Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine (AVIAT SPACE ENVIR MD)

Publisher: Aerospace Medical Association, Aerospace Medical Association

Journal description

The journal covers all of the scientific disciplines related to the following: Aviation, space, and environmental medicine; Case reports in clinical aviation, space, and environmental medicine; Private, commercial, and military aviation medicine; Medical problems for crews in high performance aircraft or in manned space travel; Occupational medicine; Flight safety; and Environmental and life support systems involving performance, acceleration, deceleration, weightlessness, radiation, bioinstrumentation, etc. Other regular features include letters to the editor, special aerospace medicine news items, editorials, book reviews, meeting notices, and news of members.

Current impact factor: 0.88

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 0.875
2013 Impact Factor 0.782
2012 Impact Factor 0.782
2011 Impact Factor 0.879
2010 Impact Factor 0.852
2009 Impact Factor 0.993
2008 Impact Factor 0.774
2007 Impact Factor 0.832
2006 Impact Factor 0.83
2005 Impact Factor 0.971
2004 Impact Factor 0.703
2003 Impact Factor 0.946
2002 Impact Factor 0.721
2001 Impact Factor 0.69
2000 Impact Factor 0.658
1999 Impact Factor 0.536
1998 Impact Factor 0.587
1997 Impact Factor 0.537
1996 Impact Factor 0.501
1995 Impact Factor 0.484
1994 Impact Factor 0.637
1993 Impact Factor 0.625
1992 Impact Factor 0.568

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.01
Cited half-life >10.0
Immediacy index 0.17
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.27
Website Aviation Space & Environmental Medicine website
Other titles Aviation, space, and environmental medicine, Aviation space & environmental medicine
ISSN 0095-6562
OCLC 2245949
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Aerospace Medical Association

