Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology (J Nucl Med Tech )

Publisher: Society of Nuclear Medicine (1953- ). Technologist Section


Published by the technologist section of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology focuses entirely on the technology crucial to nuclear medicine. In peer-reviewed articles, every quarter the journal offers recent technically centered articles on imaging and instrumentation, radiopharmacy, quality assurance, radiation safety, and more. JNMT also serves as an invaluable continuing education tool, with teaching editorials, reviews of programs and certification updates, and continuing education articles.

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    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology website
  • Other titles
    JNMT online., Journal of nuclear medicine technology
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    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of filtered backprojection (FBP) and ordered-subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithms available in several types of commercial SPECT software. Numeric simulations of SPECT acquisitions of 2 phantoms were used: the National Electrical Manufacturers Association line phantom used for the assessment of SPECT resolution and a phantom with uniform, hot-rod, and cold-rod compartments. For FBP, no filtering and filtering of the projections with either a Butterworth filter (order 3 or 6) or a Hanning filter at various cutoff frequencies were considered. For OSEM, the number of subsets was 1, 4, 8, or 16, and the number of iterations was chosen to obtain a product number of iterations times the number of subsets equal to 16, 32, 48, or 64. The line phantom enabled us to obtain the reconstructed central, radial, and tangential full width at half maximum. The uniform compartment of the second phantom delivered the reconstructed mean pixel counts and SDs from which the coefficients of variation were calculated. Hot contrast and cold contrast were obtained from its rod compartments. For FBP, the full width at half maximum, mean pixel count, coefficient of variation, and contrast were almost software independent. The only exceptions were a smaller (by 0.5 mm) full width at half maximum for one of the software types, higher mean pixel counts for 2 of the software types, and better contrast for 2 of the software types under some filtering conditions. For OSEM, the full width at half maximum differed by 0.1-2.5 mm with the different types of software but was almost independent of the number of subsets or iterations. There was a marked dependence of the mean pixel count on the type of software used, and there was a moderate dependence of the coefficient of variation. Contrast was almost software independent. The mean pixel count varied greatly with the number of iterations for 2 of the software types, and the coefficient of variation increased with the number of iterations for all types of software. The mean pixel count, coefficient of variation, and contrast were almost constant for a fixed product number of iterations times the number of subsets, whatever the number of subsets or iterations. Most of the types of software were equivalent for FBP or OSEM reconstruction. However, a few differences were observed with some types of software and should be considered when they are used.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 10/2009; 37(3):179-87.
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    ABSTRACT: The Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) published procedure guidelines for thyroid imaging in 1999. We wished to determine how many clinics performing thyroid imaging follow the guidelines and to what extent. Of particular interest to us was the choice of collimator. We developed a 10-question survey to obtain information on how hospitals perform thyroid imaging. The questions were designed to cover the procedure recommendations of the SNM guidelines. The survey was sent to 350 hospitals randomly selected from 11 states in the northeastern United States. One hundred sixty-five surveys (47%) were returned. Most of the clinics that responded obtain a history, hyperextend the neck, and obtain anterior and anterior oblique views. Twenty-five percent of the respondents obtain all their images with a parallel-hole collimator. Seventy-five percent use a pinhole collimator or a combination of parallel-hole and pinhole collimators. The number of counts and time used for acquiring the images vary greatly. Less than half the respondents palpate the neck for correlation with the scan. The survey results indicated that many clinics do not follow the recommendations of the SNM guidelines. The major deviations from the guidelines were in the choice of collimator, the number of counts or amount of time used to acquire images, and the lack of neck palpation for correlation with the scan.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 09/2009; 37(3):173-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Because of the penetrating ability of the radiation used in nuclear medicine, metallic lead is widely used as radiation shielding. However, this shielding may present an insidious health hazard because of the dust that is readily removed from the surfaces of lead objects. The lead dust may become airborne, contaminate floors and other nearby surfaces, and be inadvertently inhaled or ingested by patients. We determined if the quantity of lead dust encountered within nuclear medicine departments exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. For lead dust quantification, professional lead test kits were used to sample fifteen 1-ft(2) sections of different surfaces within the department. Four samples were collected once per week from each site. The samples were then submitted to a National Lead Laboratory-accredited program for a total lead measurement. Lead contamination (mug/ft(2)) for each of the 60 samples was compared with the EPA standards for lead dust. Lead contamination was present at 6 of the 15 sites, and of 60 samples, 18 exceeded the EPA standard of 50 mug/ft(2). Lead contamination is present within nuclear medicine departments, and corrective measures should be considered when dealing with pediatric patients. A larger series needs to be conducted to confirm these findings.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 09/2009; 37(3):170-2.
