The Physician and sportsmedicine

Description

The Physician and Sportsmedicine is a peer-reviewed monthly journal serving the practicing physician's professional and personal interests in the medical aspects of exercise, sports, and fitness. The most widely read clinical sports medicine journal in the world, we cover practical, primary care-oriented topics such as diagnosing and treating knee and ankle injuries, managing chronic disease, preventing and managing overuse injuries, helping patients lose weight safely, and all manner of exercise and nutrition topics.

Impact factor 1.49

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  • 5-year impact
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  • Immediacy index
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  • Website
    Physician and Sportsmedicine Online, The website
  • Other titles
    Physician and sportsmedicine, Physician and sports medicine, Sportsmedicine, Sports medicine
  • ISSN
    0091-3847
  • OCLC
    1787159
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Just as the type and duration of physical activity can have variable effects on the glucose levels and other cardiometabolic parameters among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), so can the types of foods have variable effects as well. This 12-week randomized study of 51 study participants evaluated the impact of routine consumption of dark raisins versus alternative processed snacks on glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type T2DM. In this study, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 23% reduction in postprandial glucose levels (P = 0.024). Also compared to snacks, those who consumed raisins had a 19% reduction in fasting glucose and 0.12% reduction in hemoglobin A1c, although these latter findings did not achieve statistical significance. Regarding blood pressure, compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins had a significant 8.7 mmHg reduction in systolic blood pressure (P = 0.035) (7.5% [P = 0.031]) but did not experience a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Compared to alternative processed snacks, those who consumed raisins did not have a significant improvement in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglyceride, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Overall, these data support raisins as a healthy alternative compare to processed snacks in patients with T2DM.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To summarize the best available evidence to determine if tendon needling is an effective treatment for tendinopathy. Data source. Medline and Cochrane Databases through November 2013. Review methods. Utilizing the search terms tendinopathy, needle, needling, tenotomy, dry needling, needling tendon, needle fenestration, and tendon fenestration, 17 articles were identified through our systematic literature search. Of these, 4 studies met the inclusion criteria. Four independent reviewers reviewed the articles. The study results and generated conclusions were agreed upon. Results. The studies that were included in this review suggest that tendon needling improves patient reported outcomes in patients with tendinopathy. In 2 studies evaluating tendon needling in lateral epicondylosis, one showed an improvement in a subjective visual analogue scale score of 34% (significant change > 25%) from baseline at 6 months. The other showed an improvement of 56.1% in a visual analogue scale score from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in addition to eccentric therapy for Achilles tendinosis, the subjective Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score improved by 19.9 (significant change > 10) (95% CI, 13.6-26.2) from baseline. In 1 study evaluating tendon needling in rotator cuff tendinosis, the subjective shoulder pain and disability index showed statistical significant improvement from baseline at 6 months (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The evidence suggests that tendon needling improves patient-reported outcome measures in patients with tendinopathy. There is a trend that shows that the addition of autologous blood products may further improve theses outcomes.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Many common conditions in sports medicine are eponymous; that is, they are named for the person first describing or popularizing the diagnosis. But other medical conditions are named for the action or activity that is associated with the pathology. This article lists and references these conditions, and suggests that this group of conditions should be called "motionyms."
