The Physician and sportsmedicine


The Physician and Sportsmedicine is a peer-reviewed monthly journal serving the practicing physician's professional and personal interests in the medical aspects of exercise, sports, and fitness. The most widely read clinical sports medicine journal in the world, we cover practical, primary care-oriented topics such as diagnosing and treating knee and ankle injuries, managing chronic disease, preventing and managing overuse injuries, helping patients lose weight safely, and all manner of exercise and nutrition topics.

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    Physician and Sportsmedicine Online, The website
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    Physician and sportsmedicine, Physician and sports medicine, Sportsmedicine, Sports medicine
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dynamic balance has been considered a fundamental skill at all ages and is required for normal daily tasks, such as walking, running, or other sports activities. The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) has been widely used in recent years to identify dynamic balance deficits and improvements and to predict the risk of lower extremity injury. However, no study has demonstrated the reliability of the SEBT in children while they are performing the test in a physical education session. Reliability is needed in all measurement tools in order to provide repeatable and consistent data. Objective: To evaluate the reliability of the SEBT in primary school students in the school setting. Methods: Twenty-four healthy children with typical development were tested twice, 2 weeks apart. The tests were conducted by the same single rater and were performed during the physical education class. The test was performed under standardized conditions during the 2 testing sessions and was performed by each subject with both limbs in the 3 directions (anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral). Four practice trials were performed in each direction before selecting 3 additional distances reached. The best value of these 3 additional measured trials was selected. The paired t test was used to ensure the absence of any systematic bias. Intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and minimal change values were calculated to assess reliability and measurement error. Results: The paired t tests revealed no significant differences between test-rest scores. Test-retest reliability for all distances reached was moderate to good. Conclusions: Reliability values suggest that the SEBT is suitable for primary school students. However, it may be more practical and feasible during extracurricular sports participation due to the time constraints and difficulties in using the test in the school setting.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is a shortage of literature describing the experience of individuals who have participated in a physical activity and mobile health (mHealth) intervention. Many physical activity interventions are of short duration and do not report long-term changes in clinical measures or adoption of prescribed health behaviors. Previously, we have reported the clinical and behavioral outcomes from the first phase of a physical activity prescription and mHealth intervention delivered through the primary care setting. The purpose of this next phase is to perform a longitudinal follow-up 6-months postintervention. Mixed methods analysis including repeated measures ANOVA of functional aerobic capacity (VO2max) at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up clinic visits, and whole text analysis of semistructured interviews discussing the participant experience in a health behavior intervention. Twenty participants, mean age 63 ± 5 years, participated. Gains made in VO2max were maintained at 6 months (P < 0.05). Participants reported engaging in sustained and routine physical activity, yet some identified a need for additional support to adopt the prescribed health behaviors. Emergent themes included the desire for short-term mHealth intervention to educate individuals about prescribed health behaviors without need for ongoing management by clinicians, leveraging mHealth to build social networks around prescribed health behaviors and to connect individuals to build a sense of community, and participant views of physical activity as medicine. The present study investigated both the long-term adoption of physical activity behaviors as well as the participant experience in a physical activity and mHealth intervention. Findings from the current study may be used to inform the development of user-centered lifestyle interventions.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):30-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Exercise-induced cough (EIC) is frequently reported by winter athletes, but this symptom is not always associated with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The aims of this study were to determine if EIC can be inhibited or reduced with the inhalation of ipratropium, and if EIC in winter athletes is associated with EIB. On 2 visits, 24 cross-country skiers (10 males and 12 females, mean age 17 ± 3 years) performed an outdoor exercise in the winter (30-minute warm-up, followed by a 3-minute sprint), randomly preceded by the inhalation of ipratropium or a placebo. A spirometry was done at baseline and 20 minutes after inhalation of ipratropium or placebo. Exercise was then performed, followed by the measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and the recording of the number of coughs until 60 minutes after exercise. Before and after exercise, the perception of cough intensity was evaluated using a modified Borg scale. Twelve of 16 athletes who completed the study (75%) were symptomatic following exercise with placebo (number of coughs ≥ 5), but none developed EIB. For these athletes, the number of coughs after exercise (mean number of coughs ± standard deviation: placebo, 26 ± 14; ipratropium, 25 ± 23; P value, nonsignificant) and the maximal perception score for cough intensity (mean Borg score ± standard deviation: placebo, 1.9 ± 1.2; ipratropium, 2.0 ± 1.1; P value, nonsignificant) were not significantly different between ipratropium and placebo. A decrease in the number of coughs was observed in 6 of the symptomatic athletes and an increase was observed in the other 6, resulting in a nonsignificant mean effect. Ipratropium does not appear to significantly influence the number and the perception of cough following exercise. Moreover, these results suggest that EIC is not mainly associated with EIB. However, a subgroup of athletes seems to show a beneficial response to ipratropium, suggesting different cough responses in this population.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):7-13.