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    ABSTRACT: With PET becoming more widely used, there is an increase in the number of imaging centers being forced to rely on distant suppliers of (18)F-FDG. Because of the large distances between major urban centers, this is particularly true for PET centers in Canada. Our PET center, located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, currently purchases (18)F-FDG from a commercial vendor located more than 1,000 km from Winnipeg, necessitating transport by commercial airline cargo. This dependence on air transport and a distant supplier creates a situation in which our (18)F-FDG supply is less reliable than it would be with onsite production. In this article, we offer insight into the obstacles we have encountered in imaging with a distant supplier of (18)F-FDG and the solutions we have implemented to minimize the disruption to our patients and maximize the number of scans performed each year. The development of contingency plans and protocols designed to suit our operating environment has allowed us to increase the number of patient scans obtained from 659 in year 1 to 993 in year 3, an increase of 51%, despite an increase in our actual number of scan days of only 24%. (18)F-FDG injection timetables are presented for a variety of scenarios including normal delivery, low shipped activity, and delayed delivery. Through the careful establishment of contingency protocols and management of (18)F-FDG shipments, patient throughput can be increased and disruptions minimized.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 09/2009; 37(3):164-9.
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    ABSTRACT: In this theoretic note, the rationale for the physical decay correction of the (18)F-FDG input function in dynamic PET is investigated, using the Patlak equation as an example. The Patlak equation conventionally obtained when correcting the (18)F-FDG input function and correcting the tissue activity measurement for (18)F physical decay can also be derived from a 2-compartment analysis that does not conceptually involve any physical decay correction of the (18)F-FDG input function but accounts only for the physical decay of the trapped tracer. We demonstrate that exactly the same equation can be derived from the 2 conceptual approaches, and hence each approach yields the correct uptake rate of the tracer. No advantage in (18)F-FDG dynamic PET can be expected from using the concept of uncorrected data rather than that of decay-corrected data. Nevertheless, conceptually, we show that correcting the (18)F-FDG input function for radioactive decay cannot be justified and that this correction is not compatible with the calculation of patient radiation dose.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 06/2009; 37(2):111-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Red blood cells (RBC) labeled in vivo with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate are used worldwide in nuclear medicine departments. Here, we present a case of (99m)Tc-RBC labeling failure associated with chocolate intake in a 25-y-old woman, resulting in uninterpretable images. Because of this clinical observation, we performed in vitro RBC labeling on blood samples from volunteers after they consumed chocolate. Chocolate intake inhibited the labeling rate, compared with the control condition, and significantly increased the (99m)Tc free fraction (34.1% +/- 11.3% vs. 14.0% +/- 1.2%). We cannot explain how this interaction could occur, but cacao components are known to modulate red cell and plasma oxidoreductive status and to modify red cell membrane permeability and plasticity. Therefore, for patients who can be considered likely to consume chocolate, such as young patients, we recommend that they limit their consumption of chocolate for 12 h before RBC labeling.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 06/2009; 37(2):107-10.
