Alcohol health and research world (Alcohol Health Res World )

Publisher: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (U.S.); United States. Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)

Description

Discontinued in 1998. Continued by Alcohol Research & Health (1535-7414).

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
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  • Cited half-life
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  • Immediacy index
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  • Eigenfactor
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  • Article influence
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  • Website
    Alcohol Health & Research World website
  • Other titles
    Alcohol health and research world, Alcohol health & research world
  • ISSN
    0090-838X
  • OCLC
    1785965
  • Material type
    Government publication, National government publication, Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) (i.e., alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were developed largely from research and clinical experience with adults. Little is known about the validity of these criteria when applied to adolescents. Recent epidemiological and clinical studies of AUDs and their symptoms among adolescents have indicated that the DSM-IV criteria have significant limitations when applied to this age group. Diagnostic interviews and screening tools for adolescent AUDs are discussed. Numerous instruments are available that have shown moderate-to-high reliability and validity in assessing AUDs among adolescents.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):95-105.
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    ABSTRACT: Several ongoing national surveys, including the Monitoring the Future study, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, are investigating the drinking behaviors of adolescents in the United States. These studies have found that the majority of adolescents under the age of 18 have consumed alcohol, although the minimum legal drinking age is 21. Drinking rates may even have increased in recent years in some age groups. No substantial differences exist among various sociodemographic subgroups with respect to drinking rates, although alcohol consumption generally is lowest among African-Americans and highest among whites. Moreover, alcohol consumption increases sharply throughout adolescence. Various attitudinal and behavioral factors, such as religious involvement, truancy, and average grade level, also influence adolescents' drinking behaviors. Almost two-thirds of 12th graders who report consuming alcohol experience at least one alcohol-related problem. Most adolescents drink to experience the pleasurable effects of alcohol, such as having a good time with friends.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):85-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often continue to exhibit significant impairment in academic, occupational, and social functioning throughout adulthood. In addition, children with ADHD are at increased risk for developing alcoholism and other drug addictions, especially if alcoholism or ADHD exists in other family members. Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse may develop earlier in life (i.e., in midadolescence) when ADHD is accompanied by certain behavioral or mood disorders. The nature of the link between ADHD and AOD use disorder is unknown, although the association may be mediated by the co-occurring disorders just mentioned. In addition, ADHD-related AOD abuse may develop initially as an attempt to alleviate symptoms of mental distress associated with chronic failure, feelings of inadequacy, and conflict with parents and peers. Therapeutic intervention should incorporate both addiction and mental health treatment, including appropriate use of psychiatric medications.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):127-30.
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    ABSTRACT: Although behavioral problems associated with abuse of alcohol emerge during late adolescence and adulthood, some behavioral characteristics indicative of an increased risk of alcoholism may already be obvious during early childhood. Studies in several countries have demonstrated that children with high levels of novelty-seeking behavior and low levels of harm-avoidance behavior are more likely to develop alcohol-related problems during adolescence. Moreover, as early as age 3, children at high risk of future alcoholism because of a family history are more active, more impatient, and more aggressive than matched controls of low-risk children. Causal influences on the initiation of drinking must be distinguished from those that affect patterns of consumption once drinking is initiated. Studies of adolescent twins have demonstrated that initiation of drinking is primarily influenced by the drinking status of parents, siblings, and friends and by socioregional differences in the environments within which adolescent twins reside. The influence of genetic factors is negligible. Conversely, once initiated, differences in frequency and quantity of drinking are strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, these influences, too, are modulated by sibling and peer effects and by regional environmental variation.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):131-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol availability and advertising are disproportionately concentrated in racial/ethnic minority communities. Although research on alcohol availability and alcohol advertising in racial/ethnic minority communities is limited, evidence does show a relationship between minority concentration, alcohol outlet density, and alcohol problems. This article reviews research showing that certain neighborhood characteristics, such as alcohol outlet density, can be stronger predictors of homicide and violence than are race or ethnicity.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):286-9.
