Archivos de investigación médica (Arch Invest Med)

Publisher: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social

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Other titles Archivos de investigación médica
ISSN 0066-6769
OCLC 2769382
Material type Government publication, National government publication, Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Historical data concerning the use of cocaine, its epidemiology, chemistry and pharmacology, as well as its medical complications and treatment, in both acute intoxication and chronic addiction is reported. Its repercussion and damage upon the nervous system with neurologic and psychiatric alterations is also reported. The frequency of cerebral hemorrhages and myocardial, and other visceral infarctions due to vascular lesions are discussed. Various pulmonary lesions produced by the different routes used and the multiple obstetric problems during pregnancy, such as abnormal labour with products showing cerebral damage and teratogenic lesions due to the use of cocaine are presented. Finally, the present prophylactic campaigns against the use of cocaine and other drugs are mentioned.
    Archivos de investigación médica 10/1991; 22(1):3-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Cryptosporidium sp was searched prospectively by means of the Ziehl-Nielsen acid fast staining of stools in 403 samples obtained from patients with diarrhea (n =/152) or other non-gastrointestinal diseases (n =/152) in a six month period. Cryptosporidium was present in 11/304 samples (3.6%), 9 (81%) were taken from patients with diarrhea. Oocysts were detected in 5% of stools form malnourished (II or III) children with diarrhea; 10/11 (91%) with positive-cryptosporidium stools occurred in children less than one year of age. Cryptosporidium was present with increased frequency in malnourished children with diarrhea (p < 0.05).
    Archivos de investigación médica 07/1991; 22(3-4):329-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which Clostridium difficile causes diarrhoea are unknown. The expression of putative virulence factors by 44 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with and without diarrhoea was studied. Toxins A and B were tested in CHO and MRC-5 cells, respectively; adherence was measured in two substrates: HEp-2 cells and polystyrene plates. The in vitro expression of toxins A and B by strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea was not significantly different from that by strains isolated from patients without diarrhoea. The ability of adherence to both HEp-2 cells and polystyrene by strains isolated from patients with diarrhoea was not significantly different when compared with strains isolated from patients without diarrhoea; however, strains isolated from adults with diarrhoea seem to adhere to a greater extent to both substrates than strains isolated from adults without diarrhoea. Twenty three strains which did not produce toxins A and B were tested for enterotoxicity in rat small intestine. Eight such strains induced fluid accumulation and seven of them were isolated from children. Adherence to cells and to polystyrene might be an important virulence factor in strains causing diarrhoea in adults; whereas the production of toxins other than A and B might be an important pathogenic mechanism in strains causing diarrhoea in children.
    Archivos de investigación médica 04/1991; 22(2):189-96.
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    ABSTRACT: A prospective study to determine if subcutaneous edema interferes with insulin absorption was performed. Forty-six patients entered the study. Three groups were formed. Twenty patients with generalized edema (Group 1), ten of them with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Twenty patients without edema (Group II). 10 of them with NIDDM; and six patients with mild edema (Group III). The disappearance of I125-insulin was measured throughout 360 minutes. The rate of absorption in group I was significantly lower and delayed than in group II. The amount of insulin absorbed at 360 minutes was 3 to 4 fold lower in group I than in group II (p 0.001). Group III had intermediate values. The peak of plasma I125-insulin level was 3 to 4 fold lower in group I than group II. The impairment of insulin absorption in subjects with edema was more evident in those with NIDDM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that subcutaneous edema impairs insulin absorption. Insulin absorption from subcutaneous tissue varies due to several conditions, resulting in a difficult glycemic control. Previous studies have shown that insulin absorption is affected by several factors as the site of injection, room and skin temperature, physical exercise, the thickness of adipose tissue, local massage, and local degradation of insulin. Edema due to chronic complications such as nephropathy and cardiopathy often occurs in long-standing diabetic subjects. However, the effects of edema of the skin and subcutaneous tissue on insulin absorption has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to assess if edema affects the absorption of insulin.
