The Physician and sportsmedicine

Journal description

The Physician and Sportsmedicine is a peer-reviewed monthly journal serving the practicing physician's professional and personal interests in the medical aspects of exercise, sports, and fitness. The most widely read clinical sports medicine journal in the world, we cover practical, primary care-oriented topics such as diagnosing and treating knee and ankle injuries, managing chronic disease, preventing and managing overuse injuries, helping patients lose weight safely, and all manner of exercise and nutrition topics.

Current impact factor: 1.49

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.49
2012 Impact Factor 1.344
2011 Impact Factor 1.023
2008 Impact Factor 0.2
2007 Impact Factor 0.2
2006 Impact Factor 0.322
2005 Impact Factor 0.38
2004 Impact Factor 0.339
2003 Impact Factor 0.322
2002 Impact Factor 0.492
2001 Impact Factor 0.399
2000 Impact Factor 0.318
1999 Impact Factor 0.259
1998 Impact Factor 0.236
1997 Impact Factor 0.239

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.08
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Website Physician and Sportsmedicine Online, The website
Other titles Physician and sportsmedicine, Physician and sports medicine, Sportsmedicine, Sports medicine
ISSN 0091-3847
OCLC 1787159
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been increasing concern, particularly in the US, about potential long-term neurological deterioration syndromes seen in the US football players. Recurrent concussions are a potential area of concern. The authors of this paper have used data bases from three levels of amateur US football to identify the rate and risk of concussion injury in both football games and practice at the youth, high school, and college levels. This information is very important initial data around concussion rates at these levels.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1081552
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    ABSTRACT: Professional boxing is associated with a risk of chronic neurological injury, with up to 20-50% of former boxers exhibiting symptoms of chronic brain injury. Chronic traumatic brain injury encompasses a spectrum of disorders that are associated with long-term consequences of brain injury and remains the most difficult safety challenge in modern-day boxing. Despite these concerns, traditional guidelines used for return to sport participation after concussion are inconsistently applied in boxing. Furthermore, few athletic commissions require either formal consultation with a neurological specialist (i.e. neurologist, neurosurgeon, or neuropsychologist) or formal neuropsychological testing prior to return to fight. In order to protect the health of boxers and maintain the long-term viability of a sport associated with exposure to repetitive head trauma, we propose a set of specific requirements for brain safety that all state athletic commissions would implement.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1081551
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction is increasing in professional athletes and the delivery of baseball news by the media exerts a powerful influence on public opinion of the injury and surgery. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the media's perception regarding the causes of UCL injury as well as the indications, risks, benefits, and rehabilitation related to UCL reconstruction. Cross-sectional survey study, Level 3. This study utilized an online thirty-question survey designed to assess an individual's perception of UCL reconstruction with regard to risk factors for injury, indications, benefits, surgical details, and rehabilitation. Eligible study participants were members of the media including print, internet, radio and/or television directly involved in the coverage of Major League Baseball (MLB). A total of 516 members of the media with a mean age of 43.6 years completed the survey. In nearly half (47.8%), professional baseball represented 76-100% of their total sports coverage responsibility. although the majority answered correctly, 45% did not know if an athlete needed an elbow injury as a prerequisite for UCL reconstruction and 25% believed the primary indication was performance enhancement. As percentage of baseball coverage increased, media members were less likely to believe that an elbow injury was not required (p = 0.038). eighty percent recognized that pitching speed is typically reduced following surgery, but the remaining 20% felt that velocities actually increased compared with pre-injury velocities. Return to play: fifty-two percent overestimated the ability of pitchers to return to back to professional baseball and 51.2% believed return would occur in 12 or less months. Estimates were higher in those of older age (p = 0.032) and increased percentage of baseball coverage (p < 0.001). Overuse injuries: less than half (48.4%) believed the use of pitch counts to be important in the prevention of UCL injury and 33.2% felt that throwing injuries were not preventable in adolescent baseball. Common misconceptions exist regarding UCL reconstruction within the professional baseball media. Efforts for physicians to educate the media on the risks of overuse throwing injuries with emphasis on accurate indications, outcomes, and recovery of Tommy John Surgery are encouraged.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1077098
