Advances in child development and behavior (ADV CHILD DEV BEHAV )


Advances in Child Development and Behavior is intended to ease the task faced by researchers, instructors, and students who are confronted by the vast amount of research and theoretical discussion in child development and behavior. The serial provides scholarly technical articles with critical reviews, recent advances in research, and fresh theoretical viewpoints.

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    Advances in child development and behavior
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self-efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay–Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area.
    Advances in child development and behavior 08/2014; 47:261-300.
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    ABSTRACT: Amendments passed as part of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2006 made some forms of single-sex (SS) public education legal in the United States. Proponents offer a host of arguments in favor of such schooling. This chapter identifies and evaluates five broad rationales for SS schooling. We conclude that empirical evidence fails to support proponents' claims but nonetheless suggests ways in which to improve coeducation. Specifically, we (a) show that the purported benefits of SS schooling arise from factors confounded with, but not causally linked to, single-sex composition; (b) challenge claims that biological sex is an effective marker of differences relevant to instruction; (c) argue that sexism on the part of teachers and peers persists in SS contexts; and (d) critique the notion that gender per se "disappears" in SS contexts. We also address societal implications of the use of sex-segregated education and conclude that factors found to be beneficial for students should be implemented within coeducational schools.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:225-60.
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    ABSTRACT: Internalization and socialization are central constructs in developmental psychology for explaining and investigating how development happens through social interaction. There has been and continues to be much debate about how to conceptualize and investigate these processes. The ways in which internalization and socialization promote development have also been difficult to identify. The goal of this chapter is to offer a way of clarifying what happens during internalization and socialization by linking them to a clear conceptualization of development. The chapter first provides an overview of internalization and socialization theory and research. This review indicates that the focus on how development happens through social interaction has taken attention away from specifying the developmental changes that occur through social interaction. It is argued that understanding internalization and socialization can be enhanced by linking them to a clear definition of development, such as the one provided by organismic-developmental theory. According to organismic-developmental theory, developmental change is distinguished from any change that may occur over time. Rather, development is defined in terms of the differentiation and integration of action components in relation to cultural values and expectations for development. After explicating organismic-developmental theory's key claims, some implications of utilizing it for advancing an understanding of internalization and socialization are discussed. The chapter ends with suggestions for future research on internalization, socialization, and development.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:1-32.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a pressing need to share advances in developmental science with the large, multidisciplinary professional workforce that serves vulnerable infants and toddlers and their families. Foundational knowledge and conceptual frameworks that integrate material regarding the contents and processes of early development and promotion of their use can assist interventionists and the families they serve. This chapter describes an approach that has been developed over the past 10 years and summarizes key contents with sample practical applications. Topic areas include developmental theories, newborn capacities, a model for synthesizing information about early social competence (including self-regulation, early relationships, social skills, and social cognition), and key current topics in developmental psychopathology. Brief considerations of diversity and stigma for work with young children and families are also included.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:245-79.
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    ABSTRACT: The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:301-32.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this chapter is to describe the vocabulary development and promising, evidence-based vocabulary interventions for English learners (ELs) from preschool through second grade. To achieve this purpose, we have taken six steps. First, we describe the elements of language development in the native language (L1) and a second language (L2) and how these elements relate to three phases of reading development (i.e., the prereading phase, the learning to read phase, and the reading to learn phase). We contend that in order for ELs to succeed in school, they need a strong language foundation prior to entering kindergarten. This language foundation needs to continue developing during the "learning to read" and "reading to learn" phases. Second, we describe the limitations of current practice in preschool for ELs related to vocabulary instruction and to family involvement to support children's language development. Third, we report curricular challenges faced by ELs in early elementary school, and we relate these challenges to the increase in reading and language demands outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Specific language activities that can help meet some of the demands are provided in a table. Fourth, we synthesize the research on evidence-based vocabulary instruction and intervention and discuss implications for practice with ELs. Fifth, we describe two intervention projects under development that have the potential to improve EL vocabulary and language proficiency in the early grades. We conclude with a summary of the chapter and provide additional resources on the topic.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:281-338.
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    ABSTRACT: Girls and women now outperform boys and men on many indices of academic achievement. Gender differences in motivation may underlie these trends. In this chapter, I review and integrate research on gender differences in self-evaluation, self-regulation, and achievement goals. I argue for the existence of gendered tendencies "to prove" versus "to try and to improve," whereby males tend to orient to demonstrating and defending their abilities, and females to working hard and addressing deficiencies. I discuss how these motivations develop within social and educational contexts of learning, and intersect with gendered patterns of socialization, values, and behaviors in other arenas, especially relational ones. Recurring themes include the costs and benefits of differential emphases on competition and self-promotion versus affiliation and consideration of others in the family, peer group, and classroom. I conclude with some recommendations for creating classroom environments that might promote optimal motivation among all students, regardless of gender.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:1-41.
  • Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:xi-xiv.
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    ABSTRACT: Learning and discovery seem often to begin with noting patterns. Human infants are skilled at pattern detection, even patterns only definable at an abstract level, which is key to their acquisition of complex knowledge systems such as language and music. However, research examining infants' abstract rule learning has generated inconsistent results. We propose that apparent domain differences in infants' abstract rule learning may be the result of extraneous stimulus variation and discrepancies in the methodologies employed across studies probing this skill. We discuss how a behavioral methodology indexing infants' online learning would be valuable in furthering understanding of infants' (as well as adults') abstract rule learning and its neurophysiological concomitants. We outline current research aimed at developing such an index, and we propose future research, pairing such techniques with neurophysiological methods, aimed at shining more light on human skill at discovering structure.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:113-48.