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On any website
    • Not allowed on PubMed Central, unless funded by NIH
    • NIH funded authors may deposit in PubMed Central, after 12 months embargo
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Proof and PDF reprint file cannot be used
    • Publisher last contacted on 25/09/2014
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Environmental motion can affect shipboard sleep of crewmembers. Slamming and similar harsh motion may interfere with sleep, whereas mild motion and sopite syndrome may enhance sleep. If sleep needs vary by sea condition, this factor should be considered when assessing human performance at sea. The goal of this study was to assess sleep duration in different sea conditions. METHODS: Crewmembers (N = 52) from a U.S. Navy vessel participated in the study while performing their normal daily schedule of duties. Sleep was assessed with wrist-worn actigraphy. Motion sickness and sopite syndrome were assessed using standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: In rough sea conditions, crewmembers experienced increased severity of motion sickness and sopite syndrome compared to their ratings during calmer sea conditions. Crewmembers slept significantly longer during sea state 5-6 compared to sleep on days with sea state 4 (25% increase) and sea state 3-4 (30% increase). Specifically, daily sleep increased from 6.97 ± 1.24 h in sea state 3-4, to 7.23 ± 1.65 h in sea state 4, to 9.04 ± 2.90 h in sea state 5–6. DISCUSSION: Although the duration of sleep in rough seas increased significantly compared to calmer sea conditions, causal factors are inconclusive. Accumulated sleep debt, motion-induced fatigue, and sopite syndrome all may have contributed, but results suggest that motion sickness and sopite syndrome were the predominant stressors. If sleep needs increase in severe motion environments, this factor should be taken into account when developing daily activity schedules or when modeling manning requirements on modern ships.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 10/2015; 86(10):901-906. DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4250.2015
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide.The NLST demonstrated that low-dose CT (LDCT) scan screening reduced related mortalityrate by 20%, albeit with a high false positive rate: 95% of positive findings were benign, and thisgroup underwent costly and morbid unnecessary invasive procedures. Following the NLST,LDCT screening programs for high risk patients are becoming widespread, and evaluatingdetected small lung nodules will be costly using current methodologies. Cost-effective biomarkerassays distinguishing benign from malignant nodules might mitigate that expense, morbidity,and mortality. Several approaches are emerging, and it is currently unclear which hold greaterpromise for early detection. METHODS: We selected for comparison 5 non-invasive tests in patients with recently diagnosed untreated LC: exhaled breath analysis for volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) using nanoarray technology, automated 3D sputum cytometry, cancerserum protein markers (TM), serum auto-antibodies (AAB), and PET/CT. Tests were compared for sensitivity, ease of performance (from both patient and clinician standpoint), and convenience. RESULTS: Successful test completion rates were 100% for AAB and TM serumstudies, 98% for PET/CTs and breath analysis, and 46% for 3D sputum analysis. Ofsuccessfully completed tests, PET/CT was the most sensitive (49/49; 100%), followed by breathanalysis (46/49; 93.8%), 3D sputum (20/23; 87%), TM (34/50; 68%), and AAB (15/50; 30%).Three patients undetected by breath analysis were all detected on the AAB test, and 3undetected by sputum analysis were detected by TM assay. Breath and blood tests were mostconvenient for patients, and the AAB test was easiest in terms of staffing requirements. The most expensive test was the PET/CT, followed by the TM serum test DISCUSSION: Serial follow-up and selective PET/CT remain the current standard for CT-detected SPN testing, butbreath or 3D sputum analysis coupled with blood studies may prove more cost efficient,practical, and efficacious. Early detection can allow limited surgical treatment (segmentectomyor lobectomy) or radiosurgery for cure, with >75% success rates. Limited treatment should in turn lead to less pulmonary morbidity, and to more aviators returning to duty.Learning Objectives:1Realize that lung cancer accounts for more cancer mortality in the USA than the next 4 mostcommon cancers combined. The 5 year survival overall is only 16%, but if found early is>50%.2Non-invasive biomarkers looking to detect lung cancer early include volatile organiccompounds in breath, tumor antigens or antibodies detectable in serum, abnormal cellsdetected in sputum, and hypermetabolism seen on PET/CT scanning.3Previously "medically inoperable" patients in poor health who in years past were not eligible for curative lung cancer treatment, are NOW eligible for curative treatment due to the evolution of more limited surgical and radiosurgical techniques.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 03/2015; 86(3):261.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Effects of hypobarism and hypoxia on visual performance and mainly on contrast sensitivity (CS) are well known. The purpose of this study was to compare the adjustments of corneal thickness in hypobaric hypoxia conditions with changes in contrast sensitivity. METHODS: There were 12 healthy, emmetropic subjects assigned to the 14th Wing Aircrew based in Pratica di Mare AFB (Rome, Italy) who were evaluated for changes occurring in central corneal thickness (CCT), measured by portable ultrasonic pachymeter, and CS, assessed after reading the standard Pelli-Robson charts, during modification of atmospheric pressure and, therefore, of oxygen partial pressure. RESULTS: Hypobaric hypoxia conditions in pilots raised CCT (550 μm to 600 μm) and reduced CS (1.95 log to 1.05 log) in a statistically significant result. DISCUSSION: The study demonstrated that hypoxia and variations of atmospheric pressure may produce corneal edema, including changes of CCT and, correlatively, CS reduction.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 02/2015; 86(2). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.3938.2015

