Alcohol health and research world (Alcohol Health Res World )

Publisher: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.); United States. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)

Description

Discontinued in 1998. Continued by Alcohol Research & Health (1535-7414).

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
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  • Cited half-life
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  • Immediacy index
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  • Eigenfactor
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  • Article influence
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  • Website
    Alcohol Health & Research World website
  • Other titles
    Alcohol health and research world, Alcohol health & research world
  • ISSN
    0090-838X
  • OCLC
    1785965
  • Material type
    Government publication, National government publication, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Several ongoing national surveys, including the Monitoring the Future study, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, are investigating the drinking behaviors of adolescents in the United States. These studies have found that the majority of adolescents under the age of 18 have consumed alcohol, although the minimum legal drinking age is 21. Drinking rates may even have increased in recent years in some age groups. No substantial differences exist among various sociodemographic subgroups with respect to drinking rates, although alcohol consumption generally is lowest among African-Americans and highest among whites. Moreover, alcohol consumption increases sharply throughout adolescence. Various attitudinal and behavioral factors, such as religious involvement, truancy, and average grade level, also influence adolescents' drinking behaviors. Almost two-thirds of 12th graders who report consuming alcohol experience at least one alcohol-related problem. Most adolescents drink to experience the pleasurable effects of alcohol, such as having a good time with friends.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):85-93.
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) (i.e., alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were developed largely from research and clinical experience with adults. Little is known about the validity of these criteria when applied to adolescents. Recent epidemiological and clinical studies of AUDs and their symptoms among adolescents have indicated that the DSM-IV criteria have significant limitations when applied to this age group. Diagnostic interviews and screening tools for adolescent AUDs are discussed. Numerous instruments are available that have shown moderate-to-high reliability and validity in assessing AUDs among adolescents.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):95-105.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol availability and advertising are disproportionately concentrated in racial/ethnic minority communities. Although research on alcohol availability and alcohol advertising in racial/ethnic minority communities is limited, evidence does show a relationship between minority concentration, alcohol outlet density, and alcohol problems. This article reviews research showing that certain neighborhood characteristics, such as alcohol outlet density, can be stronger predictors of homicide and violence than are race or ethnicity.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):286-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often continue to exhibit significant impairment in academic, occupational, and social functioning throughout adulthood. In addition, children with ADHD are at increased risk for developing alcoholism and other drug addictions, especially if alcoholism or ADHD exists in other family members. Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse may develop earlier in life (i.e., in midadolescence) when ADHD is accompanied by certain behavioral or mood disorders. The nature of the link between ADHD and AOD use disorder is unknown, although the association may be mediated by the co-occurring disorders just mentioned. In addition, ADHD-related AOD abuse may develop initially as an attempt to alleviate symptoms of mental distress associated with chronic failure, feelings of inadequacy, and conflict with parents and peers. Therapeutic intervention should incorporate both addiction and mental health treatment, including appropriate use of psychiatric medications.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):127-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Although behavioral problems associated with abuse of alcohol emerge during late adolescence and adulthood, some behavioral characteristics indicative of an increased risk of alcoholism may already be obvious during early childhood. Studies in several countries have demonstrated that children with high levels of novelty-seeking behavior and low levels of harm-avoidance behavior are more likely to develop alcohol-related problems during adolescence. Moreover, as early as age 3, children at high risk of future alcoholism because of a family history are more active, more impatient, and more aggressive than matched controls of low-risk children. Causal influences on the initiation of drinking must be distinguished from those that affect patterns of consumption once drinking is initiated. Studies of adolescent twins have demonstrated that initiation of drinking is primarily influenced by the drinking status of parents, siblings, and friends and by socioregional differences in the environments within which adolescent twins reside. The influence of genetic factors is negligible. Conversely, once initiated, differences in frequency and quantity of drinking are strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, these influences, too, are modulated by sibling and peer effects and by regional environmental variation.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):131-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Appropriate treatment of alcohol withdrawal (AW) can relieve the patient's discomfort, prevent the development of more serious symptoms, and forestall cumulative effects that might worsen future withdrawals. Hospital admission provides the safest setting for the treatment of AW, although many patients with mild to moderate symptoms can be treated successfully on an outpatient basis. Severe AW requires pharmacological intervention. Although a wide variety of medications have been used for this purpose, clinicians disagree on the optimum medications and prescribing schedules. The treatment of specific withdrawal complications such as delirium tremens and seizures presents special problems and requires further research.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):38-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term alcohol consumption can interfere with bone growth and replacement of bone tissue (i.e., remodeling), resulting in decreased bone density and increased risk of fracture. These effects may be exerted directly or indirectly through the many cell types, hormones, and growth factors that regulate bone metabolism. Alcohol consumption during adolescence reduces peak bone mass and can result in relatively weak adult bones that are more susceptible to fracture. In adults, alcohol consumption can disrupt the ongoing balance between the erosion and the remodeling of bone tissue, contributing to alcoholic bone disease. This imbalance results in part from alcohol-induced inhibition of osteoblasts, specialized cells that deposit new bone. Some evidence suggests that moderate drinking may decrease the risk of fracture in postmenopausal women.