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Chronic tendinopathy has often been a management dilemma for general practitioners. With our understanding of the pathophysiology of tendinopathy evolving, so has our management, with the advent of newer strategies such as topical glycerol trinitrate, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy, as well as platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Aim: To systematically review the literature regarding PRP therapy in chronic tendinopathy. Design and setting: The databases used in our search include the Elton B. Stephens Co. (EBSCO) database, Medline, the Cochrane library, Ovid, and Embase (the Excerpta Medica database). A total of 389 articles were reviewed from Feb 2010 to April 2014, for possible inclusion. Of these articles, a total of 9 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met our inclusion criteria. Only 1 RCT was excluded due to previous surgery in both the trial and control groups. Methods: Each article was reviewed independently by 2 authors. Each article was analyzed using the Cochrane Criteria checklist. Where any discrepancy occurred in results, a third independent reviewer was consulted. Results: Our review found that PRP was most effective in patellar and lateral epicondylar tendinopathy, with both RCTs in the patellar section of our study supporting the use of PRP in pain reduction at 3 and 12 months, whereas 2 of 4 studies in the lateral epicondylar section showed improvements in pain and disability at 6 and 12 months. There was a lack of evidence to support the use of PRP in Achilles and rotator cuff tendinopathy. Conclusions: Although the results of this review show promise for the use of PRP in chronic tendinopathy, the analysis highlighted the need for more controlled clinical trials comparing PRP with placebo.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The large amount of force imparted across the shoulder during the act of throwing makes the glenohumeral joint highly susceptible to injury in the athlete performing overhead throwing motions. The bony incongruity of the shoulder enables greater range of motion than any other joint in the body, but it also results in significant strain on the surrounding soft tissues during the throwing motion. Throwers can present with acute injuries, but more commonly they suffer from chronic overuse conditions resulting from repetitive overload. Proper management requires early recognition with treatment directed toward the athlete's safe return to sports. Failure to institute an appropriate management strategy may result in significant complications, including prolonged disability, progression of symptoms, and further injury. We discuss the functional anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and treatment of common injuries of the glenoid labrum and rotator cuff in the overhead throwing athlete.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of a cancer survivor exercise program and an online recovery awareness program (Restwise) on physical outcomes of aerobic capacity and muscle strength. Design. Randomized controlled trial design. Setting. Treasure Valley Family YMCA, Boise, ID. Sample: Fifty cancer survivors. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the 12-week exercise program or the exercise program and Restwise. Restwise required users to complete daily objective and subjective ratings. Restwise compiles these data to provide individualized feedback recommending the exercise dose to maximize recovery and minimize fatigue. Main Research variable. Baseline and posttest measures of physical performance (6-minute walk, 1-repetition maximum of lower and upper body strength). Findings. The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated significant improvements (P < 0.001) that were found on all 3 physical measurements of strength and endurance. The exercise-only group demonstrated significant within-group improvement only on the 6-minute walk. The exercise plus Restwise group demonstrated an 18.5% greater improvement in the 6-minute walk, and a 35.2% and 45%, respectively, greater improvement on the leg and chest press than the exercise-only group. However, the between-group differences were not significant. Conclusion. Cancer survivors who use the Restwise online recovery program in conjunction with an exercise program demonstrated minimal clinically important differences compared with other clinical populations on all 3 measures, whereas the exercise-only group had improvements only on the 6-minute walk. Patient adherence to the Restwise program was good, and patients provided positive feedback.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Athletes are often advised to drink in order to "fully replace bodyweight losses" in order to prevent exertional heatstroke (EHS) during exercise in the heat. There is little evidence that "dehydration" in the range experienced by athletes adversely affects thermoregulation or is the exclusive cause of EHS. In contrast it is established that excess fluid intake can cause exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) sometimes associated with encephalopathy (EAHE). As part of a series of experiments to determine optimal fluid replacement during exercise in the heat, we studied a group of exceptionally well-conditioned and heat-adapted members of the South African National Defence Force. A 20 year old male started a time restricted 50 km route-march in a dry bulb temperature that reached 37.5°C (WBGT of 33.6°C, relative humidity of 85%). Pre-march plasma osmolality, serum [Na(+)] and total body water measures indicated euhydration. Fluid was available ad libitum and isotonic sports drinks at 5 km intervals. Fluid intake and core body temperature (Tc) were recorded throughout while he was tracked by a global positioning system measuring distance travelled, position and speed. Comparing the total fluid intake of the soldier (12930 L) to the rest of the participants (mean intake of 9 038 L) up to 40 km, it is evident that his intake was 3892 L (approximately 300 mL h(-1)) more than the mean for group. At approximately 17h14 the soldier was found lying by himself at the side of the route, 2.24 km from the finish point. He passed away the next day in a medical care facility. This tragic event provides the valuable opportunity to present data on the pacing, temperature regulation and fluid consumption of an exceptional athlete during the development of a fatal case of combined EAHE and EHS. Pacing, fluid intake, Tc and environmental condition data are presented for 5km intervals throughout the march. We propose a novel hypothesis on the possible contribution of EAHE to the development of EHS.