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    ABSTRACT: Improving knowledge regarding injuries sustained by pediatric dancers is important in order to better understand injury risk. The aim of this study is to analyze dance injury etiology and body area by age in a cohort of young female dancers presenting to a pediatric sports/dance medicine clinic. The cross-sectional epidemiological study of a 5% probability sample of dancers evaluated between 1/1/2000 and 12/31/2009 with a musculoskeletal injury requiring physician evaluation. A total of 2,133 charts were reviewed from which 171 female dancers 8-17 years old (mean age 14.7 years) were identified. Data were stratified by age, <12 years and ≥12 years, and analyzed based on injury body area, type, and etiology. Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance. Injuries sustained by dancers in the younger age category (<12 years) were largely to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee (93.3%) versus thigh-hip/spine/upper extremity (6.7%). In comparison, dancers in the older age group (≥12 years) had a large proportion of injuries to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee (67.3%) as well, but had a notably larger fraction of injuries to the thigh-hip/spine/upper extremity (32.7%; p = 0.04). Approximately two-thirds of the injuries sustained in the younger age group (<12 years) were classified as bony. In comparison, injuries in the older age group (≥12 years) were roughly half bony and half soft tissue (51.3% and 48.7%, respectively; p = 0.29). Most injuries were overused in etiology for both younger and older age groups (86.7% and 82.1%, respectively; p = 1.00). Through puberty, there was a decline in the injuries to the foot-ankle/lower leg/knee. Conversely, there was an increase in the thigh/hip-pelvis/spine/upper extremity injuries through growth. Injuries to young female dancers in this study cohort were mostly categorized as overuse in etiology, and differed by the age group and the body area. Increased information regarding dance injuries can help guide future injury prevention efforts.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1076326
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    ABSTRACT: Poor interprofessional collaboration has been shown to negatively affect patient care within many fields of medicine. Growing evidence is suggesting that improved interprofessional collaboration can positively affect patient care. Postoperative rehabilitation of many orthopedic conditions necessitates the combined efforts of surgeons, and therapists. There is a paucity of literature examining collaboration among orthopedic surgeons and therapists regarding postoperative rehabilitation. The following study examines the perceived quality of communications between orthopedic surgeons and therapists employing an online survey. We hypothesized that collaborative practice patterns result in improved perceptions of communication. Ethics board approval was obtained. Subjects consisted of orthopedic surgeons, licensed physiotherapists and certified athletic therapists. The online survey was distributed through the Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA), the Canadian Physiotherapy Association (CPA) and the Canadian Athletic Therapists Association (CATA). Data analysis was performed using Stata/IC 12.1 (Stata Corp, College Station, TX, USA). Descriptive statistics were calculated to determine the median responses and ranges. Median responses were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Qualitative analysis regarding text responses was performed by three reviewers. Reponses were received from all specialties (COA 164, CPA 524, CATA 163). There were significant differences in the perceived quality of communication by quantitative and qualitative analysis (p < 0.001). Analysis of communication within practice patterns of stand-alone versus collaborative revealed improved perception of communication quality with increased contact. 65.6% of responders that practiced as stand-alone had a negative view of interprofessional communication. 48.4% of responders in a collaborative practice had a positive view of interprofessional communication. Analysis of the preferred form of communication found that orthopedic surgeons felt the most useful referral information was a pre-printed consult sheet (odds ratio [OR] = 1.56, p < 0.001), whereas therapists were more likely to rank consult notes (OR = 1.27, p < 0.042) and operative reports (OR = 1.20, p < 0.092) as a more useful form of communication. Collaborative practice shows improved perceptions of communication between specialties. Orthopedic surgeons perceive a higher quality of communication than therapists. Therapists and orthopedic surgeons also do not agree on the information that should be relayed between the specialties regarding postoperative rehabilitation.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1077096
