Journal of Fluency Disorders (J FLUENCY DISORD )

Publisher: Research Foundation for Communication Disorders; International Fluency Association, Elsevier


Now recognized as the only publication devoted specifically to fluency, Journal of Fluency Disorders provides comprehensive coverage of clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects of stuttering, including the latest remediation techniques. As the Official Journal of the International Fluency Association, the journal features full-length research and clinical reports; methodological, theoretical and philosophical articles; reviews; short communications and much more - all readily accessible and tailored to the needs of the professional. Selected abstracts from Journal of Fluency Disorders are available in Ampersand, the Elsevier Science linguistics newsletter.

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    Journal of Fluency Disorders website
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    Journal of fluency disorders (Online)
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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and a reference population of children who do not stutter, and to evaluate the association between stuttering severity and HrQoL. Baseline data were used from 197 children participating in a multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial in the Netherlands. Information on stuttering severity and time since onset (TSO) of stuttering was obtained from the baseline evaluation by speech- and language therapists. Stuttering severity was measured using the SSI-3. HrQoL was assessed using proxy versions of two Child Health Questionnaires (ITQOL-97 and CHQ-PF28), the Health Utility Index 3 (HUI3) and the EuroQoL EQ-VAS (EQ-VAS). While the outcomes on the EQ-VAS and the HUI3 showed that the HrQoL of CWS is slightly poorer than that of the Dutch reference population, results on the different dimensions of the CHQ-instruments did not reveal any difference in scores between stuttering children and reference groups. Within the group of CWS, two ITQOL-97 and four CHQ-PF28 scales showed statistically different scores for children in different SSI stuttering severity or TSO categories. However, the effect sizes showed that these differences were so small that they could be considered negligible. The results of this study do not reveal a diminished HrQoL for preschool CWS. Future research should include a larger cohort of children with severe stuttering, study the longitudinal course of HrQoL and incorporate additional parameters such as the characteristics of the child and his environment. The reader will be able to: (a) summarize the current evidence base on HrQoL in people who stutter; (b) describe the HrQoL of preschool CWS on different HrQoL measures; (c) describe the relationship between stuttering severity and HrQoL in preschool CWS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 12/2014; 42:1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: The Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure are two measures of the phonological complexity of a word. Other phonological measures such as phonological neighborhood density have been used to compare stuttered versus fluent words. It appears that in preschoolers who stutter, the length and complexity of the utterance is more influential than the phonetic features of the stuttered word. The present hypothesis was that in school-age children who stutter, stuttered words would be more phonologically complex than fluent words, when the length and complexity of the utterance containing them is comparable. School-age speakers who stutter were hypothesized to differ from those with a concomitant language disorder. Sixteen speakers, six females and ten males (M age=12;3; Range=7;7 to 19;5) available from an online database, were divided into eight who had a concomitant language disorder (S+LD) and eight age- and sex-matched speakers who did not (S-Only). When all stuttered content words were identified, S+LD speakers produced more repetitions, and S-Only speakers produced more inaudible sound prolongations. When stuttered content words were matched to fluent content words and when talker groups were combined, stuttered words were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in both the Index of Phonological Complexity and the Word Complexity Measure and lower in density ("sparser") than fluent words. Results corroborate those of previous researchers. Future research directions are suggested, such as cross-sectional designs to evaluate developmental patterns of phonological complexity and stuttering plus language disordered connections. Educational objectives: The reader will be able to: (a) Define and describe phonological complexity; (b) Define phonological neighborhood density and summarize the literature on the topic; (c) Describe the Index of Phonological Complexity (IPC) for a given word; (d) Describe the Word Complexity Measure (WCM) for a given word; (e) Summarize two findings from the current study and describe how each relates to studies of phonological complexity and fluency disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the personality trait extraversion and the communication attitude in people who stutter (PWS). Method Thirty PWS completed Erickson's Communication Attitude Scale (S-24) (Andrews & Cutler, 1974) as well as a Dutch adaptation of the extraversion scale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (Hoekstra, 1996). Results The communication attitude scores correlated significantly with the extraversion scores: PWS with a more negative communication attitude were more introvert and PWS with a more positive attitude were more extravert. Conclusion This result suggests that the S-24 is not only sensitive to communication attitude in relation to speech impairment, but also to the respondent's degree of extraversion. Consequently, assessment of communication attitude needs to be re-thought so as to take personality factors into account. Educational objectives: Readers should be able to: (1) describe the difference between temperament and personality; (2) describe what the S-24 Communication attitude scale measures in PWS; (3) describe how the personality trait extraversion may influence the communication attitude in PWS; (4) describe how the extraversion scale is correlated to the communication attitude scale according to the authors of this article.