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):190-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Both the age at onset of alcohol use and a family history of alcoholism can influence a person's risk of becoming alcohol dependent. The relationship between lifetime alcohol dependence, age at first alcohol use, and a family history of alcoholism was investigated using data obtained in the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. This analysis demonstrated that regardless of the family history of alcoholism, respondents with an earlier age of drinking onset were more likely to become alcohol dependent compared with respondents with a later age of drinking onset. Among all age, race, and gender subgroups studied, however, people with a family history of alcoholism had a higher prevalence of lifetime alcohol dependence than did people without such a history.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):144-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The high prevalence of alcohol use and its consequences among American Indians may be attributed to a number of factors, including the influence of the European colonists who first made large amounts of alcohol available to Indians, as well as current social and cultural factors. Efforts to prevent and treat alcohol problems among the American Indian population may be more effective if native beliefs and approaches are incorporated. Alcohol problems also may be prevented through policies regulating the sale and use of alcohol in Indian communities.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):253-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnic minorities (e.g., Hispanics, blacks, Asian-Americans, and Native Americans) are still underrepresented in alcohol research in the United States. Furthermore, existing studies often do not take into consideration the variability that exists within each ethnic group, resulting in inaccurate generalizations. Studies among Hispanics have found substantial differences among Hispanic subgroups in drinking patterns and rates of alcohol-related problems. Moreover, no single variable can explain the observed patterns. Similarly, numerous factors have been shown to shape drinking patterns among blacks, including individual and environmental characteristics as well as historical and cultural factors. Different subgroups of Asian-Americans also vary substantially in their rates of drinking and heavy drinking, although their lifetime alcohol use is lower than the national average. Genetic and cultural factors, as well as stress and historic experiences, may influence drinking patterns of Asian-Americans. The widely differing drinking patterns among Native Americans also are likely shaped by a variety of influences.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):233-41.
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions among the brain, the pituitary gland, and the adrenal glands (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) help regulate the body's response to stress. The adrenal hormone cortisol plays a key role in stress reduction through its effects on multiple body systems. Excessive cortisol activity during both chronic alcohol administration and withdrawal may underlie some of the clinical complications of alcoholism, including increased risk of infectious diseases; bone, muscle, and reproductive system changes; altered energy metabolism; and disorders of mood and intellect. Despite excessive cortisol levels during intoxication and withdrawal, however, the HPA axis becomes less responsive to stress during abstinence, potentially resulting in an impaired capacity to cope with relapse-inducing stressors.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):67-72.
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    ABSTRACT: A plethora of hormones regulate many of the body's functions, including growth and development, metabolism, electrolyte balances, and reproduction. Numerous glands throughout the body produce hormones. The hypothalamus produces several releasing and inhibiting hormones that act on the pituitary gland, stimulating the release of pituitary hormones. Of the pituitary hormones, several act on other glands located in various regions of the body, whereas other pituitary hormones directly affect their target organs. Other hormone-producing glands throughout the body include the adrenal glands, which primarily produce cortisol; the gonads (i.e., ovaries and testes), which produce sex hormones; the thyroid, which produces thyroid hormone; the parathyroid, which produces parathyroid hormone; and the pancreas, which produces insulin and glucagon. Many of these hormones are part of regulatory hormonal cascades involving a hypothalamic hormone, one or more pituitary hormones, and one or more target gland hormones.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):153-64.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of spontaneous and kindled electrophysiological brain activity following AW emphasize the important contribution of several variables to the severity of AW and to the associated long-lasting changes in brain function. Thus, withdrawal severity depends on the pattern of alcohol intake (e.g., withdrawal history) as well as on the total amount of alcohol exposure. Moreover, different brain regions respond differently to various patterns of alcohol exposure.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):34-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Disease processes or events that accompany acute alcohol withdrawal (AW) can cause significant illness and death. Some patients experience seizures, which may increase in severity with subsequent AW episodes. Another potential AW complication is delirium tremens, characterized by hallucinations, mental confusion, and disorientation. Cognitive impairment and delirium may lead to a chronic memory disorder (i.e., Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Psychiatric problems associated with withdrawal include anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. In addition, alterations in physiology, mood, and behavior may persist after acute withdrawal has subsided, motivating relapse to heavy drinking. Recent advances in neurobiology may support the development of improved medications to decrease the risk of AW complications and support long-term sobriety.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):61-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use has adversely affected many aspects of the Alaska Native community. To a large extent, overcoming the problem of alcohol abuse may require that Alaska Natives craft individual and community solutions to detrimental health, social, and economic conditions and instill new patterns of living that inhibit alcohol abuse. An example of this approach is the Alaska Federation of Natives' "sobriety movement," a grassroots campaign to promote sobriety that emphasizes traditional values and lifestyles. The use of "healing" or other traditional methods may help Alaska Natives both recover from the trauma of decades of cultural conflict and address alcohol problems in their communities.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):276-80.
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    ABSTRACT: The male reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the testes. Alcohol can interfere with the function of each of these components, thereby causing impotence, infertility, and reduced male secondary sexual characteristics. In the testes, alcohol can adversely affect the Leydig cells, which produce and secrete the hormone testosterone. Studies found that heavy alcohol consumption results in reduced testosterone levels in the blood. Alcohol also impairs the function of the testicular Sertoli cells that play an important role in sperm maturation. In the pituitary gland, alcohol can decrease the production, release, and/or activity of two hormones with critical reproductive functions, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Finally, alcohol can interfere with hormone production in the hypothalamus.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):195-201.

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