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    ABSTRACT: All mammals produce milk to nourish their young. Milk production (i.e., lactation), which occurs in the mammary glands, is regulated by several hormones, most prominently prolactin and oxytocin. Studies in both humans and laboratory animals have demonstrated that maternal alcohol consumption before and during lactation can interfere with the functions of both of those hormones. Moreover, animal studies found that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and even earlier in the mother's life can impair mammary gland development. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and lactation also can alter the milk's nutrient composition and result in suckling deficits of the offspring. Alcohol (and possibly its breakdown products) can pass from the maternal circulation into the breast milk. The effects of these substances on the infant, however, are still unknown.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):178-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Analyses of the prevalence and incidence of withdrawal symptoms in the general population can provide an estimate of the frequency of alcohol dependence in the population. Similar analyses in people who are being treated for alcoholism or alcohol-related problems can identify the need for and specific types of treatment required for these populations. Three national surveys found that the prevalence of withdrawal symptoms was relatively low in the general population and has remained stable over the past 15 years. The likelihood of experiencing withdrawal symptoms increased with increasing alcohol consumption. No differences in the prevalence of withdrawal symptoms existed among ethnic groups in the general population. In a sample of patients undergoing alcoholism treatment, the prevalence of withdrawal symptoms generally was high, with lower rates among blacks than among whites and Hispanics. The prevalence of withdrawal symptoms in people undergoing treatment after being convicted of driving under the influence fell between that of the general population and that of the treatment sample.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):73-9.
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    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):44-6.
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    ABSTRACT: In many alcoholics, the severity of withdrawal symptoms increases after repeated withdrawal episodes. This exacerbation may be attributable to a kindling process. Kindling is a phenomenon in which a weak electrical or chemical stimulus, which initially causes no overt behavioral responses, results in the appearance of behavioral effects, such as seizures, when it is administered repeatedly. Both clinical and experimental evidence support the existence of a kindling mechanism during alcohol withdrawal. Withdrawal symptoms, such as seizures, result from neurochemical imbalances in the brain of alcoholics who suddenly reduce or cease alcohol consumption. These imbalances may be exacerbated after repeated withdrawal experiences. The existence of kindling during withdrawal suggests that even patients experiencing mild withdrawal should be treated aggressively to prevent the increase in severity of subsequent withdrawal episodes. Kindling also may contribute to a patient's relapse risk and to alcohol-related brain damage and cognitive impairment.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):25-33.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcoholic beverages contain not only alcohol but also numerous other substances (i.e., congeners) that may contribute to the beverages' physiological effects. Plants used to produce alcoholic beverages contain estrogenlike substances (i.e., phytoestrogens). Observations that men with alcoholic cirrhosis often show testicular failure and symptoms of feminization have suggested that alcoholic beverages may contain biologically active phytoestrogens as congeners. Biochemical analyses have identified several phytoestrogens in the congeners of bourbon, beer, and wine. Studies using subjects who produced no estrogen themselves (i.e., rats whose ovaries had been removed and postmenopausal women) demonstrated that phytoestrogens in alcoholic beverage congeners exerted estrogenlike effects in both animals and humans. Those effects were observed even at moderate drinking levels.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):220-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The hormone insulin, which is produced in the pancreas, is an important regulator of blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes, the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin (type 1 diabetes) or the body does not respond appropriately to the insulin (type 2 diabetes). Alcohol consumption by diabetics can worsen blood sugar control in those patients. For example, long-term alcohol use in well-nourished diabetics can result in excessive blood sugar levels. Conversely, long-term alcohol ingestion in diabetics who are not adequately nourished can lead to dangerously low blood sugar levels. Heavy drinking, particularly in diabetics, also can cause the accumulation of certain acids in the blood that may result in severe health consequences. Finally, alcohol consumption can worsen diabetes-related medical complications, such as disturbances in fat metabolism, nerve damage, and eye disease.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):211-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Adolescents who abuse or are dependent on alcohol often have coexisting mental disorders. These disorders may both precipitate alcohol use disorders and result from them. In addition, both types of disorders may arise independently in adolescents at high risk. Mental disorders that commonly co-occur with alcohol use disorders in adolescents include antisocial disorders, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders. Treatment programs for adolescents with alcohol use disorders should seek not only to eliminate alcohol and other drug use but also to improve the symptoms of other mental disorders.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(2):117-21, 126.