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    ABSTRACT: The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P < 0.0001). We found post-hoc that only 7 articles had a readability score ≤ an eighth-grade level, the average reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P < 0.0001). The readability of online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):125-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with over 200 million active players. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) represents the most striking as well as the most common cause of death in the soccer field. Underlying cardiovascular pathologies predispose to life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and SCD in soccer players. Up to thousands to hundred thousands players might have an underlying condition that predisposes them for SCD. After several media striking SCD events in soccer players the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) has made screening recommendations that are more thorough than the ones recommended for the American Heart Association and the European Society of Cardiology. We present a retrospective search through Internet databases that resulted in 54 soccer players with SCD events from 2000 until 2013. In this article, we will describe and discuss the conditions of those cases of SCD in order to provide more knowledge of the factors that may precipitate SCD in young soccer players.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):20-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of continuous exposure of a driver's bones and muscles to vibration and G forces to years of automobile racing and the effect on overall health have not yet been examined in detail. The goal of this study was to investigate via questionnaire the musculoskeletal injuries and influencing parameters in 130 amateur and 7 professional race car drivers. A questionnaire, translated in English and German, was used to investigate the parameters that influence the racing performance and the character of resulting injuries. This investigation involved 137 drivers (133 men and 4 women) with a mean age of 42 years (standard deviation = 15). Approximately half of the drivers had < 10 years of experience in auto racing (49%). The drivers mainly complained about pains in the lumbar (n = 36; 26%), shoulder (n = 27; 20%), and neck regions (n = 25; 18%). The driver's posture and the comfort of the seat were statistically significant for causing lower back and upper legs pains. The race duration was relevant to neck and shoulder discomfort. The high incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in race car driving indicates the need for further improvements. Elimination of driver complaints about pain in the spine and upper extremities can be achieved through technical development, as already accomplished in Formula One racing.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):80-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Low back pain is a common and costly health care problem. This pilot study evaluated the sensitivity of the 2-stopwatch and Paris plinth methodologies for assessing time-to-onset of pain relief and flexibility, respectively, with continuous, low-level heatwrap therapy. Subjects aged 18 to 55 years with at least moderate baseline acute low back pain were randomly assigned to either heatwrap or oral placebo for 8 hours. Unheated wrap (sham) and oral ibuprofen were included for blinding purposes only. Sixty-one subjects were randomly assigned to either heatwrap (n = 26), oral placebo (n = 25), sham wrap (n = 5), or oral ibuprofen (n = 5). Median time to confirmed first perceptible pain relief and to meaningful pain relief were significantly shorter for the heatwrap group compared with those assigned to oral placebo (96.5 vs > 240.0 min and 215.7 vs > 240.0 min, respectively; P < 0.05 for both). Among subjects receiving the heatwrap, 53.8% reported first perceptible and meaningful relief, compared with 28.0% receiving oral placebo. Subjective measures of pain relief, back stiffness, and global evaluation were more sensitive in detecting treatment differences than the plinth assessments of flexibility, range of motion, and pain. Three adverse events were reported as mild in severity and considered unrelated to study treatment. The 2-stopwatch methodology is a viable approach for assessing onset of analgesia in low back pain; however, the plinth may not be a reliable method for assessing flexibility. Consistent with published studies involving much larger sample sizes, the heatwrap provided significantly faster and sustained pain relief than oral placebo in subjects with acute low back pain. Clinical Trial Identifier: NCT01045993.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):39-48.