    Archivos de investigación médica 04/1991; 22(2):229-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to look for the hypoglycemic effect of 12 plants most used in Mexico for controlling diabetes mellitus. The studies were realized in 27 rabbits submitted weekly to glucose tolerance tests after gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or a preparation of the plant. The results showed that tolbutamide and studied plants (except Aloe barbadensis) decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) the area under glucose tolerance curve, in relation with the water control. The strongest effect was yielded by Psacalium peltatum (27.9%), followed by Curcubita ficifolia (26.4%), Lepechinia caulescens (26.0%), Opuntia streptacantha (21.4%), Slanum verbascifolum (21.1%), Teucrium cubense (19.4%), Cecropia obtusifolia (18.9%), Phaseolus vulgaris (18.5%), Tecoma stans (17.5%), Eriobotrya japonica (17.2%), Salpianthus macrodonthus (15.0%), tolbutamide (14.3%), and Aloe barbadensis (1.4%). Our results point out that the majority of the plants most used by the Mexican population to control diabetes mellitus have an evident hypoglycemic action.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(1):87-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Between January 1983 and December 1984, 83 patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease were entered in a prospective randomized trial comparing MOPP (mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone) with a regimen containing chlorambucil (Leukeran), vincristine, prednisone and procarbazine (LOPP). Both groups were comparable for the variables of age, stage, symptoms, histology and sites of involvement. Seventy percent of LOPP-treated patients achieved a complete remission compared to 65% of the MOPP-treated group. After a median follow-up of greater than 48 months, there is no statistical difference between the two treatment groups in survival or relapse free-survival. The LOPP combination was better tolerated with significantly less side effects. The drug regimen LOPP appears to be as effective as MOPP in producing complete remission and long term survival in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(1):45-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Probes pRepHind, Rep20, p242B1-1, pPF-14, clone 26 and 34 were compared for their applicability to detect P. falciparum in field conditions. Ninety four clinical samples from patients living in the malaria endemic area of Tumaco (Pacific Coast) plus 88 from Villavicencio (Eastern Plains) were tested in "dotblot" hybridization experiments. Probes Rep20, p242B1-1, pRepHind and pPF-14 detected up to 17 pg of purified P. falciparum DNA, while clone 26 and clone 34 detected up to 425 pg DNA. Probes pPF-14, P242B1-1, pRepHind and Rep 20 exhibited comparable detection levels of parasites in infected blood samples. Sensitivity declined from 69-94% in subjects with parasitemias higher than 10.000 par./ul to 15-42% in subjects with parasitemias lower than 100 par./ul. pPF-14 and p24B1-1 showed the highest sensitivity, while clone 26 and 34 presented significantly lower sensitivities. All probes were shown to be highly specific. Detection levels are dependent on specimen treatment. Treatment consisting of serum removal, Triton X-100 lysis, Proteinase K digestion, Phenol and Chloroform extractions followed by Ethanol precipitation yielded 100% sensitivity for specimens with parasite density higher than 1,000 par./l.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(2):181-7.
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    ABSTRACT: An eleven year old boy was referred because of sudden loss of consciousness, muscular weakness, poor general health, severe hypoglycemia with seizures and hepatomegaly. Response to oral glucose and galactose increased blood lactic acid and glucose at different times. Fasting values of blood lactic was normal, but glucose was found at 33 mg/dl. Similar test made up two hours after feeding revealed hyperlactatemia (35-50 mg/dL) and hyperglycemia (129 mg/dL). Glucagon did not result in a rise of glucose at fasting or feeding. Hepatic glycogen content was found 15 gm/100 mg of tissue. The enzyme activities revealed a deficiency of the liver debranching enzyme while leukocytes had normal enzyme activity. Hepatic biopsy showed liver fibrosis. The present case had the clinical characteristics of severe form of glycogen storage disease. A low carbohydrate and high protein diet was indicated in order to increase the gluconeogenic precursors. Although debranching enzyme deficiency is almost always benign a high carbohydrate diet induced a more severe expression of the disease.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):285-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To measure the seric levels of zinc and copper in healthy and in hepatic damaged rats when an inflammatory stimulus is applied. 2 x 2 factorial design. Fisher *44 strain rats, healthy and with chronic hepatic damage. Serum levels of Zn and Cu were determined in the different experimental conditions. Basal Zn levels were found diminished in rats with hepatic damage as compared with healthy ones (p < 0.05), whereas Cu levels were found increased in hepatic damaged rats as compared with healthy ones (p < 0.05). Application of an inflammatory stimulus decreased Zn and increased Cu levels in healthy rats as compared to their basal conditions (p < 0.05), whereas no statistically significant variations were found in the group of rats with hepatic damage when comparing their serum levels before and after inflammatory stimulation. Rats with liver damage present alterations in their Zn and Cu levels under basal conditions. Rats with liver damage, submitted to an inflammatory stimulus, do not modify their serum Zn and Cu levels.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):289-94.
