Smith AAT, Gander PH, Serfontein W. Mitigating and monitoring flight crew fatigue on a westward ultra-long-range flight. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1199-1208. This study examined the uptake and effectiveness of fatigue mitigation guidance material including sleep recommendations for a trip with a westward ultra-long-range flight and return long-range flight. There were 52 flight crew (4-pilot crews, mean age 55 yr) who completed a sleep/duty diary and wore an actigraph prior to, during, and after the trip. Primary crew flew the takeoff and landing, while relief crew flew the aircraft during the Primary crew's breaks. At key times in flight, crewmembers rated their fatigue (Samn-Perelli fatigue scale) and sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and completed a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Napping was common prior to the outbound flight (54%) and did not affect the quantity or quality of in-flight sleep (mean 4.3 h). Primary crew obtained a similar amount on the inbound flight (mean 4.0 h), but Secondary crew had less sleep (mean 2.9 h). Subjective fatigue and sleepiness increased and performance slowed across flights. Performance was faster on the outbound than inbound flight. On both flights, Primary crew were less fatigued and sleepy than Secondary crew, particularly at top of descent and after landing. Crewmembers slept more frequently and had more sleep in the first 24 h of the layover than the last, and had shifted their main sleep to the local night by the second night. The suggested sleep mitigations were employed by the majority of crewmembers. Fatigue levels were no worse on the outbound ultra-long-range flight than on the return long-range flight.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 12/2014; 85(12):1199-1208.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mellor AJ, Woods DR, O'Hara J, Howley M, Watchorn J, Boos C. Rating of perceived exertion and acute mountain sickness during a high-altitude trek. Aviat Space Environ Med 2014; 85:1214-6. There is a widely held belief that strenuous exercise should be avoided on arrival at high altitude (HA) and during acclimatization. Data from chamber studies are contradictory and the studies are usually of short duration, therefore differing from the "real world." Methods: We studied 48 trekkers during a 10-d ascent to 16,827 ft (5129 m) in the Cordillera Real area of Bolivia. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scores were recorded for the hardest perceived exertion during the day after ascents to 12,576, 14,600, and 16,827 ft (3833, 4450, and 5129 m). Heart rate, Spo2, and Lake Louise Score (LLS) were recorded simultaneously. Statistical testing was performed using SPSS 21 software. A P-value of ≤0.05 was deemed significant. Acute mountain sickness (AMS) rates were higher after trekking days with higher levels of perceived exertion. The LLS was higher in those with a Borg RPE score ≥15 both following exercise (mean LLS 2.6 vs. 1.7) and at rest the following day (mean LLS 2.7 vs. 1.7). Heart rate was higher in those with high Borg RPE scores (80 vs. 87) and oxygen saturations lower at rest (86 vs. 83) the following morning. This data lends weight to the advice of moderate exertion during a trek to HA and suggests that reducing perceived exertion may reduce AMS.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 12/2014; 85(12):1214-1216.