Recent Progress in Hormone Research (Recent Progr Horm Res )

Publisher: Laurentian Hormone Conference

Description

Recent Progress in Hormone Research is a reference of authoritative reviews of important research by leading experts in the field. Access to the searchable online version is included with the purchase of the printed volume. RPHR is the source for current findings in hormone research. The text is searchable by keyword, and the cited references include hyperlinks to Medline and to the online full text of many other frequently cited journals.

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  • Cited half-life
    9.30
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  • Website
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research website
  • Other titles
    Recent progress in hormone research
  • ISSN
    0079-9963
  • OCLC
    1763501
  • Material type
    Conference publication, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The ability of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal varies more than six-fold in apparently healthy individuals. The one third of the population that is most insulin resistant is at greatly increased risk to develop cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disease, and certain forms of cancer. Between 25-35% of the variability in insulin action is related to being overweight. The importance of the adverse effects of excess adiposity is apparent in light of the evidence that more than half of the adult population in the United States is classified as being overweight/obese, as defined by a body mass index greater than 25.0 kg/m(2). The current epidemic of overweight/obesity is most-likely related to a combination of increased caloric intake and decreased energy expenditure. In either instance, the fact that CVD risk is increased as individuals gain weight emphasizes the gravity of the health care dilemma posed by the explosive increase in the prevalence of overweight/obesity in the population at large. Given the enormity of the problem, it is necessary to differentiate between the CVD risk related to obesity per se, as distinct from the fact that the prevalence of insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are increased in overweight/obese individuals. Although the majority of individuals in the general population that can be considered insulin resistant are also overweight/obese, not all overweight/obese persons are insulin resistant. Furthermore, the cluster of abnormalities associated with insulin resistance - namely, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentrations -- is limited to the subset of overweight/obese individuals that are also insulin resistant. Of greater clinical relevance is the fact that significant improvement in these metabolic abnormalities following weight loss is seen only in the subset of overweight/obese individuals that are also insulin resistant. In view of the large number of overweight/obese subjects at potential risk to be insulin resistant/hyperinsulinemic (and at increased CVD risk), and the difficulty in achieving weight loss, it seems essential to identify those overweight/obese individuals who are also insulin resistant and will benefit the most from weight loss, then target this population for the most-intensive efforts to bring about weight loss.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:207-23.
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    ABSTRACT: Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that overt hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state (high cardiac output with low systemic vascular resistance), which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, and increased prevalence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias - namely, atrial fibrillation - whereas overt hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. However, whether changes in cardiac performance associated with overt thyroid dysfunction are due mainly to alterations of myocardial contractility or to loading conditions remains unclear. Extensive evidence indicates that the cardiovascular system responds to the minimal but persistent changes in circulating thyroid hormone levels, which are typical of individuals with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased heart rate, atrial arrhythmias, increased LV mass, impaired ventricular relaxation, reduced exercise performance, and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with impaired LV diastolic function and subtle systolic dysfunction and an enhanced risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Because all cardiovascular abnormalities are reversed by restoration of euthyroidism ("subclinical hypothyroidism") or blunted by beta-blockade and L-thyroxine (L-T4) dose tailoring ("subclinical hyperthyroidism"), timely treatment is advisable in an attempt to avoid adverse cardiovascular effects. Interestingly, some data indicate that patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disorders and those undergoing cardiac surgery may have altered peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism that, in turn, may contribute to altered cardiac function. Preliminary clinical investigations suggest that administration of thyroid hormone or its analogue 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid greatly benefits these patients, highlighting the potential role of thyroid hormone treatment in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:31-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past decade, we have witnessed a major increase in the scale of scientific activity devoted to the study of energy balance and obesity. This explosion of interest has, to a large extent, been driven by the identification of genes responsible for murine obesity syndromes and the novel physiological pathways revealed by those genetic discoveries. We and others recently have identified several single-gene defects causing severe human obesity. Many of these defects have occurred in molecules identical or similar to those identified as a cause of obesity in rodents. This chapter will consider the human monogenic obesity syndromes that have been characterized to date and discuss how far such observations support the physiological role of these molecules in the regulation of human body weight and neuroendocrine function.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:409-24.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac myocyte enlargement is the eponymous characteristic of cardiac hypertrophy, regardless of the instigating signal. Such triggers include biomechanical stress (e.g., work load, compensation for ischemic damage), sarcomeric protein mutations, cytoskeletal protein mutations, abnormal energetics, G protein-coupled receptors for ligands (including angiotensin II and endothelin-1), or their signal transducers within cells. In turn, increased myocyte size reflects increased RNA and protein content per cell as responses to these stimuli. In eukaryotic cells, the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) becomes extensively phosphorylated in its serine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) during the transition from transcript initiation to transcript elongation - that is, "escape" of RNAPII from the promoter-proximal region into the open reading frame. Although this process is believed to be crucial to productive synthesis of mRNA and is known to be governed by two atypical cyclin-dependent kinases, Cdk7 and Cdk9, surprisingly little is understood of how regulatory pathways within cells intersect these RNAPII-directed protein kinases. Investigations of the CTD kinase module in cardiac hypertrophy provide a tentative initial map of a molecular circuit controlling cell size through regulated phosphorylation of RNAPII.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:125-39.
