The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse (AM J DRUG ALCOHOL AB)

Publisher: American Academy of Psychiatrists in Alcoholism & Addictions, Informa Healthcare

Journal description

Where can you find timely discussions of topics such as... the characteristics of dually diagnosed patients drug use screening inventories the effects of age on perinatal substance abuse endogenous opiates and opiate and benzodiazepine receptors HIV infection risk behaviors and methadone treatment integrating substance abuse services with general medical care network therapy for addiction outreach engagement efforts physician unawareness of serious substance abuse sources of motivation in treatment programs substance abuse and organ transplantation transmission of parent/adult-child drinking patterns and much, much more! Focusing on the preclinical, clinical, pharmacological, administrative, and social aspects of substance misuse, this authoritative journal provides an important and stimulating exchange of ideas between the various modalities involved in the study and treatment of drug abuse and alcoholism. Comprehensive in scope, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse deepens your understanding of subjects, including community approaches criminal laws cultural and ideological attitudes epidemiology funding sources pharmacology of misused drugs self-help techniques treatment methods and more! Interdisciplinary in its approach, The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse serves as an essential forum for established researchers and professionals in alcohol studies biostatistics criminology forensic medicine hematology law enforcement medicine neuropsychiatry nursing oncology pharmacology psychiatry psychology public health rehabilitation social and behavioral sciences social work sociology urban health policy, research, and education.

Current impact factor: 1.47

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.47
2009 Impact Factor 1.335

Additional details

5-year impact 1.66
Cited half-life 8.50
Immediacy index 0.51
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.55
Website American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, The website
Other titles The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse
ISSN 0095-2990
OCLC 1796465
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Informa Healthcare

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Restrictions
    • 12 months embargo
  • Conditions
    • On author's personal website or institution website
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • On a non-profit server
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • NIH funded authors may post articles to PubMed Central for release 12 months after publication
    • Wellcome Trust authors may deposit in Europe PMC after 6 months
  • Classification
    ​ yellow