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    ABSTRACT: To further characterize time-to-first pain relief, effect size, correlations between various outcome measures and durability of relief for single-tablet naproxen 500 mg/esomeprazole 20 mg (NAP/ESO) given twice daily and celecoxib (CEL) (200 mg) given once daily versus placebo in knee osteoarthritis (OA). Unpublished data from two double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trials in which patients aged ≥50 years with knee OA were randomized to NAP/ESO (n = 487), CEL (n = 486) or placebo (n = 246) were pooled (NCT00664560 and NCT00665431). Acute response endpoints: 1) Time to first significant pain response, 2) Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale and 3) American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ) scores. Sustainability endpoints: 1) Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID3) and 2) WOMAC Stiffness, Pain and Total scores; and Patient Global Assessment (PGA) at 6 and 12 weeks. Effect sizes for all measures were calculated. Rescue pain medication use also was analyzed, as was the correlation of WOMAC to RAPID3. NAP/ESO produced statistically significant decreases in WOMAC Pain on Days 2-7 and at Weeks 6 and 12 (all p < 0.05); most APS-POQ pain assessments with NAP/ESO were significantly improved on Days 2-7 compared with placebo (all p < 0.05). A good or excellent response occurred in a median of 6 days. RAPID3 and WOMAC total/stiffness/function/PGA scores decreased significantly at Weeks 6 and 12 (all p < 0.05). Placebo-adjusted WOMAC pain effect sizes were 0.44, 0.34 and 0.25 at Day 7, week 6 and week 12, respectively. RAPID3 to WOMAC total and WOMAC pain to RAPID3: Pain scores were highly correlated at 6 and 12 weeks (correlation coefficients >0.80). No significant differences in overall responses were found between CEL and NAP/ESO. Naproxen/esomeprazole produced a significant absolute moderate early pain response, which was maintained for 12 weeks. RAPID3 was found to be highly correlated with the typical OA measure (WOMAC) and might be a useful clinical tool for measuring NSAID response. NCT00664560:, NCT00665431:
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1074852
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    ABSTRACT: Marathon running evokes parallel increases in markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis (i.e. hemostatic activation) immediately following strenuous, endurance exercise such that hemostatic balance is maintained. However, other factors incident to marathon running (i.e. dehydration, travel) may disproportionately activate the coagulatory system, increasing blood clot risk after an endurance event in otherwise healthy individuals. We investigated the effect of compression socks on exercise-induced hemostatic activation and balance in endurance athletes running the 2013 Hartford Marathon. Adults (n = 20) were divided into compression sock (SOCK; n = 10) and control (CONTROL; n = 10) groups. Age, anthropometrics, vital signs, training mileage and finishing time were collected. Venous blood samples were collected 1 day before, immediately after and 1 day following the marathon for analysis of coagulatory (i.e. thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT] and D-dimer) and fibrinolytic (i.e. tissue plasminogen activator [t-PA]) factors. Plasma D-dimer, TAT and t-PA did not differ between groups at baseline (p > 0.16). There were no significant group × time interactions (all p ≥ 0.17), however, average t-PA was lower in SOCK (8.9 ± 0.7 ng/mL) than CONTROL (11.2 ± 0.7 ng/mL) (p = 0.04). Average TAT also tended to be lower in SOCK (2.8 ± 0.2 μg/L) than CONTROL (3.4 ± 0.2 μg/L) (p = 0.07). Our results suggest that overall hemostatic activation (both coagulation and fibrinolysis) following a marathon tended to be lower with compression socks. Thus, compression socks do not adversely influence markers of hemostasis, appear safe for overall use in runners and may reduce exercise-associated hemostatic activation in individuals at risk for deep vein thrombosis.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1072456
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    ABSTRACT: This editorial examines the issue of "cheating" (broadly defined) in sports from youth through professional sports. We describe possible underlying causes focusing on the development of a "personality disorder" and psychiatric/psychodynamic needs (e.g. a pathological need to be the best). We detail treatment and management from a medical-psychiatric perspective as well as implications for coaches, teams, leagues and professional organizations (e.g. soccer, bicycling, etc). Cheating behavior exists in other fields, for example, politics, law among others and some of the management principles mentioned here may apply there.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1066230
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p < 0.05) were noted in regulation of GSR following short stress test conditions (p = 0.037), in regulation of HR after exposure to STROOP stressor (p = 0.037), in regulation of GSR following the Math and GSR stressors (p = 0.033, p = 0.409) and in achieving HR - breathing coherence following the math stressor (p = 0.042). One year following completion of the training program, all participants from the experimental group indicated that they were still using the biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1069169