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    ABSTRACT: A twenty year old man presented an acute hematomyelia at T2-T3 level and had electrocardiographic changes suggesting subendocardial and subepicardial ischemia; he also had precordial pain and elevation of the MB fraction of creatine phosphokinase. Neurons providing heart inervation are located at the T2-T3 spinal level. The electrocardiographic changes observed were considered neurogenic in origin and were transient. Although there are experimental reports showing electrocardiographic changes associated with compression of the upper part of thoracic spinal cord, this is the first report to our knowledge, in which an acute spinal injury is shown to be associated with neurogenic changes in ventricular repolarization simulating acute myocardial ischemia.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(1):41-4.
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    ABSTRACT: Rabbit erythropoiesis was studied during recovery from chronic anaemia induced by bleeding. Adult rabbits were made anaemic by daily removal of 10 ml of blood per Kg of body weight, through intracardiac puncture, resulting in a significant stimulation of erythropoiesis. After 14 days, bleeding was stopped and the erythropoietic response was studied during the period of recovery. Peripheral blood and bone marrow were analysed for the two weeks following the last bleeding. While levels of red blood cells and haemoglobin returned to normal values by day 6 of recovery, bone marrow erythroblasts decreased gradually until they reached the normal range by day 11. Once bleeding was stopped, there was a significant decrease in the number of circulating reticulocytes, with a concomitant increase in the number of their marrow counterpart. This suggests that release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation was temporarily blocked. There was also a rapid shift towards normocytic production and the disappearance of macrocytosis. Non-erythroid cells responded very rapidly during recovery, reaching normal values in both peripheral blood and bone marrow 3 days after the last bleeding. Our results show that under the experimental conditions described here, (i) the rabbit haemopoietic system is able to respond to dramatically different physiological stages, and (ii) since the kinetics of most parameters during the period of recovery, both in peripheral blood and bone marrow, were different from those observed during the induction of anaemia, it is possible that the mechanisms operating under both conditions are different.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):317-22.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. An experimental model system was developed in the rabbit to study the transport of iron and the erythropoietic response to chronic bloodletting. 2. This model presents certain novel features as the capacity to measure total red blood cell production and total hemoglobin production in a daily basis. 3. Daily red blood cell production and output of hemoglobin are directly proportional to the volume of blood extracted. The limits of the erythropoietic response were determined. 4. When only minimal bloodletting was performed (3-6 ml blood/kg body weight) a normocytic response was obtained; with the removal of larger volumes of blood, a switch to macrocytic anemia was observed. Cats and guinea pigs responded in a similar fashion. 5. After induction of macrocytic anemia, the diameter of erythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow of the long bones increased and their numbers increased 11.5-fold.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):309-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Thirty-two Wistar albino rats were distributed at random in a factorial design 2 x 2, with two age groups (20 and 90 days old), and two treatments (chronically exposed to toluene vapors 30,000-40,000 ppm in air/15 minutes per day for 30 days, and controls with only air). Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, the rats were tested for conditioned behavior in a "T" maze of avoidance electric shock. Latency of initial response to escape (LIRE) and latency of escape (LE) were measured in seconds. Adult rats both exposed to chronic toluene inhalation and non-exposed showed higher values of LIRE and LE with respect young rats. Animals exposed to chronic toluene inhalation also presented higher values of latency in both LIRE and LE when compared to non-exposed to toluene (controls) of the same age. The differences were evaluated by Friedman's test. The findings are suggestive of brain dysfunction associated with chronic toluene inhalation, and may represent a delay to respond to a displeasure stimulus probably due to defect of internal mechanisms of facilitation-inhibition of neural impulses, mediated by neurotransmitters.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):295-301.