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Co-occurring drug use disorders are under-detected in psychiatrically ill populations highlighting the need for more efficient screening tools. Objectives: This study compares a single-item screening tool, previously validated in a primary care setting, to the 10-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) for identifying co-occurring drug use disorders among patients with severe psychiatric illness. Methods: A total of 395 patients attending a psychiatric partial hospital program completed both the single-item screen and DAST-10. A subsample of consecutive patients (n = 67) was also administered the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV) as a diagnostic reference standard. Results: Concordance between screening measures was moderate (κ = 0.4, p < 0.01). Sensitivity and specificity of the single-item screen and DAST-10 as compared to the SCID-IV were comparable, while area under the receiver operating curve showed better discriminatory power for the identification of drug use disorders with the single-item screen. Conclusions: In comparison to the DAST-10, the single-item screen appears to be a more efficient tool to identify co-occurring drug use disorders in a psychiatric treatment setting among patients with a range of psychiatric diagnoses.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 02/2015; 41(2). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2015.1005309
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: There are limited efficacy and safety data for buprenorphine/naloxone treatment in adolescents, and little is known about the incidence and prevalence of liver function abnormalities in young patients using buprenorphine/naloxone. To assess the changes in liver enzyme levels associated with buprenorphine/naloxone treatment and co-medication with psychotropic agents among opioid dependent subjects aged 15-18 years. Liver enzyme levels (ALT and AST) were evaluated among 59 adolescent subjects before and following eight weeks of buprenorphine/naloxone treatment. The frequency of additional psychotropic use was 60%. The patients' mean liver enzyme levels at weeks 2 and 4 were significantly higher than the baseline (ALT: p < 0.0001 and p = 0.003, and AST: p < 0.0001 and p = 0.016, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in AST and ALT levels between the baseline and week 8. The majority of the abnormalities seen were clinically nonsignificant elevations (less than two times the upper limit of normal). It is plausible that the abnormalities in liver enzymes could have been mediated by the use of psychotropic medications. Buprenorphine/naloxone was well tolerated in most adolescent patients, besides clinically nonsignificant liver enzyme elevations. Psychotropic medications may have been associated with the liver enzyme changes early in the course of treatment. Nevertheless, given the relatively small number of adolescents studied to date with buprenorphine/naloxone, additional studies evaluating liver enzymes in young patients receiving buprenorphine/naloxone (and no other psychotropics) are needed.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 01/2015; 41(1):107-13. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.983272
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Society in America, like many others, continues to wrestle with the problem of misuse and abuse of prescription opioids. The implications of this struggle are widespread and involve many individuals and institutions including healthcare policymakers. State Medicaid pharmacy programs, in particular, undergo significant scrutiny of their programs to curtail this problem. While recent efforts have been made by government agencies to both quantify and offer methods for curbing this issue, it still falls to each state's policymakers to protect its resources and the population it serves from the consequences of misuse and abuse. This paper details the history of one state Medicaid's management of this issue at the pharmacy benefit level. Examples of various methods employed and the results are outlined and commentary is provided for each method. Regardless of the methods used to address this issue, the problem must still be a priority at all levels, not just for payers.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 01/2015; 41(1):1-6. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.988339
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of hepatitis-C-virus (HCV) infections is high among opioid-dependent individuals. Prior research on the simultaneous treatment of both conditions has primarily assessed success as it pertains to HCV. However, it has been noted that favorable substance use therapy outcomes may improve the likelihood of HCV-treatment initiation and success. Therefore, current guidelines for the treatment of HCV among illicit drug users suggest that treatment for addiction be given the highest priority. Objectives: To determine whether opioid-dependent participants in a clinical trial of buprenorphine-treatment tapering regimens, who tested positive for the HCV antibody, experienced significantly different levels of opioid abstinence than those not infected. Methods: Data came from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trial Network study 0003. 516 eligible opioid-dependent participants were randomized to either a 7-day or 28-day buprenorphine tapering schedule following a 4-week buprenorphine stabilization period. Generalized estimating equations were used to test the research question. Results: Participants with the HCV antibody were significantly less likely to submit opioid-negative urine analyses during and/or immediately following active treatment [OR = 0.69; CI = 0.51–0.93], indicating a higher rate of opioid use among this group. Conclusion: Individualized opioid-dependence treatment strategies may be required for opioid-dependent individuals who test positive for the HCV antibody in order to ensure resources for both opioid-dependence and HCV therapies are used efficiently.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 12/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.983274
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Volatile substance misuse (VSM – also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Objectives: Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003–2012. Methods: We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003–2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Results: Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003–2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Conclusions: Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 12/2014; 41(1). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.956110