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    ABSTRACT: Baseline and post-concussive neurocognitive testing is useful in managing concussed athletes. The Concussion in Sport Group has postulated that the use of psychotropic medications is a modifying factor in the management of sport-related concussion. About 7% of US adolescents are prescribed psychotropics in a given year. Our aim was to investigate whether psychotropic medication use or psychiatric illness is associated with differences in baseline neurocognitive test scores. From 2007 to 2012, over 7000 athletes underwent pre-participation baseline neurocognitive testing using the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) battery. Following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, athletes' self-reported medication lists were reviewed and: 1) classified as psychotropic or not and 2) subclassified. Group subclassification yielded: 1) use of any psychotropic medication, 2) psychostimulant use, 3) antidepressant use and 4) self-reported history of depression and/or anxiety without psychotropic use. Each group was matched, by sex, age, body mass index, education level and concussion history with athletes who were not reportedly prescribed psychotropic medications or did not report a depression/anxiety history, respectively. Each group's baseline ImPACT scores were compared to matched controls. The use of prescribed psychotropic medications without regard to subclass had no effect on baseline ImPACT composite scores among athletes ages 13-25. However, athletes reportedly prescribed psychostimulants displayed significantly lower visual motor speed scores (32.8 vs 37.1, p = 0.030) and slower reaction times (0.65 vs 0.60, p = 0.044) than non-users. In contrast, antidepressant users displayed significantly faster reaction times (0.58 vs 0.61, p = 0.029). Those reporting a history of depression/anxiety, not treated with psychotropics, displayed significantly lower visual memory (70.4 vs 75.2, p = 0.010) and higher symptom scores (8.83 vs 4.72, p = 0.005). This pilot study suggests that self-reported psychotropic medications are associated with differences in baseline ImPACT test scores, which appear dependent on medication subclass. Our preliminary results support the inclusion of psychotropic medications, specifically psychostimulants and antidepressants, as well as history of depression/anxiety as potential concussion modifiers.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1071638
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    ABSTRACT: While much is known regarding the pathophysiology surrounding concussion injuries in the acute phase, there is little evidence to support many of the theorized etiologies to post-concussion syndrome (PCS); the chronic phase of concussion occurring in ∼10-15% of concussed patients. This paper reviews the existing literature surrounding the numerous proposed theories of PCS and introduces another potential, and very treatable, cause of this chronic condition; cervical spine dysfunction due to concomitant whiplash-type injury. We also discuss a short case-series of five patients with diagnosed PCS having very favorable outcomes following various treatment and rehabilitative techniques aimed at restoring cervical spine function.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1064301
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    ABSTRACT: Major league baseball (MLB) pitchers are vulnerable to overuse injury of the upper extremity, especially in the shoulder. Injuries sustained in the preseason may have negative impact on performance following return. The goal of this study was to document the frequency of preseason shoulder injury in these athletes, as well as risk for re-injury and impact on performance following return from injury. A comprehensive search of MLB injury information from 2001 to 2010 of public databases yielded a cohort of MLB pitchers who sustained preseason shoulder injuries. These databases were utilized to obtain information regarding return to MLB competition, re-injury, and performance following return from injury. All performance metrics were compared to those of an age-matched control cohort. A total of 74 pitchers were identified who sustained a preseason shoulder injury. Only 39 (53%) returned that same season to pitch in the MLB competition. Of those that returned, nearly 50% of players were re-designated on the Disabled List during the return season. There was a decline in performance in earned run average and batting average against in the year of return. Compared to age-matched control pitchers, those with preseason shoulder injury had lower performance metrics across a number of outcomes. Preseason shoulder injury in MLB pitchers has the potential to result in high re-injury rates and decreased subsequent performance.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1050952
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    ABSTRACT: Asymmetric glenohumeral range-of-motion (ROM) between the throwing and non-throwing arms of overhead athletes has been well described in the literature. Thresholds of internal rotation (IR) loss have been associated with throwing arm injury in baseball players. Acute changes in shoulder ROM following an individual pitching appearance remain poorly understood. To determine the acute change of external rotation (ER), IR, and total arc-of-motion (TAM) in minor league starting pitchers immediately following an in-season starting pitching appearance. Nine minor league starting pitchers participated in the study with data collected for 22 individual starts. IR, ER and TAM were measured in the throwing shoulder and non-throwing shoulder at three time points for each appearance: before, immediately following, and at 24 hours following the pitching appearance. In the throwing arm, IR significantly decreased (49.4 vs 46.0, p = 0.037) immediately after pitching, and ER significantly increased immediately following an appearance (150.7 vs 153.6, p = 0.030) and at 24 hours (150.7 vs 154.0, p = 0.028). No difference was detected in throwing arm TAM and IR at 24 hours, or TAM immediately following an appearance. Minor league pitchers demonstrate the dynamic glenohumeral ROM changes after starting appearances of increased ER and diminished IR with maintenance of TAM. At 24 hours, the observed loss of IR had resolved, whereas the gains in ER remained present. Our study supports the need to further assess the acute changes of glenohumeral ROM in pitchers, and the association of acute glenohumeral ROM change with the development of pathologic ROM profiles and injury.