  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):73. DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4190.2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accurate color vision is essential for optimal performance in aviation and space environments using nonredundant color coding to convey critical information. Most color tests detect color vision deficiency (CVD) but fail to diagnose type or severity of CVD, which are important to link performance to occupational demands. The computer-based Cone Contrast Test (CCT) diagnoses type and severity of CVD. It is displayed on a netbook computer for clinical application, but a more portable version may prove useful for deployments, space and aviation cockpits, as well as accident and sports medicine settings. Our purpose was to determine if the CCT can be conducted on a tablet display (Windows 8, Microsoft, Seattle, WA) using touch-screen response input. Methods: The CCT presents colored letters visible only to red (R), green (G), and blue (B) sensitive retinal cones to determine the lowest R, G, and B cone contrast visible to the observer. The CCT was measured in 16 color vision normals (CVN) and 16 CVDs using the standard netbook computer and a Windows 8 tablet display calibrated to produce equal color contrasts. Results: Both displays showed 100% specificity for confirming CVN and 100% sensitivity for detecting CVD. In CVNs there was no difference between scores on netbook vs. tablet displays. G cone CVDs showed slightly lower G cone CCT scores on the tablet. Conclusions: CVD can be diagnosed with a tablet display. Ease-of-use, portability, and complete computer capabilities make tablets ideal for multiple settings, including aviation, space, military deployments, accidents and rescue missions, and sports vision. Chacon A, Rabin J, Yu D, Johnston S, Bradshaw T. Quantification of color vision using a tablet display.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4045.2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Deep dives using rebreather devices result in oxygen exposures that carry a risk of cerebral oxygen toxicity. Elevation of arterial CO2 levels increases this risk. CO2 retention may occur during the deep working phases of dives, but it has not been investigated in 'real world' dives at the end of resting decompression when oxygen exposures are peaking, often to levels higher than recommended maxima. Methods: We conducted an observational field study to measure end tidal CO2 (Petco2) in divers surfacing after decompression. Sixteen rebreather divers conducted two dives and two completed one dive (a total of 34 dives) to depths ranging from 44-55 msw. Bottom times ranged from 35 to 56 min and time spent on decompression ranged from 40 to 92 min. The first breaths on reaching the surface after removing the rebreather mouthpiece were taken through a portable capnograph. The Petco2 was recorded for the first breath that produced a clean capnography trace. Petco2 measurement was repeated for each subject 2-3 h after diving to give paired observations. Results: There were no differences between mean surfacing Petco2 [36.8 mmHg (SD 3.0)] and the mean Petco2 made later after diving [36.9 mmHg (SD 4.0)]. One subject on one dive returned a surfacing Petco2 higher than a nominal upper limit of 45 mmHg. Discussion: We found no general tendency to CO2 retention during decompression. It is plausible that breaching oxygen exposure limits during resting decompression is less hazardous than equivalent breaches when exercising at deep depths. Mitchell SJ, Mesley P, Hannam JA. End tidal CO2 in recreational rebreather divers on surfacing after decompression dives.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4113.2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Perfluorocarbon (PFC) formulations can be a useful adjunct treatment for decompression sickness (DCS) when staged decompression procedures cannot be followed due to time constraints or lack of equipment. The benefit of PFC treatment is believed to result from its ability to transport more dissolved gas than can be transported by blood alone. Dodecylfluoropentane (DDFPe) is a unique nanodroplet compound that expands into a gaseous state when exposed to physiological temperatures, resulting in a higher dissolved gas-carrying capacity than standard PFC formulations. Methods: We investigated the efficacy of DDFPe in reducing morbidity and mortality in a rat model of severe DCS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-280 g) were compressed to 210 fsw for 60 min before rapid decompression. Animals were immediately injected with 2% DDFPe (0.07 ml · kg(-1), 0.5 ml · kg(-1), 1.0 ml · kg(-1)) or saline, and were transferred to a 100% O2 environment for 30 min. Results: Of the animals in the saline group, 47% (18/38) did not survive the decompression event, while ~98% (46/47) of the animals in the DDFPe group did not survive. Of the animals that died during the observation period, the saline group survived on average 89% longer than DDFPe treated animals. Seizures occurred in 42% of the DDFPe group vs. 16% in the saline group. Histological analysis revealed the presence of large, multifocal gas emboli in the liver and heart of DDFPe treated animals. Conclusions: We conclude that DDFPe is not an effective nonrecompressive treatment for DCS in rodents. Sheppard RL, Regis DP, Mahon RT. Dodecafluoropentane (DDFPe) and decompression sickness-related mortality in rats.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4068.2015

  • Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):2.
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocephalus secondary to trauma or tumors can have varied symptom severity. It is important to recognize and quantify pneumocephalus for medical evacuation and treatment. This case presents current recommendations for travel in the literature and how they are applicable in returning to flying duties after neurosurgical interventions. This is the case of a Naval aircrew member who developed an osteoma and subsequently periorbital emphysema and pneumocephalus. This required medical evacuation from a remote territory, a team surgical approach, and later testing to allow him to return to flight duties in rotary aircraft. A search of the literature did not reveal any previous cases of civilian or military flight crew having returned to flying duties after pneumocephalus or neurosurgery. Barometric chamber testing was performed post-operatively to provide clearance. Literature review revealed mixed advice on when one can safely fly commercially after neurosurgery and may be applicable in a case series of medical evacuation or future clearance in returning to flight duties. Ruddick B, Tomlin J. Pneumocephalus and neurosurgery in rotary aircrew. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(1):59-61.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1):59-61. DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4022.2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Habitual exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is expected, but it is not proven, to dull ventilatory sensitivity to co2 by reducing hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) as it is expressed by the slope of the derived response curve (CO2 sensitivity: ΔVE/ΔPetCO2). It was hypothesized that HCVR is decreased by repeated breath hold maximal efforts (RBHE) before and after apnea training in comparison with no training and the control condition. Methods: Two groups of breath holders, a control (CBH) group and novices to breath hold activities (NBH), visited the laboratory on four different occasions. In the first visit, subjects performed a HCVR test, whereas in the second visit they completed five successive RBHE separated by 2-min intervals. Another HCVR test was performed 2 min after cessation of the last apnea. For the next 14 d, only the NBH group trained by performing daily five RBHE separated by 2-min intervals. Subsequently, in a third and a fourth condition, subjects repeated the experimental protocol of the second and first visit. Results: Although breath hold time (BHT) increased after apnea training in the NBH group by ~46%, CO2 sensitivity slopes were not different among experimental conditions and groups (2.8 0.3, 2.9 0.4 L min(1) mmHg(1) in the CBH and 2.7 0.5, 2.7 0.3 L min(1) mmHg(1) in the NBH during the second and third visit, respectively). Conclusion: HCVR after five RBHE or 14 d of apnea training was not decreased despite the achieved BHT enhancement. Hypercapnic dullness of ventilation is a complex biological process which takes more than 14 d of training to develop. Bourdas DI, Tsakiris TS, Pavlakis KI, Triantafillou DV, Geladas ND. Repeated apneas and hypercapnic ventilatory response before and after apnea training.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.3932.2015
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Positive pressure breathing (PPB) can cause circulatory dysfunction due to peripheral pooling of blood. This study explored a better way at ground level to simulate pure oxygen PPB at 59,055 ft (18,000 m) by comparing the physiological changes during PPB with pure oxygen and low oxygen at ground level. Methods: Six subjects were exposed to 3 min of 69-mmHg PPB and 3 min of 59-mmHg PPB with pure oxygen and low oxygen while wearing the thoracic counterpressure jerkin inflated to 1× breathing pressure and G-suit inflated to 3 and 4× breathing pressure. Stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and peripheral oxygen saturation (Spo2) were measured. Subjects completed a simulating flying task (SFT) during 3-min PPB and scores were recorded. Results: HR and SV responses differed significantly between breathing pure oxygen and low oxygen. CO response was not significantly different for pure oxygen and low oxygen, the two levels of PPB, and the two levels of G-suit pressure. Spo2 declined as a linear function of time during low-oxygen PPB and there was a significant difference in Spo2 response for the two levels of PPB. The average score of SFT during pure oxygen PPB was 3970.5 ± 1050.4, which was significantly higher than 2708.0 ± 702.7 with low oxygen PPB. Conclusions: Hypoxia and PPB have a synergistic negative effect on both the cardiovascular system and SFT performance. PPB with low oxygen was more appropriate at ground level to investigate physiological responses during PPB and evaluate the protective performance of garments. Liu X, Xiao H, Shi W, Wen D, Yu L, Chen J. Physiological effects of positive pressure breathing with pure oxygen and a low oxygen gas mixture.
    Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 01/2015; 86(1). DOI:10.3357/AMHP.4096.2015