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    ABSTRACT: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported to produce normal or near-normal knee results in > 90% of patients. A recent meta-analysis suggested that, despite normal or near-normal knees, many athletes do not return to sports. Rates and timing of return to competitive athletics are quite variable depending on the graft type, the age of the patient, the sport, and the level of play. Even when athletes do return to play, often they do not return to their previous level. Graft failure, subjective physical factors, and psychological factors, including fear of reinjury and lack of motivation, appear to play a large role in patients' ability to return to sporting activities.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):71-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicians are now appreciating that the perception of pain is a multifaceted, biopsychosocial construct. Expectation of postsurgical pain is part of this construct and should be considered preoperatively. It is our belief that by establishing reasonable expectations with preoperative teaching, we can minimize narcotic use and lessen untoward issues that can potentially follow. With this goal in mind, we have been using a comprehensive pre- and postoperative program for our outpatient orthopedic surgery patients for the last 5 years, which includes physical, pharmacologic, and simple sport psychological techniques. We reviewed postoperative prescription narcotic purchases in 133 consecutive surgical patients during the last year (2013). All patients were given a prescription postoperatively for 10 hydrocodone 5-mg/acetaminophen 500-mg tablets, with 1 refill. We then contacted the patients' pharmacies to assess the actual amount purchased. Data were available for 100 patients. Of these, 62 patients had undergone "simple" arthroscopies and 38 had had "open" procedures, including 25 anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, 4 tibial tubercle osteotomies, and various other surgeries. Of the 62 arthroscopies, 24 patients (39%) refilled their prescriptions, with 4 patients (6%) needing > 1 refill. Of the 38 open procedures, 16 patients (42%) refilled their medications, 2 (5%), more than once. Thus, 89% of patients required ≤ 20 narcotic tablets after undergoing common orthopedic operations. No patient needed chronic narcotic medication. Pain is a complex issue and patient expectation of postoperative pain is one aspect that can potentially affect the amount of narcotics used. By preparing the patient both physically and psychologically, we believe the amount of narcotics used postoperatively can be decreased without affecting pain control. As a result, the multiple possible detriments of having more narcotics available than actually necessary would be lessened. By limiting the overall number of narcotic tablets prescribed, decreased use by the patient when such a medication may no longer be appropriate, and minimized use by others in the household who might have access to it would decrease.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):100-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Casting and splinting techniques for treating patients with fractures have been used for centuries. Functional bracing after ankle fracture has recently been utilized in an effort to avoid the atrophy and stiffness sometimes associated with casting; functional bracing allows for early mobilization of the ankle joint during recovery. Our review investigated the published literature comparing bracing with casting after ankle fracture. Studies examining both operatively and nonoperatively treated ankle fractures were included. There is minimal evidence supporting the use of functional bracing over cast immobilization to improve functional outcome, range of motion, swelling, or post-traumatic arthrosis after ankle fracture in the long term. The primary benefits of functional bracing are the potential to return to work earlier and bracing may facilitate activities of daily living, such as bathing and dressing. In addition, there may be a decreased patient risk of developing deep vein thrombosis due to immobilization. However, there is an increased risk of wound infection when using a brace after open reduction and internal fixation of an unstable ankle fracture. Functional bracing can be used for treating stable and postoperative ankle fractures in compliant patients to potentially expedite and facilitate the recovery process.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):60-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing public health problem with significant lifetime health care costs. The majority of Americans do not achieve minimal targets for exercise, and individuals with T2DM typically engage in less exercise than the general adult population. However, those patients with T2DM who are sufficiently self-motivated to manage their condition have the potential to reverse diabetes and prevent its complications through behavioral and pharmacologic interventions. Marked improvements are possible through increased awareness and selection of healthy eating options, a willingness to incorporate vigorous exercise into their lifestyle, and the use of newer medications that essentially eliminate the risk of hypoglycemia while facilitating weight loss and the achievement of ideal glucose targets. For self-motivated patients, daily aerobic activity of 45 to 60 minutes per day may be a suitable target. For those who have cardiovascular clearance, high-intensity interval training accomplishes high levels of cardiometabolic fitness with shorter training periods by alternating moderate and intense exertion. Suitable medications that have a low risk of hypoglycemia during exercise include metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose linked transporter-2 inhibitors. Specific daily caloric goals and incorporation of a mainly plant-based diet should be considered as a primary target for diabetes management. Self-management is important to achieving diabetes treatment goals, and mobile applications can be useful tools to support lifestyle changes in patients with T2DM.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):49-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Health/fitness facilities are popular venues for physical activity, where increasingly more individuals at risk of cardiovascular events exercise to achieve positive health outcomes. The aim of our study was to analyze cardiac emergency preparedness in health/fitness facilities in Queensland, Australia. Cross-sectional survey of health/fitness facilities in Queensland. A risk management questionnaire was administered over 7 months, July 2009 to January 2010, using an online or paper-based version. The data are presented as the proportion of survey respondents giving specific responses to questionnaire items related to cardiac emergency preparedness, especially the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Fifty-two health/fitness facility managers responded to the survey. Most of the surveyed facilities conducted pre-activity screening (92%). Of those with a written emergency plan (79%), only 37% physically rehearsed their emergency response systems at regular intervals. Ninety-five percent of the facilities had fitness employees with a current first aid/cardiopulmonary resuscitation certificate and training. Of the 10 (19%) facilities with an on-site AED, only 6 had staff qualified to use the AED in an emergency, and only 6 had the AED as part of a public access defibrillator program. This is the first study to report that cardiac emergency preparedness is not optimal in the health/fitness facilities in Australia. Development of policies and procedures for training health/fitness professionals in emergency procedures is needed to minimize the risk when exercise-induced cardiac events occur at health/fitness facilities.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):14-9.