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    ABSTRACT: There is now considerable consensus that the adipocyte hormone leptin and the pancreatic hormone insulin are important regulators of food intake and energy balance. Leptin and insulin fulfill many of the requirements to be putative adiposity signals to the brain. Plasma leptin and insulin levels are positively correlated with body weight and with adipose mass in particular. Furthermore, both leptin and insulin enter the brain from the plasma. The brain expresses both insulin and leptin receptors in areas important in the control of food intake and energy balance. Consistent with their roles as adiposity signals, exogenous leptin and insulin both reduce food intake when administered locally into the brain in a number of species under different experimental paradigms. Additionally, central administration of insulin antibodies increases food intake and body weight. Recent studies have demonstrated that both insulin and leptin have additive effects when administered simultaneously. Finally, we recently have demonstrated that leptin and insulin share downstream neuropeptide signaling pathways. Hence, insulin and leptin provide important negative feedback signals to the central nervous system, proportional to peripheral energy stores and coupled with catabolic circuits.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:267-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the effects of leptin have stemmed mainly from animal studies, which continue to leave important clues of its roles in physiology, metabolism, neuroscience, and cell signaling. Since its discovery, leptin has been linked to various pathways, either directly at its primary site of action in the hypothalamus, or indirectly via downstream effector pathways such as in adipocytes and muscle. Leptin's importance is exemplified by the lack of redundant backup mechanisms, since leptin-deficient mice are obese, diabetic, and sterile. Investigations uncovering the pleiotropic actions of leptin were unfolded mainly from rodent models. Thus, this chapter focuses on these studies and, more specifically, on those findings recently brought forward by transgenic mice overexpressing leptin. The vast amount of biology that has been ascribed to leptin encompasses effects on food intake, insulin sensitivity, adiposity, thermogenesis, reproduction, immunity, and bone regulation. Mechanisms underlying leptin's action revolve essentially around neural pathways but also encompass to a lesser extent peripheral mechanisms. The roles of leptin along these axes are reviewed, with particular emphasis on pathways and phenotypes generated by transgenic hyperleptinemia. An evolutionary significance of hyperleptinemia in association with development of leptin resistance is suggested as a protective armament against some of the detrimental effects caused by hyperleptinemia in transgenic mice overexpressing leptin.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:245-66.
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is a common problem in much of the western world today in that is linked directly with several disease processes, notably, hypertension. It is becoming clear that the adipocyte is not merely an inert organ for storage of energy but that it also secretes a host of factors that interact with each other and may result in elevated blood pressure. Of particular importance is the putative role of leptin in the causation of hypertension via an activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a direct effect on the kidneys, resulting in increased sodium reabsorption leading to hypertension. Obesity per se may have structural effects on the kidneys that may perpetuate hypertension, leading to an increased incidence of end-stage renal disease that results in further hypertension. Adipose tissue may elaborate angiotensin from its own local renin-angiotensin system. The distribution of body fat is considered important in the genesis of the obesity-hypertension syndrome, with a predominantly central distribution being particularly ominous. Weight loss is the cornerstone in the management of the obesity-hypertension syndrome. It may be achieved with diet, exercise, medications, and a combination of these measures. Anti-obesity medications that are currently undergoing clinical trials may play a promising role in the management of obesity and may also result in lowering of blood pressure. Antihypertensives are considered important components in the holistic approach to the management of this complex problem.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:169-205.
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    ABSTRACT: Many diseases have abnormal quality and/or quantity of vascularization as a characteristic feature. Cancer cells elicit the growth of new capillaries during neovascularization in a process termed angiogenesis. In diabetics, pathologic angiogenesis in various tissues is a clinical feature of many common complications. Therefore, the diabetic cancer patient warrants special consideration and extra care in the design of anti-angiogenic treatments without adverse side effects. Some treatment regimens that look promising in vitro, in animal models, or in early clinical trials may be contra-indicated for diabetics. This chapter will review the common complications of diabetes, with emphasis on the angiogenic pathology. Recent research related to the mechanism of action and basis for specificity of the anti-angiogenic peptide, angiostatin, will be the focus. The aim is to shed light on areas in which more research is needed with respect to angiostatin and other anti-angiogenic agents and the microenvironmental conditions that affect their activities, in order to develop improved therapeutic strategies for diabetic cancer patients.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:73-104.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac hypertrophy -- that is, enlargement of the heart resulting from increased myocyte size -- is observed with many forms of human heart disease. It may arise secondary to an insult, such as infarct or chronic hypertension, or may occur as a consequence of a genetic defect, such as in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Traditionally, it has been widely believed that hypertrophy occurred as an adaptive response to normalize increased wall stress due to disease. Recently, however, it has been observed that while hypertrophy initially appears to improve the function of the heart following insult, over time, it frequently leads to a decompensated state, characterized by fibrosis and chamber dilation, resulting in overt heart failure. Hypertrophy also occurs during fetal development, immediately after birth, and in trained athletes; however, it does not lead to decompensation in these states. Experiments over the last 15 years have implicated similar signaling pathways in both pathological and physiological hypertrophic responses. Recently, important differences have been demonstrated that might hold the key to the development of effective new treatments for human diseases. This chapter focuses on how these hypertrophic responses differ from one another phenotypically and discusses how inefficient or impaired energy metabolism in the heart may contribute to the development of pathological responses. We also discuss recent evidence that the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factor family, which previously has been shown to be important in cardiac development and hypertrophy, may have a role in regulation of cardiac energy metabolism.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:105-24.
