Transportation (TRANSPORTATION )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Although the transportation needs of cities and nations around the world may differ in detail there is much that is common. The benefit to be derived by sharing research findings and practical experience is therefore vast. Transportation lends itself to that vital process of information exchange by publishing carefully selected papers which advance the international fund of knowledge. Transportation focuses on issues of direct relevance to those concerned with the formulation of policy the preparation and evaluation of plans and the day-to-day operational management of transport systems. It concerns itself with the policies and systems themselves as well as with their impacts on and relationships with other aspects of the social economic and physical environment. Transportation is relevant to all parts of the world: industrialized newly industrialized or developing. The journal has no model bias and is totally apolitical. Its mission is simply to help improve the transportation of people and goods by bringing an improved understanding of the subject to the theorists practitioners and policy makers who study it.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immigrants to the United States walk, bicycle, and use transit and carpools more than U.S.-born residents do. These differences persist over time and across income groups. The differences appear strongest when immigrants reside in immigrant neighborhoods with high concentrations of other immigrants. This analysis uses a large, geocoded national dataset to analyze these differences and finds that living in an immigrant neighborhood has a strong influence on mode choice for immigrant residents and a much weaker effect on non-immigrant residents of immigrant neighborhoods. These effects are strongest for walking and bicycling, and particularly for shopping-related travel, and they persist after controlling for a number of variables. That these effects are considerably stronger for immigrants than for their U.S.-born neighbors suggests that social factors of the neighborhoods may play a role in structuring travel decisions.
    Transportation 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The modeling of service dynamics has been the focus of recent developments in the field of transit assignment modeling. The emerging focus on dynamic service modeling requires a corresponding shift in transit demand modeling to represent appropriately the dynamic behaviour of passengers and their responses to Intelligent Transportation Systems technologies. This paper presents the theoretical development of a departure time and transit path choice model based on the Markovian Decision Process. This model is the core of the MIcrosimulation Learning-based Approach to TRansit Assignment. Passengers, while traveling, move to different locations in the transit network at different points in time (e.g. at stop, on board), representing a stochastic process. This stochastic process is partly dependent on the transit service performance and partly controlled by the transit rider’s trip choices. This can be analyzed as a Markovian Decision Process, in which actions are rewarded and hence passengers’ optimal policies for maximizing the trip utility can be estimated. The proposed model is classified as a bounded rational model, with a constant utility term and a stochastic choice rule. The model is appropriate for modeling information provision since it distinguishes between individual’s experience with the service performance and information provided about system dynamics.
    Transportation 03/2014; 41(2).
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines how the built environment and weather conditions influence the use of walking as a mode of transport. The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, Canada is the study area for this work. Data are derived from three sources: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a GPS-enhanced prompted recall time-use diary collected between April 2007 and May 2008 as part of the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project, a daily meteorological summary from Environment Canada, and a comprehensive GIS dataset from the regional municipality. Two binary logit multilevel models are estimated to examine how the propensity to use walking is influenced by the built environment and weather while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. The built environment is measured via five attributes in one model and a walkability index (derived from the five attributes) in the other. Weather conditions are shown to affect walking use in both models. Although the walkability index is significant, the results demonstrate that this significance is driven by specific attributes of the built environment—in the case of this study, population density and to a lesser extent, pedestrian infrastructure.