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Anaphylaxis is an unanticipated, acute, and sometimes life-threatening systemic reaction with variable clinical presentations that is typically mediated by immunoglobulin E and causes degranulation of mast cells and basophils. The onset of symptoms can occur within minutes or hours after exposure to a known or suspected trigger, and reactions sometimes progress very rapidly, which can lead to death. One trigger of anaphylaxis in younger adults is moderately intense physical exercise, which has been termed exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA). Although rare, EIA should be recognized as a distinct and potentially life-threatening form of physical allergy, and is often undetected or inadequately treated. The ingestion of specific foods, including seafood, tree nuts, and wheat, or a nonspecific meal consisting of multiple food components shortly before or after physical exertion, is sometimes, but not always, the principal precipitant of EIA. This article briefly explores the current hypotheses on the role of immunoglobulin E, response mediators, and physiologic changes that bring on EIA, and discusses the current recommendations for diagnosis, including allergen challenge and laboratory testing, emergency care, and long-term prevention and patient follow-up. Accurate diagnosis of EIA is critical to providing lifesaving therapy and care plans to patients at risk. With respect to the medical management of EIA, mainstay therapy with epinephrine is described. For those with a known history of EIA, a comprehensive anaphylaxis action plan is central to successful patient management. Furthermore, patient education is necessary to heighten awareness of the signs and symptoms of EIA and appropriate strategies for allergen avoidance and self-management of anaphylactic episodes with self-injectable epinephrine.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Treatment of type III acromioclavicular (AC) separations is controversial, especially in the dominant shoulder of a high-level throwing athlete. This case report describes the return to play after nonoperative management of a collegiate baseball pitcher with a severe type III AC separation in his throwing shoulder. Hypothesis/purpose. Case report of return to play with nonoperative management of a type III AC separation in the throwing shoulder of a collegiate pitcher. Study design. A case report of a single patient. Methods. Prospective data were recorded in the case of a collegiate pitcher who suffered an acute injury to the dominant shoulder, resulting in a severe type III AC separation. He was initially treated with a figure-of-8 brace and a sling. Postinjury, strengthening of the wrist, hand, and elbow began at 3½ weeks, and shoulder range of motion (ROM) and a periscapular strengthening program began at 6 weeks. At 2 months postinjury, a deformity was still present, but the athlete was pain free, with full shoulder ROM and strength without tenderness at the AC joint. Formal physical therapy was initiated to include an accelerated interval throwing program. Results. At 12 weeks postinjury, the athlete was pitching asymptomatically, and gradually returned to regular play. At 6 months and now through 24 months postinjury, the athlete reported full strength, full ROM, and return to his previous level of throwing and velocity without complication. He volunteered that he was 100% satisfied with the result, and feels he is the same pitcher as, if not stronger than, prior to this injury. Conclusions. This case demonstrates a collegiate baseball pitcher who returned to his preinjury level of pitching with nonoperative treatment of a severe type III AC separation.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Glenohumeral joint dislocation is common among younger, active patients. Anterior dislocation is the most common direction of instability following a traumatic event. Due to a high rate of recurrence following primary traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation, an evidence-based approach is necessary to determine the best treatment regime for a patient presenting with this problem. A history, physical examination, and radiographic imaging can help guide treatment recommendations by determining the extent of soft tissue damage following dislocation. Controversies in the treatment of the first-time dislocator include the length and position of immobilization following dislocation, and the role of initial surgical stabilization. This article outlines the treatment options for the first-time glenohumeral dislocator, with an emphasis on the available evidence in the literature. Where applicable, the criteria known as the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy were used to summarize the strength of evidence available for recommendations.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis is characterized by acute attacks of muscle paralysis, hypokalemia, and thyrotoxicosis. It is a medical emergency, as fatal and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia associated with hypokalemia has been reported. A 24-year-old man presented with severe lower extremity weakness, which progressed to his trunk and arms. He denied any associated symptoms and had no history of a similar episode or predisposing condition. The physical examination was significant for bilateral extremity weakness, more severe in the lower as compared to the upper extremities. The rest of the neurologic exam was normal. A small, smooth, nontender goiter was palpated. Laboratory data was significant for a potassium level of 2.0 mEq/L. Final lab data revealed a thyroid panel consistent with hyperthyroidism. Once the patient's potassium level normalized after repletion, he recovered his strength and was able to walk again. He was diagnosed with thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis, a potentially lethal complication of hyperthyroidism. Because it is reversible with treatment of hyperthyroidism, it is imperative that this condition be considered, recognized and managed appropriately.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 01/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic balance has been considered a fundamental skill at all ages and is required for normal daily tasks, such as walking, running, or other sports activities. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has been widely used in recent years to identify dynamic balance deficits and improvements and to predict the risk of lower extremity injury. However, no study has demonstrated the reliability of the SEBT in children while they are performing the test in a physical education session. Reliability is needed in all measurement tools in order to provide repeatable and consistent data. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the SEBT in primary school students in the school setting. Methods: Twenty-four healthy children with typical development were tested twice, 2 weeks apart. The tests were conducted by the same single rater and were performed during the physical education class. The test was performed under standardized conditions during the 2 testing sessions and was performed by each subject with both limbs in the 3 directions (anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral). Four practice trials were performed in each direction before selecting 3 additional distances reached. The best value of these 3 additional measured trials was selected. The paired t test was used to ensure the absence of any systematic bias. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and minimal change values were calculated to assess reliability and measurement error. Results: The paired t tests revealed no significant differences between test-rest scores. Test-retest reliability for all distances reached was moderate to good. Conclusions: Reliability values suggest that the SEBT is suitable for primary school students. However, it may be more practical and feasible during extracurricular sports participation due to the time constraints and difficulties in using the test in the school setting.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is a shortage of literature describing the experience of individuals who have participated in a physical activity and mobile health (mHealth) intervention. Many physical activity interventions are of short duration and do not report long-term changes in clinical measures or adoption of prescribed health behaviors. Previously, we have reported the clinical and behavioral outcomes from the first phase of a physical activity prescription and mHealth intervention delivered through the primary care setting. The purpose of this next phase is to perform a longitudinal follow-up 6-months postintervention. Mixed methods analysis including repeated measures ANOVA of functional aerobic capacity (VO2max) at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up clinic visits, and whole text analysis of semistructured interviews discussing the participant experience in a health behavior intervention. Twenty participants, mean age 63 ± 5 years, participated. Gains made in VO2max were maintained at 6 months (P < 0.05). Participants reported engaging in sustained and routine physical activity, yet some identified a need for additional support to adopt the prescribed health behaviors. Emergent themes included the desire for short-term mHealth intervention to educate individuals about prescribed health behaviors without need for ongoing management by clinicians, leveraging mHealth to build social networks around prescribed health behaviors and to connect individuals to build a sense of community, and participant views of physical activity as medicine. The present study investigated both the long-term adoption of physical activity behaviors as well as the participant experience in a physical activity and mHealth intervention. Findings from the current study may be used to inform the development of user-centered lifestyle interventions.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):30-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with over 200 million active players. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents the most striking as well as the most common cause of death in the soccer field. Underlying cardiovascular pathologies predispose to life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and SCD in soccer players. Up to thousands to hundred thousands players might have an underlying condition that predisposes them for SCD. After several media striking SCD events in soccer players the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has made screening recommendations that are more thorough than the ones recommended for the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology. We present a retrospective search through Internet databases that resulted in 54 soccer players with SCD events from 2000 until 2013. In this article, we will describe and discuss the conditions of those cases of SCD in order to provide more knowledge of the factors that may precipitate SCD in young soccer players.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):20-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise-induced cough (EIC) is frequently reported by winter athletes, but this symptom is not always associated with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The aims of this study were to determine if EIC can be inhibited or reduced with the inhalation of ipratropium, and if EIC in winter athletes is associated with EIB. On 2 visits, 24 cross-country skiers (10 males and 12 females, mean age 17 ± 3 years) performed an outdoor exercise in the winter (30-minute warm-up, followed by a 3-minute sprint), randomly preceded by the inhalation of ipratropium or a placebo. A spirometry was done at baseline and 20 minutes after inhalation of ipratropium or placebo. Exercise was then performed, followed by the measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the recording of the number of coughs until 60 minutes after exercise. Before and after exercise, the perception of cough intensity was evaluated using a modified Borg scale. Twelve of 16 athletes who completed the study (75%) were symptomatic following exercise with placebo (number of coughs ≥ 5), but none developed EIB. For these athletes, the number of coughs after exercise (mean number of coughs ± standard deviation: placebo, 26 ± 14; ipratropium, 25 ± 23; P value, nonsignificant) and the maximal perception score for cough intensity (mean Borg score ± standard deviation: placebo, 1.9 ± 1.2; ipratropium, 2.0 ± 1.1; P value, nonsignificant) were not significantly different between ipratropium and placebo. A decrease in the number of coughs was observed in 6 of the symptomatic athletes and an increase was observed in the other 6, resulting in a nonsignificant mean effect. Ipratropium does not appear to significantly influence the number and the perception of cough following exercise. Moreover, these results suggest that EIC is not mainly associated with EIB. However, a subgroup of athletes seems to show a beneficial response to ipratropium, suggesting different cough responses in this population.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):7-13.