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    ABSTRACT: The highly prevalent metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, along with abdominal obesity) resembles Cushing's syndrome. However, in simple obesity, plasma cortisol levels are not elevated. 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), at least in mature adipocytes and hepatocytes, converts inactive circulating 11-keto steroids into active glucocorticoids, amplifying local glucocorticoid action. 11beta-HSD1 is elevated in adipose tissue in obese humans and rodents, suggesting that adipose tissue glucocorticoid excess may explain the conundrum. Indeed, transgenic mice overexpressing 11beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue faithfully replicate the metabolic syndrome. Conversely, 11beta-HSD1(-/-) mice resist the metabolic consequences of stress and high-fat feeding via insulin sensitisation and other advantageous effects in the liver and adipose tissue. Adipose 11beta-HSD1 deficiency contributes to a protective metabolic phenotype, supporting its role as a therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2004; 59:359-93.
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    ABSTRACT: While the hormone leptin and its receptor were discovered relatively recently, a great deal is already known about the molecular details of leptin receptor (LR) signaling and physiologic regulation. While multiple alternatively spliced LR isoforms exist, only the long (LRb) form associates with the Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) tyrosine kinase to mediate intracellular signaling. LRb initiates signaling via three major mechanisms: 1) Tyr(985) of LRb recruits SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-2); 2) Tyr(1138) of LRb recruits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3); and 3) tyrosine phosphorylation sites on the receptor-associated Jak2 likely recruit numerous undefined signaling proteins. The Tyr(985) --> SHP-2 pathway is a major regulator of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation during leptin signaling in cultured cells, while the Tyr(1138) --> STAT3 pathway induces the feedback inhibitor, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), as well as important positive effectors of leptin action. The Jak2-dependent activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein --> phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3'-K) pathway appears to regulate membrane potential in LRb-expressing neurons and contributes to the regulation of feeding. The Tyr(1138) --> STAT3 pathway mediates transcriptional regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortin pathway in vivo. This pathway is required for the regulation of appetite and energy expenditure by leptin. Interestingly, the Tyr(1138) --> STAT3 pathway does not strongly regulate neuropeptide Y (NPY) and thus is not required for the control of reproduction and growth. Thus, other as-yet-undefined leptin receptor signals are central to these and perhaps other aspects of leptin action.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 01/2004; 59:287-304.
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    ABSTRACT: The genetic program that directs human placental differentiation is poorly understood. In a recent study, we used DNA microarray analyses to determine genes that are dynamically regulated during human placental development in an in vitro model system in which highly purified cytotrophoblast cells aggregate spontaneously and fuse to form a multinucleated syncytium that expresses placental lactogen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and other proteins normally expressed by fully differentiated syncytiotrophoblast cells. Of the 6918 genes present on the Incyte Human GEM V microarray that we analyzed over a 9-day period, 141 were induced and 256 were downregulated by more than 2-fold. The dynamically regulated genes fell into nine distinct kinetic patterns of induction or repression, as detected by the K-means algorithm. Classifying the genes according to functional characteristics, the regulated genes could be divided into six overall categories: cell and tissue structural dynamics, cell cycle and apoptosis, intercellular communication, metabolism, regulation of gene expression, and expressed sequence tags and function unknown. Gene expression changes within key functional categories were tightly coupled to the morphological changes that occurred during trophoblast differentiation. Within several key gene categories (e.g., cell and tissue structure), many genes were strongly activated, while others with related function were strongly repressed. These findings suggest that trophoblast differentiation is augmented by "categorical reprogramming" in which the ability of induced genes to function is enhanced by diminished synthesis of other genes within the same category. We also observed categorical reprogramming in human decidual fibroblasts decidualized in vitro in response to progesterone, estradiol, and cyclic AMP. While there was little overlap between genes that are dynamically regulated during trophoblast differentiation versus decidualization, many of the categories in which genes were strongly activated also contained genes whose expression was strongly diminished. Taken together, these findings point to a fundamental role for simultaneous induction and repression of mRNAs that encode functionally related proteins during the differentiation process.
    Recent Progress in Hormone Research 02/2003; 58:263-81.