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    ABSTRACT: The vast majority of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) members in the United States are white, and only a few studies have investigated the program's effectiveness for ethnic minorities. Project MATCH, a multisite research study aimed at developing guidelines for assigning alcoholics to appropriate treatment approaches, also assessed AA effectiveness for minority clients. Some differences in AA attendance existed among white, African-American, and Hispanic Project MATCH participants who had received some inpatient treatment before entering the study, but not among participants who had not received inpatient treatment. Further analyses of white and Hispanic Project MATCH participants demonstrated that although Hispanic clients attended AA less frequently than white clients, their involvement with and commitment to AA was higher than among white clients. For both Hispanics and whites, AA involvement predicted increased abstinence.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):281-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use by a pregnant woman may interfere with the development of her fetus. Newborns whose mothers are intoxicated during delivery can experience withdrawal symptoms, such as tremors and even seizures. It is likely that withdrawal also can occur during fetal development. Thus, the possibility exists that withdrawal by the pregnant woman may exacerbate alcohol's adverse effects on her fetus. One potential mechanism through which alcohol withdrawal might damage the fetus involves the receptor for the neurotransmitter glutamate (i.e., the N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] receptor). This receptor plays a crucial role during neuronal development. Excessive activation of the NMDA receptor, which occurs during withdrawal, may lead to neuronal cell death. Animal studies suggest that these effects may contribute to behavioral deficits following prenatal exposure to alcohol.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):47-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Drinking practices vary substantially among different countries. An understanding of such differences can help researchers, clinicians, and policymakers develop prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures as well as overall alcohol policies that are appropriate for a given country. Accordingly, researchers have conducted cross-cultural analyses of drinking patterns and practices. Three countries included in such analyses are India, Mexico, and Nigeria. These countries differ substantially in their ethnic and cultural characteristics, including the role that alcohol plays in daily life. To gain a better insight into the attitudes toward alcohol in these countries, researchers have analyzed the alcoholic beverage preferences, gender and age differences in alcohol consumption patterns, drinking contexts and drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems, approaches to prevention and treatment, and drinking indicators in each nation. These analyses demonstrate that no single definition of "normal" drinking, problem drinking, or alcohol dependence can apply equally to all countries or cultures.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(4):243-52.
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    ABSTRACT: More than 50 years ago, C.K. Himmelsbach first suggested that physiological mechanisms responsible for maintaining a stable state of equilibrium (i.e., homeostasis) in the patient's body and brain are responsible for drug tolerance and the drug withdrawal syndrome. In the latter case, he suggested that the absence of the drug leaves these same homeostatic mechanisms exposed, leading to the withdrawal syndrome. This theory provides the framework for a majority of neurochemical investigations of the adaptations that occur in alcohol dependence and how these adaptations may precipitate withdrawal. This article examines the Himmelsbach theory and its application to alcohol withdrawal; reviews the animal models being used to study withdrawal; and looks at the postulated neuroadaptations in three systems-the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system, the glutamate neurotransmitter system, and the calcium channel system that regulates various processes inside neurons. The role of these neuroadaptations in withdrawal and the clinical implications of this research also are considered.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(1):13-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Both the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the endogenous opioid system are activated in response to stress as well as after alcohol consumption, supporting the hypothesis that stress can influence both alcohol consumption and craving for alcohoL Activation of the HPA axis by stress or alcohol results in the production of glucocorticoid hormones, such as cortisol. Those hormones, in turn, are important for the release of the brain chemical dopamine in certain brain areas that are associated with the rewarding and reinforcing effects of alcohol and other drugs. Alcohol-induced release of certain endogenous opioids similarly results in dopamine release in those brain regions. Through this mechanism, both the HPA axis and the endogenous opioid system may influence alcohol consumption. Consequently, genetically determined differences in the activities of the HPA axis and endogenous opioid system may help determine a person's alcohol consumption level and vulnerability to alcoholism.
    Alcohol health and research world 02/1998; 22(3):202-10.