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing prevalence of osteoporosis, and with it a rise in the diagnosis of stress fractures. Postmenopausal women are particularly at risk of stress fractures. This review article describes the pathophysiology of foot stress fractures and the latest diagnostic and treatment strategies for these common injuries. There are numerous risk factors for stress fractures that have been identified in the literature. Reduced bone mineral density is an independent risk factor for delayed union. Prevention of stress fractures with training periodization and nutritional assessment is essential, especially in females. Diagnosis of stress fractures of the foot is based on history and diagnostic imaging, which include radiographs, ultrasound, therapeutic ultrasound, computed tomography, and bone scans; however, magnetic resonance imaging is still the gold standard. Treatment depends on the bone involved and the risk of nonunion, with high-risk fractures requiring immobilization or surgical intervention. Patients presenting with underlying bone mineral deficiency treated without surgery require a longer period of activity modification. Training rehabilitation protocols are described for those with low-risk stress fractures. A useful algorithm is presented to guide the clinician in the diagnosis and management of such injuries.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 11/2014; 42(4):87-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen storage is essential for exercise performance. The ability to assess muscle glycogen levels should be an important advantage for performance. However, skeletal muscle glycogen assessment has only been available and validated through muscle biopsy. We have developed a new methodology using high-frequency ultrasound to assess skeletal muscle glycogen content in a rapid, portable, and noninvasive way using MuscleSound (MuscleSound, LCC, Denver, CO) technology. Purpose: To validate the utilization of high-frequency musculoskeletal ultrasound for muscle glycogen assessment and correlate it with histochemical glycogen quantification through muscle biopsy.Methods:Twenty-two male competitive cyclists (categories: Pro, 1-4; average height, 183.7 ± 4.9 cm; average weight, 76.8 ± 7.8 kg) performed a steady-state test on a cyclergometer for 90 minutes at a moderate to high exercise intensity, eliciting a carbohydrate oxidation of 2-3 g·min-1 and a blood lactate concentration of 2 to 3 mM. Pre- and post-exercise glycogen content from rectus femoris muscle was measured using histochemical analysis through muscle biopsy and through high-frequency ultrasound scans using MuscleSound technology. Results: Correlations between muscle biopsy glycogen histochemical quantification (mmol·kg-1) and high-frequency ultrasound methodology through MuscleSound technology were r = 0.93 (P < 0.0001) pre-exercise and r = 0.94 (P < 0.0001) post-exercise. The correlation between muscle biopsy glycogen quantification and high-frequency ultrasound methodology for the change in glycogen from pre- and post-exercise was r = 0.81 (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that skeletal muscle glycogen can be measured quickly and noninvasively through high-frequency ultrasound using MuscleSound technology.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):45-52.