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    ABSTRACT: In this descriptive study of radionuclide cystography, time-activity curves were generated from renal pelves with reflux and evaluated to reveal the physiology of the reflux. The generated new parameters were also evaluated for any correlation with the frequency of urinary tract infections and renal scarring. Thirty-two children with reflux to the renal pelvis (36 refluxing units) were included. Regions of interest were drawn on the pelves and bladder, and time-activity curves were generated. The first reflux phase, the bladder volume at first reflux, and the bladder volume at maximal reflux were defined, and reflux percentages were calculated. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy findings and urinary tract infections were used for correlation. New curves from the renal pelvis during bladder filling and bladder emptying were generated and their patterns classified. Episodic reflux to the pelvis was observed on time-activity curves, which demonstrated 4 different emptying patterns during voiding. These patterns were described in detail. Visually, residual activity was present in the renal pelves in 58.8% of patients. The mean number of urinary tract infections per year was 1.07 (range, 0-4; SD, 0.88). The DMSA findings were normal in 57.1% of the patients. We obtained and categorized some new time-activity curve patterns from renal pelves with reflux on radionuclide cystography. Discussing these patterns may help physicians understand the physiology of the reflux and the relationship between infections and reflux.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 06/2009; 37(2):101-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Attenuation, scatter, and blurring are 3 major contributors to SPECT image degradation. Image reconstruction without compensation for these degradations results in reduced contrast and reduced quantitative accuracy. In this proof-of-concept study, we present an efficient postprocessing method to compensate for the scatter and blurring effect in SPECT. A raw image is first reconstructed with attenuation correction only. Then, a 2-dimensional (2D) point spread function (PSF) in the image domain is estimated to model the scatter and blurring. This spatially variant 2D PSF is fitted with an asymmetric gaussian function. The accuracy of the estimated 2D PSF is compared with that estimated from the Monte Carlo simulations and the scatter response functions in the projection domain. A further-blurring-and-deconvolution method is used to restore images with the spatially variant 2D PSF. The method is tested using computer simulations and a phantom experiment. The preliminary results demonstrate an improvement in image quality, with increased image contrast and quantitative accuracy, and the feasibility of this postprocessing method. We present a proof-of-concept study for a postprocessing method to compensate for scatter and blurring. Our results indicate that the method is a promising alternative to the state-of-the-art compensation methods thanks to its easy and fast implementation.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 06/2009; 37(2):83-90.
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    ABSTRACT: This article presents the exciting advances made and ongoing in the area of pharmacologic cardiac stress testing. In particular, new A(2A)-specific receptor agonists work like adenosine but promise the delivery of uncomplicated vasodilator stress testing or the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary disease. These agents, although not perfect, do likely present a level of protection against the complications of bronchospasm and heart block. Phase III studies have shown that these agents promise a reduced symptom intensity and greater patient tolerance. One of these agents, regadenoson, is now Food and Drug Administration approved and will be delivered as the same single-dose bolus in all patients, regardless of weight, greatly simplifying the method and increasing its acceptability. Most widely applied with myocardial perfusion SPECT, these agents will find application with PET myocardial perfusion studies and likely MRI studies. Because of their effect on coronary supply rather than demand, they will not be applied with stress echocardiography. Before considering these agents, we will consider the principles and methods of stress testing, and particularly pharmacologic stress testing. The learning objectives of this article are to familiarize the reader with the methods and choices in stress testing for coronary disease diagnosis and prognosis, to present the advantages and disadvantages of pharmacologic stress testing, to review current pharmacologic stress-testing methods and their specific combination with imaging methods, to present the chemistry and effects of the new A(2a)-specific receptor agonists and their advantages compared with existing nonspecific agents, and to help the reader better understand the clinical role of the A(2a)-specific receptor agonists and their application.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 04/2009; 37(1):14-25.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the Visual Monte Carlo radiation transport code and the female voxel phantom FAX were used to calculate organ and effective doses delivered by target-source irradiation geometries associated with radioiodine therapy treatments. Specific situations were considered: when a patient was accompanied during hospitalization, when a patient was accompanied on return to his or her residence, and when a patient received daily care at home. This simulation study showed that, in the 3 situations considered, the total effective dose to an individual in normal contact with the patient was less than 0.85 mSv for up to 11.1 GBq (300 mCi) of administered activity. The results of this study suggest that for these patients receiving radioiodine therapy, radiation protection procedures after hospital discharge are unnecessary.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 03/2009; 37(1):53-6.
  • Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology 03/2009; 37(1):60-1.