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1059249
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    ABSTRACT: This in-depth literature review shows that skateboarding has experienced intermittent periods of popularity, with an estimated 6-15 million skateboarders in the US currently involved at all levels of recreational play and competition. Head trauma accounts for ∼ 3.5-13.1% of all skateboarding injuries. Injury occurs most often to the upper extremity (55-63%), whereas thoracoabdominal and spine injuries account for 1.5-2.9% of all trauma and lower extremity injuries occur 17-26% of the time. Few fatal injuries (1.1%) have been reported, oftentimes resulting from traumatic head injuries incurred from collisions with motor vehicles. Although skateparks may be perceived as a safer alternative to street skateboarding, injuries still occur when the skateboarder collides with an object or falls from the board. Factors leading to trauma include fatigue and overuse, age and skill level, inadequate medical care, environmental conditions, equipment concerns, lack of fitness and training, and the detrimental behavior of the competitor. Although not all skateboarding injuries are avoidable, numerous opportunities exist to instill safety involving education, instruction, and supervision and the proper use of protective gear to reduce predisposition to trauma. Future research recommendations include a more standardized data collection system, as well as an increased focus on kinetic analysis of the sport. Legislation involving helmet laws and the increased investment in a safer environment for the skateboarder may also assist in reducing injury in this sport.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2015; 43(3):1-7. DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1050953
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    ABSTRACT: The present case study is an analysis of the effect of compression socks on hemostatic activation following a marathon in a female endurance athlete found to be heterozygous for the coagulation factor V (F5 1691 G>A [Arg>Gln rs6025/560]) risk allele that predisposes one to a genetically inherited disorder of blood clotting, Factor V Leiden. Markers for coagulation and fibrinolysis were obtained 24 h prior to (PRE), immediately after (FINISH) and 24 h after (POST) completion of two marathons: the first in which the runner was not wearing compression socks, and the second in which the runner wore compression socks throughout the race. Compression socks worn during a marathon appeared to lower the overall impact on hemostasis as well as clot formation in this particular athlete as evidenced by lower t-PA (-56%), TAT (-63%) and D-dimer (-30%). Hemostatic activation may be lower with the use of compression socks, and thus may be effective for preserving hemostasis in endurance athletes at risk.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2015; DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1043183
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    ABSTRACT: The popularity of ice hockey has grown in recent years and injuries are a concern given the physical nature of the sport. We sought to report the rates, mechanisms, and severity of boys' US high school ice hockey injuries. We hypothesized that body checking would be a major source of injury and that concussions would be common. We also expected to find that competition would have a higher rate of injury than practice. Descriptive epidemiology study. Boys' US high school ice hockey injury data from 2008/2009 through 2012/2013 academic years were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School Reporting Information Online database. The primary outcome was rate of injury per 10,000 athlete exposures (AEs). Overall, 724 boys ice hockey injuries occurred during 311,817 AEs for an injury rate of 23.2 per 10,000 AEs. Injury rates were significantly higher during competition compared to practice (rate ratio = 7.8, 95% confidence interval: 6.5-9.4). Concussion was the most frequent injury reported at a rate of 6.4 per 10,000 AEs. Body checking was the mechanism of injury in over 46% of injuries. The head/face/neck region (33.8%) and upper arm/shoulder region (20.6%) were the most commonly injured body sites. Just over 6% of injuries resulted in surgical intervention. Injuries among high school ice hockey athletes are common. Increases in the number of high school ice hockey injuries will likely parallel the increase in high school ice hockey participation in the United States.
    The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2015; 43(2):119-125. DOI:10.1080/00913847.2015.1035210