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Adolescent substance use is an increasing major health problem in developing countries. Objectives: To evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics and drug abuse patterns of children and youth seeking treatment in Turkey. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the demographic and clinical data of substance users who visited the substance addiction treatment clinic for children and youth in Bakırköy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery in Istanbul, between January 2011 and December 2012. Results: The sample comprised of 1969 children and youth aged between 11 and 20 (346 female and 1623 male). Cannabis (60.1%), followed by solvents/inhalants (38.3%) and ecstasy (33.4%), were the most prevalent substances used. The use of solvents/inhalants was more common among males, whereas ecstasy and cocaine use were more common among females. The mean age for the onset of substance use was 13 years. The proportion of polysubstance use was 60.2%. There was a mean duration of 2.28 ± 1.91 years between the first substance use and seeking treatment. The risk factors for most of the drug usage were onset of substance use at a young age, gender, treatment admission at older ages, higher parental criminal history, and having substance using parents or relatives. Conclusion: Findings of the very early onset of substance and polysubstance use indicated easy accessibility of legal and illicit substances by children and youth in Istanbul. These findings on Turkish children and youth who seek substance use treatment can be useful in developing preventive early interventions and treatment facilities.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.973961
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Emerging data suggest that dysphoria is one facet of depression that is especially related to various aspects of cigarette smoking. However, it is presently unknown what emotional processes may account for these relations. Objectives: In the current cross-sectional study, the impact of avoidance and inflexibility to smoking (AIS), a smoking-specific form of experiential avoidance, was tested on the relationship of dysphoria to four specific smoking processes that are key factors in cessation: perceived barriers to cessation, severity of problems during prior quit attempts, negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, and motivation to quit smoking. Methods: Participants (n = 465) were treatment-seeking adult daily smokers. Relative indirect effects were subjected to bootstrap analyses to test direct and indirect effects of dysphoria on smoking processes. Results: After controlling for gender, nicotine dependence severity, drinking problems, cannabis use, negative affectivity, tobacco-related medical problems, and AIS, dysphoria remained directly, positively related to perceived barriers and cessation problems. Additionally, dysphoria was indirectly, positively related to perceived barriers, cessation problems, negative reinforcement smoking expectancies, and motivation to quit indirectly through higher levels of AIS. Conclusion: In the context of dysphoria, AIS may explain a wide range of clinically-relevant smoking processes.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.927472
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Marijuana use is associated with anxiety, depressive, psychotic, neurocognitive, and substance use disorders. Many US states are legalizing marijuana for medical uses. Objective: To determine the prevalence of medical marijuana use and diversion among psychiatric inpatients in Colorado. Methods: Some 623 participants (54.6% male) responded to an anonymous 15-item discharge survey that assessed age, gender, marijuana use, possession of a medical marijuana card, diversion of medical marijuana, perceived substance use problems, and effects of marijuana use. Univariate statistics were used to characterize participants and their responses. Chi-square tests assessed factors associated with medical marijuana registration. Results: Of the total number of respondents, 282 (47.6%) reported using marijuana in the last 12 months and 60 (15.1%) reported having a marijuana card. In comparison to survey respondents who denied having a medical marijuana card, those respondents with a medical marijuana card were more likely to have initiated use before the age of 25, to be male, to have used marijuana in the last 12 months, and to have used at least 20 days in the past month. 133 (24.1%) respondents reported that someone with a medical marijuana card had shared or sold medical marijuana to them; 24 (41.4%) of respondents with a medical marijuana card reported ever having shared or sold their medical marijuana. Conclusion: Medical marijuana use is much more prevalent among adults hospitalized with a psychiatric emergency than in the general population; diversion is common. Further studies which correlate amount, dose, duration, and strain of use with particular psychiatric disorders are needed.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 11/2014; 41(2). DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.949727
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Driving under the influence (DUI) is a major cause of death and disability. Although a broad array of programs designed to curb DUI incidents are currently offered to both first-time and recidivist DUI offenders, existing evaluations of the effectiveness of these programs have reported mixed results. Objective: To synthesize the results of DUI program evaluations and determine the strength of the available evidence for reducing recidivism for different types of programs. Methods: A systematic review of all EBSCO databases, EMBASE, PubMed, ProQuest, Sociological Abstracts and TRIS was conducted to identify evaluations of treatments/interventions to prevent DUI offenses. Additional articles were identified from reference lists of relevant articles. Results: A total of 42 relevant studies were identified by the search strategy. Of these, 33 utilized non-experimental evaluation designs or reported insufficient data to allow effect sizes to be calculated, making meta-analysis unfeasible. Evaluations of several different program types reported evidence of some level of effectiveness. Conclusion: Because of the general lack of high quality evidence assessing the effectiveness of DUI prevention programs, it is not possible to make conclusive statements about the types of programs that are likely to be most effective. Nonetheless, there was some evidence to support the effectiveness of programs that utilize intensive supervision and education. There is a need for future evaluations to adopt more scientifically rigorous research designs to establish the effects of these programs.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 10/2014; DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.966199