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    ABSTRACT: The benefits associated with engaging in regular physical activity are well documented, but a large segment of the population is not sufficiently active. School physical educa tion and sport programs are identified as important components in efforts to promote physical activity. Girls are less active than boys, and there is evidence that physical education programs are not effectively meeting their needs. The focus of this chapter is to examine gender as a construct in the domains of physical education and sport, clarifying the reasons girls tend to be less active and less involved in physical education. Following an historical overview, curricular issues and motivational aspects are considered. Implications are focused on ways that educators can provide positive experiences for all students in physical education and sport that will encourage them to adopt and maintain healthy active lifestyles and enhance their quality of life across the life span.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:117-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Women and girls in the United States continue to be underrepresented in STEM, particularly in engineering and technology fields. This gap has been attracting recent attention from those motivated to ensure that girls and women have access to a full range of personally satisfying careers as well as from those concerned with developing a rich talent pool to meet national workforce needs. This chapter is focused on interventions that have been designed to address this STEM gender gap. We begin by documenting the STEM gender gap and then review change mechanisms emerging from theories of gender development that may be harnessed in intervention efforts. In addition, we pro vide a taxonomy of intervention goals which we then use to organize an illustrative review of sample interventions. After commenting on some of the findings and limitations of past work, we offer suggestions for enhancing the systematic evaluation of intervention programs that include careful selection of comparison groups, a broad array of STEM outcome measures, assessment of potentially unintended consequences, and meta-analyses.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:77-115.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past several decades, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) parenting has grown more visible. Alongside this enhanced visibility, research on the experiences of LGB parents and their children has proliferated. The current chapter addresses this research, focusing on several main content areas: family building by LGB people, the transition to parenthood for LGB parents, and functioning and experiences of LGB parents and their children. In the context of discussing what we know about LGB-parent families, we highlight gaps in our knowledge and point to key areas that future research should aim to answer, including how race, ethnicity, social class, and geographic factors shape the experiences of LGB-parent families.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:57-88.
  • Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:xi-xiv.
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    ABSTRACT: Drawing from research on civic engagement and environmental commitment, we make a case for the processes inherent in how adolescents' ideas about the commons (those things that bind a polity together) develop. Engagement in the public realm with a plethora of perspectives and a goal of finding common ground is fundamental. Adolescents participate in the public realm through mini-polities (e.g., schools, community organizations). Practices in those settings can reinforce or challenge dominant political narratives. Special attention is given to the natural environment as a commons that transcends generations and to the opportunities in schools and in community partnerships that enable adolescents to realize their interdependence with nature and to author decisions about the commons.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:33-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Sexism is gender-based prejudice or discrimination. As with other forms of prejudice and discrimination, it functions to maintain status and power differences between groups in society. One manifestation of sexism involves prejudice and discrimination against girls and women who seek to achieve in prestigious fields traditionally associated with males. Another manifestation of sexism, however, occurs when pressures are placed on boys and men to conform to traditional conceptions of masculinity. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of developmental and educational psychologists have become concerned about sexism directed toward children and adolescents in school contexts. Our chapter reviews the research on this topic. After providing an overview of different processes related to sexism, we examine how it is manifested in school contexts. Sexism is seen through gender-stereotyped biases against girls and boys in academic and athletic achievement. Also, it occurs through sexual harassment in social interactions. We also address factors related to children's awareness of sexism and coping responses to sexism. Finally, we consider possible ways to reduce sexism and foster effective coping in schools.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:189-223.
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, much research has focused on causal graphical models (CGMs) as a computational-level description of how children represent cause and effect. While this research program has shown promise, there are aspects of causal reasoning that CGMs have difficulty accommodating. We propose a new formalism that amends CGMs. This edge replacement grammar formalizes one existing and one novel theoretical commitment. The existing idea is that children are determinists, in the sense that they believe that apparent randomness comes from hidden complexity, rather than inherent nondeterminism in the world. The new idea is that children think of causation as a branching process: causal relations grow not directly from the cause, but from existing relations between the cause and other effects. We have shown elsewhere that these two commitments together, when formalized, can explain and quantitatively fit the otherwise puzzling effect of nonindependence observed in the adult causal reasoning literature. We then test the qualitative predictions of this new formalism on children in a series of three experiments.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 46:183-213.
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    ABSTRACT: The goals of this chapter are to discuss the theories and evidence concerning the roles of gendered-peer interactions and relationships in children's lives at school. We begin by discussing the tendency of boys and girls to separate into same-sex peer groups and consider the theories and evidence concerning how gender segregation occurs and how peers influence children's learning and development. We then turn to the important and understudied question of why some children have more exposure to same-sex peers than others. We consider factors that contribute to variability in children's experiences with gender segregation such as the types of schools children attend and the kinds of classroom experiences they have with teachers. Finally, we review new evidence concerning the cognitive and affective factors that illustrate that children are actively involved in constructing the social world that surrounds them.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:151-87.
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    ABSTRACT: African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:333-65.
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    ABSTRACT: This chapter reviews the theories and empirical evidence concerning whether gender differences in academic and occupational goals and interests exist, and if so, why those differences may be present. Expectancy-value theory, stereotype threat, sociocultural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis lay the theoretical framework for this chapter. Following a brief review of these theories, we describe the evidence for gender differences in academic ability and occupational interests and goals, using meta-analytic reviews wherever possible. Although there are few gender differences in academic ability, some gender differences in occupational goals and interests persist, particularly in science and mathematics. These gender differences may be due to parental or cultural expectations, changes in developmental trends, stereotypes and discrimination, or gendered-expectations to achieve work-family balance. Overall, the pathways to adult occupations are complex, involving many factors that affect occupational goals, interests, and self-concept.
    Advances in child development and behavior 01/2014; 47:43-76.