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    ABSTRACT: The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P < 0.0001). We found post-hoc that only 7 articles had a readability score ≤ an eighth-grade level, the average reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P < 0.0001). The readability of online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):125-30.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of continuous exposure of a driver's bones and muscles to vibration and G forces to years of automobile racing and the effect on overall health have not yet been examined in detail. The goal of this study was to investigate via questionnaire the musculoskeletal injuries and influencing parameters in 130 amateur and 7 professional race car drivers. A questionnaire, translated in English and German, was used to investigate the parameters that influence the racing performance and the character of resulting injuries. This investigation involved 137 drivers (133 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 42 years (standard deviation = 15). Approximately half of the drivers had < 10 years of experience in auto racing (49%). The drivers mainly complained about pains in the lumbar (n = 36; 26%), shoulder (n = 27; 20%), and neck regions (n = 25; 18%). The driver's posture and the comfort of the seat were statistically significant for causing lower back and upper legs pains. The race duration was relevant to neck and shoulder discomfort. The high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in race car driving indicates the need for further improvements. Elimination of driver complaints about pain in the spine and upper extremities can be achieved through technical development, as already accomplished in Formula One racing.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):80-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Low back pain is a common and costly health care problem. This pilot study evaluated the sensitivity of the 2-stopwatch and Paris plinth methodologies for assessing time-to-onset of pain relief and flexibility, respectively, with continuous, low-level heatwrap therapy. Subjects aged 18 to 55 years with at least moderate baseline acute low back pain were randomly assigned to either heatwrap or oral placebo for 8 hours. Unheated wrap (sham) and oral ibuprofen were included for blinding purposes only. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either heatwrap (n = 26), oral placebo (n = 25), sham wrap (n = 5), or oral ibuprofen (n = 5). Median time to confirmed first perceptible pain relief and to meaningful pain relief were significantly shorter for the heatwrap group compared with those assigned to oral placebo (96.5 vs > 240.0 min and 215.7 vs > 240.0 min, respectively; P < 0.05 for both). Among subjects receiving the heatwrap, 53.8% reported first perceptible and meaningful relief, compared with 28.0% receiving oral placebo. Subjective measures of pain relief, back stiffness, and global evaluation were more sensitive in detecting treatment differences than the plinth assessments of flexibility, range of motion, and pain. Three adverse events were reported as mild in severity and considered unrelated to study treatment. The 2-stopwatch methodology is a viable approach for assessing onset of analgesia in low back pain; however, the plinth may not be a reliable method for assessing flexibility. Consistent with published studies involving much larger sample sizes, the heatwrap provided significantly faster and sustained pain relief than oral placebo in subjects with acute low back pain. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01045993.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):39-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported to produce normal or near-normal knee results in > 90% of patients. A recent meta-analysis suggested that, despite normal or near-normal knees, many athletes do not return to sports. Rates and timing of return to competitive athletics are quite variable depending on the graft type, the age of the patient, the sport, and the level of play. Even when athletes do return to play, often they do not return to their previous level. Graft failure, subjective physical factors, and psychological factors, including fear of reinjury and lack of motivation, appear to play a large role in patients' ability to return to sporting activities.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):71-9.