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is beginning to attract attention as a possible target for cocaine abuse treatment because of its role in metabolizing cocaine. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to assess whether endogenous BChE levels are associated with the subjective effects of cocaine. Methods: Data from 28 participants in five inpatient cocaine self-administration studies were included in the present analysis. Four minutes after each smoked cocaine dose, participants rated their drug-related effects from 0-100 using a computerized self-report Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The main outcome measures were nine change-in-VAS ratings between a baseline placebo dose and a 25-mg smoked cocaine dose. Results: After controlling for age, sex, total years of cocaine use, total milligrams of cocaine administered before the 25-mg dose being analyzed, and baseline diastolic blood pressure, endogenous BChE was not significantly associated with any of the nine change-in-VAS ratings. Conclusion: Though BChE appears to be a possible target for cocaine abuse treatment, these data suggest that endogenous levels of BChE may not play a role in modifying the subjective effects of cocaine. Future larger studies of BChE in respect to the subjective effects produced by cocaine are needed to confirm or refute these findings.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 10/2014; 41(2):1-5. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.966197
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Heavy alcohol use has been hypothesized to accelerate disease progression to end-stage liver disease in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we estimated the relative influences of heavy alcohol use and HCV in decompensated chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods: Retrospectively, 904 patients with cirrhotic disease admitted to our hospitals during January 2010-December 2012 were identified based on ICD9 codes. A thorough chart review captured information on demographics, viral hepatitis status, alcohol use and progression of liver disease (i.e. decompensation). Decompensation was defined as the presence of ascites due to portal hypertension, bleeding esophageal varices, hepatic encephalopathy or hepatorenal syndrome. Heavy alcohol use was defined as a chart entry of greater than six daily units of alcohol or its equivalent. Results: 347 patients were included based on our selection criteria of documented heavy alcohol use (n = 215; 62.0%), hepatitis titers (HCV: n = 182; 52.5%) and radiological evidence of CLD with or without decompensation (decompensation: n = 225; 64.8%). Independent of HCV infection, heavy alcohol use significantly increased the risk of decompensation (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.11-2.75, p < 0.02) relative to no heavy alcohol use. No significance was seen with age, sex, race, HIV, viral hepatitis and moderate alcohol use for risk for decompensation. Additionally, dose-relationship regression analysis revealed that heavy, but not moderate alcohol use, resulted in a three-fold increase (p = 0.013) in the risk of decompensation relative to abstinence. Conclusions: While both heavy alcohol use and HCV infection are associated with risk of developing CLD, our data suggest that heavy, but not moderate, alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk for hepatic decompensation in patients with cirrhosis than does HCV infection.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 10/2014; 41(2):1-6. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.964358
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 10/2014; 41(2):1-4. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.966196
  • The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 10/2014; 40(6):1-3. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.965311
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show different behavioral and neurological functioning during emotional processing tasks from healthy controls. Adults with a family history (FHP) of AUD also show different activation in limbic brain areas, such as the amygdala. However, it is unclear if this pattern exists during adolescence before any episodes of heavy alcohol use. Objectives: We hypothesized that the amygdalar response to subliminally-presented fearful faces would be reduced in FHP adolescents compared to peers who were family history negative (FHN) for AUD. Method: An adapted Masked Faces paradigm was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent response to subliminal fearful vs. neutral faces in 14 FHP (6 females, 8 males) and 15 FHN (6 females, 9 males) youth, ages 11-15 years. Both FHP and FHN youth had no history of heavy alcohol consumption. Results: A significant difference was seen between groups in the left superior parietal lobule FHN youth showed deactivation to fearful and neutral masked faces compared to baseline, whereas FHP youth showed deactivation only to fearful masked faces. No significant differences in amygdalar activation were seen between groups. Conclusion: The left superior parietal lobule is part of the fronto-parietal network, which has been implicated in attentional control. Lack of reduced neural activity to neutral faces among FHP youth may represent differences in suppressing attention networks to less salient emotional stimuli, or perhaps, a higher threshold of saliency for emotional stimuli among at-risk youth.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 41(2):1-7. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.953251
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Underage drinking accounts for 4400 alcohol-attributable deaths in the US each year. After several reports of the deaths of young people due to the consumption of the flavored-alcoholic beverage (FAB) Four Loko, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) examined whether Phusion Projects violated federal law by using deceptive marketing. In 2013, the FTC responded by ordering alcohol facts labels on Four Loko disclosing the number of standard drinks contained in the product. This paper aims to discuss whether the FTC's order for alcohol facts labels on Four Loko cans will effectively reduce the hazardous consumption of FABs among youth. The authors discuss the existing research that relates to the FTC's order, including studies on the effectiveness of serving size labeling for reducing youth drinking, research on the brand-specific consumption of FABs among underage youth, and the associations between youth drinking and exposure to alcohol marketing. After synthesizing the evidence, the authors conclude that simply requiring the disclosure of the number of standard drinks on supersized Four Loko cans is not likely to adequately address the hazardous consumption of this beverage among underage drinkers. Instead, if the FTC addresses the marketing of these products and its potential to encourage the excessive use of alcohol, as the Attorneys General did recently in a settlement with the same company, it is possible that there would be a greater impact on reducing youth alcohol consumption. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of alcohol facts labels in changing underage drinking behaviors.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 09/2014; 40(6):1-4. DOI:10.3109/00952990.2014.951122