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    ABSTRACT: We prepared supernatants of Concanavalin-A activated human lymphocytes containing high titers of leukocyte migration inhibition factor (LIF). A pool of these supernatants was filtered thorough sephadex 6-100 as well as a pool of supernatants from parallel non activated cultures. A migration assay was carried out for each activated fraction, using as control migration the same fraction from non activated supernatants. In this way we found a fraction from activated supernatants with high LIF activity. We assayed the effect of this LIF containing fraction on a yeast endocytosis assay by polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. We found that the LIF containing fraction increased the number of endocytic PMN in about 80%. This effect was absent from control supernatant and from other fractions from activated supernatant but without LIF activity. The LIF containing fraction did not increase the average number of endocytosed yeast per cell nor the ability to reduce NBT. The endocytosis enhancing effect was blocked by the specific LIF blocker N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. We conclude that LIF can increase the endocytic activity of PMN cells.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(1):35-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of testicular descent in the Sprague-Dawley rat from day 14 of gestation to newborn was studied; the purpose was to analyse the anatomy and related observations made with light and scanning microscopy. Adult female rats were mated during estrus. The presence of spermatozoa in vaginal smears was taken to indicate day 0 of gestation. Animals were kept in a controlled 12-hour light-darkness cycle; food and water were provided ad libitum. At day 14 genital ducts are similar in both sexes. At day 15 and 16 the gubernaculum testis is seen as a mesenchymal cord that extends from mesonephros to the pelvic floor. At day 17 near the enlarged caudal end of gubernaculum, evagination of the abdominal cavity begins forming the peritoneo-vaginal process. The testis ligament as well as the gubernaculum testis attaching to the epididymis at different locations have no direct relation between themselves as such. During day 18, testis rotates on its own longitudinal axis in a ventral-lateral direction. This movement twists the testis ligament, the epididymis and deferent duct lengthen and these structures are lined up in the direction of the peritoneo-vaginal process. The testis is generally situated in the newborn, on or near the internal ring. The gubernaculum testis is attached to the epididymis but does not exercise traction on the testis. The epididymis is a factor in this descending process.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(2):151-61.
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that strains of Escherichia coli producing Vero-Toxin (VTEC) may cause diarrhea or hemorrhagic colitis; however, there are not enough studies to support this hypothesis. We studied the frequency of isolation of VTEC strains in patients with acute diarrhea from rural and urban communities. A total of 1430 strains were analyzed, 361 coming from 118 patients from the rural community (Cadereyta, Qro.) and 1069 from the urban district (D.F.); 95 of these patients were asymptomatic, 213 suffered from watery diarrhea and 43 had bloody diarrhea. For production of toxins, strains were grown in tryptic soy broth for 24h and the culture supernatant was inoculated on HeLa cells; strains were considered cytotoxic when they caused lysis in at least 50% of the cells. In the rural community, VTEC strains were isolated in 20% of the asymptomatics, in 45% of the watery diarrhea patients and in 76% of patients with bloody diarrhea. Frequency of isolation was significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in asymptomatics (P less than 0.05). The relative risk to present watery diarrhea was 3 and to present bloody diarrhea was 12. In the urban district, VTEC strains were isolated in 13, 7.9 and 4.5% from asymptomatics, watery diarrhea and bloody diarrhea patients, respectively; the relative risk for diarrhea was 1. Colonization by VTEC strains is significantly higher in patients from the rural community and these infected patients have an important risk to develop diarrhea.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(2):217-22.
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    ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate captopril effectiveness in the treatment of glomerular albuminuria in nondiabetic patients, an initial study was carried out in 16 patients with proteinuria greater than 1 gr/1, administering captopril, 50 mg/day during a 4 month follow-up period. During that time, urinary albumin levels significantly descended (p < 0.001), with a concomitant rise in serum albumin. We conclude that captopril can be effective as a part of the treatment of albuminuria associated with nephropathy of non diabetic origin.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(3-4):269-72.
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    ABSTRACT: A tissue culture method is described for micropropagation and callus formation from Solanum chrysotricum axillary bud explants in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium, supplemented with various growth regulators. Induction of rooted plants were initiated only when indol-3 acetic acid (IAA) was present as an auxin in combination with either of two cytokinins: kinetin (KN) or benzyladenine (BA); however, the combination of IAA (0.1 + BA (0.2 was found to be best suited for morphogenesis purposes. Alternatively, callus tissue formation was influenced in presence of naphthalene acetic acid; which in combination with kinetin (NAA 0.1 + KN 0.2 exhibit the best response studied. The plant material obtained by this procedure is proposed for pharmacological and chemical studies of this important antimycotic plant remedy.
    Archivos de investigación médica 01/1991; 22(2):127-33.