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    ABSTRACT: Pain from knee osteoarthritis creates a significant burden for symptomatic patients, who are often forced to change their lifestyle because of their symptoms. Activity modification, therapy, weight loss, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, shoe orthotics, bracing, and injections are the nonoperative options available. New technologies are also emerging in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Ultimately, these therapeutic modalities should reduce pain and increase the overall functioning of patients. These nonoperative modalities give the clinician several effective options before surgical management is considered.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):63-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Medical expenses for collegiate athletics include providing a training room with its supplies, equipment, personnel costs, and insurance coverage. Additional expenses beyond the training room include imaging, diagnostic testing, specialty consultations, and surgeries. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in average expenses or number of claims between male and female athletes over a 5-year period. Design: Prospective patient cohort. Setting: A sports medicine center serving athletes in Big 10 Conference intercollegiate sports. Assessment of Risk Factors: All medical claims and charges for 36 varsity teams were analyzed from 2005 to 2010. The teams were categorized into 3 groups: female-only teams, male-only teams, and coed teams. Analysis of sports with corresponding male and female teams was also performed. Main Outcome Measurements: Claims and charges for medical care for 36 intercollegiate athletic teams over 5 years. Results: Individual team claims and charges were stable over the study period. In 11 of the 14 sex-matched sports, the female teams had higher average annual charges. After normalizing for roster size in the sex-matched sports, females had 0.97 more average annual claims (P < 0.01) and $1459 higher annual charges (P = 0.001) than their male counterparts. The charges per claim were similar between the sexes. The 5 teams with the highest average annual charges were football, wrestling, softball, women's crew, and men's lacrosse. When normalized for roster size, the 5 sports with the highest average annual charges per athlete were softball, women's diving, men's basketball, wrestling, and men's gymnastics. Conclusion: Charges per claim were similar between the sex-matched sports, but the female sports had a higher number of annual claims per athlete and thus higher total charges per athlete/year. Football had the highest average annual total charges as a team, but when normalized for roster size football charges per athlete/year were similar to those of other sports.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):71-77.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is well established in the literature that regular participation in physical activity is effective for chronic disease management and prevention. Remote monitoring technologies (ie, mHealth) hold promise for engaging patients in self-management of many chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of an mHealth study with tailored physical activity prescription targeting changes in various intensities of physical activity (eg, exercise, sedentary behavior, or both) for improving physiological and behavioral markers of lifestyle-related disease risk. Methods: Forty-five older adults (aged 55-75 years; mean age 63 ± 5 years) were randomly assigned to receive a personal activity program targeting changes to either daily exercise, sedentary behavior, or both. All participants received an mHealth technology kit including smartphone, blood pressure monitor, glucometer, and pedometer. Participants engaged in physical activity programming at home during the 12-week intervention period and submitted physical activity (steps/day), blood pressure (mm Hg), body weight (kg), and blood glucose (mmol/L) measures remotely using study-provided devices. Results: There were no differences between groups at baseline (P > 0.05). The intervention had a significant effect (F(10 488) = 2.947, P = 0.001, ηP 2 = 0.057), with similar changes across all groups for physical activity, body weight, and blood pressure (P > 0.05). Changes in blood glucose were significantly different between groups, with groups prescribed high-intensity activity (ie, exercise) demonstrating greater reductions in blood glucose than the group prescribed changes to sedentary behavior alone (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings demonstrate the utility of pairing mHealth technologies with activity prescription for prevention of lifestyle-related chronic diseases among an at-risk group of older men and women. Results support the novel approach of prescribing changes to sedentary behaviors (alone, and in conjunction with exercise) to reduce risk of developing lifestyle-related chronic conditions.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):90-99.
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common cause of disability in the United States. With an aging population, its incidence is only likely to rise. Articular cartilage has a poor capacity to heal. The advent of regenerative medicine has heralded a new approach to early treatment of degenerative conditions such as osteoarthritis by focusing on regenerating damaged tissue rather than focusing on replacement. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is one such treatment that has received much recent attention and has been used particularly for tendon healing. Recent studies have focused on assessing its use on degenerative conditions such as OA. In this article, we review the evidence for the pathologic basis for the use of PRP in OA and also the clinical outcomes pertaining to its use. Finally, we also consider reasons for the inconsistent clinical success pertaining to its use.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):53-62.
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    ABSTRACT: In its third iteration, the Concussion in Sport Group identified 10 modifying factors that were presumed clinically to influence the investigation and management of concussions in sports. "Dangerous style of play" was delineated as one of these factors, most likely based on clinical lore. These modifying factors were retained in a more recent Concussion in Sport Group statement. To date, there has been no concerted effort to support or refute the inclusion of this constellation of behaviors as a modifying factor in sports-related concussion. This article reviews and summarizes the limited evidence related to a dangerous style of play in sports-related concussion, offers a preliminary assessment of its relevance as a modifying factor, and provides additional information on other aspects of player, coach, and governing body behavior and their potential effect(s) on reducing concussive injuries.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 09/2014; 42(3):20-25.