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose In preschool children, we investigated whether expressive and receptive language, phonological, articulatory, and/or verbal working memory proficiencies aid in predicting eventual recovery or persistence of stuttering. Methods. Participants included 65 children, including 25 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 40 who stutter (CWS) recruited at age 3;9-5;8. At initial testing, participants were administered the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language, 3rd edition (TACL-3), Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test, 3rd edition (SPELT-3), Bankson-Bernthal Test of Phonology-Consonant Inventory subtest (BBTOP-CI), Nonword Repetition Test (NRT; Dollaghan & Campbell, 1998), and Test of Auditory Perceptual Skills-Revised (TAPS-R) auditory number memory and auditory word memory subtests. Stuttering behaviors of CWS were assessed in subsequent years, forming groups whose stuttering eventually persisted (CWS-Per; n = 19) or recovered (CWS-Rec; n = 21). Proficiency scores in morphosyntactic skills, consonant production, verbal working memory for known words, and phonological working memory and speech production for novel nonwords obtained at the initial testing were analyzed for each group. Results. CWS-Per were less proficient than CWNS and CWS-Rec in measures of consonant production (BBTOP-CI) and repetition of novel phonological sequences (NRT). In contrast, receptive language, expressive language, and verbal working memory abilities did not distinguish CWS-Rec from CWS-Per. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that preschool BBTOP-CI scores and overall NRT proficiency significantly predicted future recovery status. Conclusion. Results suggest that phonological and speech articulation abilities in the preschool years should be considered with other predictive factors as part of a comprehensive risk assessment for the development of chronic stuttering.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We investigated short-term practice and retention of nonwords in 10 adults who stutter (Mean age = 30.7 years, SD = 15.1) and age and sex-matched 10 control participants (Mean age = 30.8 years, SD = 14.9). Methods. Participants were required to repeat nonwords varying in length (3, 4, 6 syllables), phonotactic constraint (PC vs. NPC, on 3-syllable nonwords only), and complexity (simple, complex). They were tested twice with one hour gap between sessions. Results. Logistic mixed model of speech accuracy revealed that the AWS showed a significantly lower probability of correct responses with increasing length and complexity. Analysis of speech kinematics revealed practice effects within Session 1 in AWS seen as a reduction in movement variability for the 3-syllable nonwords; the control group was performing at ceiling at this length. For the 4-syllable nonwords, the control group showed a significant reduction in movement variability with practice, and retained this reduction in Session 2, while the AWS group did not show practice or retention. Group differences were not evident at the 6-syllable level. Conclusions. Group differences in speech accuracy suggest differences in phonemic encoding and/or speech motor processes. Group differences in changes in movement variability within and between sessions suggest reduced practice and retention in AWS. Relevance of the combined use of both behavioral and kinematic measures to interpret the nature of the skill acquisition deficit in persons who stutter is discussed.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Social anxiety is common for those who stutter and efficacious Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for them appears viable. However, there are difficulties with provision of CBT services for anxiety among those who stutter. Standalone Internet CBT treatment is a potential solution to those problems. CBTpsych is a fully automated, online social anxiety intervention for those who stutter. This report is a Phase I trial of CBTpsych. Method Fourteen participants were allowed 5 months to complete seven sections of CBTpsych. Pre-treatment and post-treatment assessments tested for social anxiety, common unhelpful thoughts related to stuttering, quality of life and stuttering frequency. Results Significant post-treatment improvements in social anxiety, unhelpful thoughts, and quality of life were reported. Five of seven participants diagnosed with social anxiety lost those diagnoses at post-treatment. The two participants who did not lose social anxiety diagnoses did not complete all the CBTpsych modules. CBTpsych did not improve stuttering frequency. Eleven of the fourteen participants who began treatment completed Section 4 or more of the CBTpsych intervention. Conclusions CBTpsych provides a potential means to provide CBT treatment for social anxiety associated with stuttering, to any client without cost, regardless of location. Further clinical trialing is warranted. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: 1) describe that social anxiety is common in those who stutter 2) discuss the origin of social anxiety and the associated link with bullying 3) summarize the problems in provision of effective evidence based cognitive behavior therapy for adults who stutter 4) describe a scalable computerized treatment designed to tackle the service provision gap 5) describe the unhelpful thoughts associated with stuttering that this fully automated computer program was able to tackle 6) list the positive outcomes for individuals who stuttered that participated in this trial such as the reduction of social anxiety symptoms and improvement in the quality of life for individuals who stuttered and participated in this trial.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 09/2014;
  • Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/2014; 40C:1-3.
  • Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The study sought to compare public attitudes toward cluttering versus stuttering in Norway and Puerto Rico and to compare respondents’ identification of persons known with these fluency disorders. Method After reading lay definitions of cluttering and stuttering, three samples of adults from Norway and three from Puerto Rico rated their attitudes toward cluttering and/or stuttering on modified versions of the POSHA-Cl (for cluttering) and POSHA-S (for stuttering). They also identified children and adults whom they knew who either or both manifested cluttering or stuttering. Results Attitudes toward cluttering were essentially unaffected by rating either cluttering only or combined cluttering and stuttering on the same questionnaire in both countries. The same was also true of stuttering. Attitudes were very similar toward both disorders although slightly less positive for cluttering. Norwegian attitudes toward both disorders were generally more positive than Puerto Rican attitudes. The average respondent identified slightly more than one fluency disorder, a higher percentage for stuttering than cluttering and higher for adults than children. Cluttering-stuttering was rarely identified. Conclusion Given a lay definition, this study confirmed that adults from diverse cultures hold attitudes toward cluttering that are similar to—but somewhat less positive than—their attitudes toward stuttering. It also confirmed that adults can identify cluttering among people they know, although less commonly than stuttering. Design controls in this study assured that consideration of stuttering did not affect either the attitudes or identification results for cluttering
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Anxiety and emotional reactions have a central role in many theories of stuttering, for example that persons who stutter would tend to have an emotionally sensitive temperament. The possible relation between stuttering and certain traits of temperament or personality were reviewed and analyzed, with focus on temporal relations (i.e., what comes first). It was consistently found that preschool children who stutter (as a group) do not show any tendencies towards elevated temperamental traits of shyness or social anxiety compared with children who do not stutter. Significant group differences were, however, repeatedly reported for traits associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, which is likely to reflect a subgroup of children who stutter. Available data is not consistent with the proposal that the risk for persistent stuttering is increased by an emotionally reactive temperament in children who stutter. Speech-related social anxiety develops in many cases of stuttering, before adulthood. Reduction of social anxiety in adults who stutter does not in itself appear to result in significant improvement of speech fluency. Studies have not revealed any relation between the severity of the motor symptoms of stuttering and temperamental traits. It is proposed that situational variability of stuttering, related to social complexity, is an effect of interference from social cognition and not directly from the emotions of social anxiety. In summary, the studies in this review provide strong evidence that persons who stutter are not characterized by constitutional traits of anxiety or similar constructs.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 06/2014;
  • Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/2014; 40:1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The study aimed to investigate how cluttering specialists rated degree of, prominence or saliency of various communication dimensions as contributing to the overall cluttering, severity. Method Using a 9-point Likert type scoring system, 31 cluttering specialists (with an average of 19, years of experience with cluttering) rated the relative importance of eight speech and language, dimensions often associated with cluttering, from ‘1’ (‘not important’) at the low end to a ‘9’ (‘very, important’) at the high saliency end. Results Though the salience ratings differed, the values in most cases were toward the high end of the, rating scale. Additionally, correlational analyses revealed several patterns of inter-correlation among, the dimensions indicating that contribution of each communication dimension to overall cluttering, severity may not be the same for all. Rather, it suggested that these dimensions may speak to cluttering, severity through differential perceptual pathways that characterized the thinking of the experts who, participated. Conclusion Greater understanding of the various communication behaviors contributing to cluttering, severity is needed for theoretical, research and clinical purposes. To the extent that the dimensions, studied are thought to be relevant for cluttering, the results strengthen the notion that these, dimensions (and perhaps others) should be included if we are to capture a comprehensive picture of, cluttering severity.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate anxiety and psychological functioning among adolescents seeking speech therapy for stuttering using a structured, diagnostic interview and psychological questionnaires. This study also sought to determine whether any differences in psychological status were evident between younger and older adolescents. Method Participants were 37 stuttering adolescents seeking stuttering treatment. We administered the Computerized Voice Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, and five psychometric tests. Participants were classified into younger (12–14 years; n = 20) and older adolescents (15–17 years; n = 17). Results Thirty-eight percent of participants attained at least one diagnosis of a mental disorder, according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; APA, 2000), with the majority of these diagnoses involving anxiety. This figure is double current estimates for general adolescent populations, and is consistent with our finding of moderate and moderate–severe quality of life impairment. Although many of the scores on psychological measures fell within the normal range, older adolescents (15–17 years) reported significantly higher anxiety, depression, reactions to stuttering, and emotional/behavioral problems, than younger adolescents (12–14 years). There was scant evidence that self-reported stuttering severity is correlated with mental health issues. There are good reasons to believe these results are conservative because many participants gave socially desirable responses about their mental health status. Discussion These results reveal a need for large-scale, statistically powerful assessments of anxiety and other mental disorders among stuttering adolescents with reference to control populations. Educational Objectives: The reader will be able to: (a) explain the clinical importance of assessing for mental health with stuttering adolescents, (b) state the superior method for adolescent mental health assessment and (c) state a major issue with determining the genuineness of stuttering adolescent responses to psychological assessment.
    Journal of Fluency Disorders 01/2013;