    Transportation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: An understanding of the interaction between individuals’ activities and travel choice behaviour plays an important role in long-term transit service planning. In this paper, an activity-based network equilibrium model for scheduling daily activity-travel patterns (DATPs) in multi-modal transit networks under uncertainty is presented. In the proposed model, the DATP choice problem is transformed into a static traffic assignment problem by constructing a new super-network platform. With the use of the new super-network platform, individuals’ activity and travel choices such as time and space coordination, activity location, activity sequence and duration, and route/mode choices, can be simultaneously considered. In order to capture the stochastic characteristics of different activities, activity utilities are assumed in this study to be time-dependent and stochastic in relation to the activity types. A concept of DATP budget utility is proposed for modelling the uncertainty of activity utility. An efficient solution algorithm without prior enumeration of DATPs is developed for solving the DATP scheduling problem in multi-modal transit networks. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the application of the proposed model and the solution algorithm.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: A growing base of research adopts direct demand models to reveal associations between transit ridership and influence factors in recent years. This study is designed to investigate the factors affecting rail transit ridership at both station level and station-to-station level by adopting multiple regression model and multiplicative model respectively, specifically using an implemented Metro system in Nanjing, China, where Metro implementation is on the rise. Independent variables include factors measuring land-use mix, intermodal connection, station context, and travel impedance. Multiple regression model proves 11 variables are significantly associated with Metro ridership at station level: population, employment, business/office floor area, CBD dummy variable, number of major educational sites, entertainment venues and shopping centers, road length, feeder bus lines, bicycle park-and-ride (P&R) spaces, and transfer dummy variable. Results from multiplicative model indicate that factors influencing Metro station ridership may also influence Metro station-to-station ridership, varied by both trip ends (origin/destination) and time of day. In comparison with previous case studies, CBD dummy variable and bicycle P&R are statistically significant to explain Metro ridership in Nanjing. In addition, Metro travel impedance variables have significant influence on station-to-station ridership, representing the basic time-decay relationship in travel distribution. Potential implications of the model results include estimating Metro ridership at station level and station-to-station level by considering the significant variables, recognizing the necessity to establish a cooperative multi-modal transit system, and identifying opportunities for transit-oriented development.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There have now been over three decades of experience with rate-making freedom for all modes of intercity freight transport in the United States. Most evidence suggests that regulatory change has been beneficial for the rail industry and its users. Despite evidence of positive impacts of regulatory reform of U.S. freight transport, there is limited evidence related to long-term pricing trends by commodity in the deregulated era. Moreover, U.S. shipper groups have called for increased regulation of U.S. railroads, citing increased rates and profits, and monopoly pricing to “captive shippers.” This study estimates U.S. railroad revenue-marginal cost ratios for seven different commodities between 1986 and 2008. Interestingly, we find no significant increase in revenue-cost margins for commodities thought to be “most captive” (coal and chemicals), while finding large increases for some commodities thought to be “non-captive.” These results may provide insight into the impacts of regulatory reform in other countries, where there are similar concerns of equitable pricing and financial viability. They suggest that a move toward a more market-based pricing system can enhance railroad viability without harming those with fewer transport options.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The paper proposes a microscopic travel demand model that generates multi-week schedules by means of a continuous planning approach with an open planning horizon. This model introduces behavioral targets to describe people’s motivation to perform activities, and it uses a planning heuristic to make on-the-fly decisions about upcoming activities. The planning heuristic bases its decisions on three aspects: a dis- 13 comfort index derived from deviations from agents’ past performance with regard to their behavioral targets; the effectiveness of the immediate execution; and activity execution options available in the near future. The paper reports the results of a test scenario based on 16 an existing 6-week continuous travel diary and validates the model by comparing simulation results with observed behavioral patterns along several dimensions (weekday similarities, weekday execution probabilities of activities, transition probabilities between activities, duration distributions of activities, frequency distributions of activities, execution interval distributions of activities and weekly travel probability distributions). The results show that the model has the capability to reproduce observed behavior and the flexibility to introduces new behavioral patterns.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of fuel price on travel demand for different income groups reveal the choices and constraints they are faced with. The first purpose of this study is to understand these underlying choices and constraints by examining the variation of fuel price elasticity of vehicle miles travelled (VMT) across income groups. On the other hand, the rebound effect—increase in VMT as a result of improvement in fuel efficiency may offset the negative effect of fuel price on VMT. The second purpose of this study is to compare the relative magnitudes of the fuel price elasticity of VMT and the rebound effect. A system of structural equations with VMT and fuel efficiency (MPG, miles per gallon) as endogenous variables is estimated for households at different income levels from 2009 National Household Travel Survey. Higher income households show greater fuel price elasticity than lower income households. Fuel price elasticities are found to be −0.41 and −0.35 for the two highest income groups, while an elasticity of −0.24 for the lowest income group is identified. The rebound effect is found to be only significant for the lowest income households as 0.7. These findings suggest the potential ability of using fuel price as a tool to affect VMT. The study results also suggest possible negative consequences faced by lower income households given an increase in fuel price and call for more studies in this area.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2000, the city of Bogotá, Colombia embarked on a grand land use and transportation system experiment. The transformation of Bogotá included building the TransMilenio Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, a city-wide system that offers speed and convenience similar to that of an underground metro. TransMilenio is widely regarded as a success, and cities around the world are planning or building similar systems. In this paper, we use a repeated cross-section labor market dataset to assess whether access to the new BRT system affects the incomes of those who live in station area neighborhoods. Our results indicate that the opening of the TransMilenio system was associated with increased income for those living near—but not immediately adjacent to—trunk line stations. This relationship is strongest in the lower and middle-income range. There are at least two possible explanations for this result: 1. existing residents earn higher wages, or 2. higher income workers move to the neighborhood. Our data do not allow us to distinguish clearly between them, but available evidence suggests that much of the effect is likely due to relocation. Our results stand in contrast to prior work, which has largely suggested that improvements in public transit will tend to reduce wages in station areas.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The discrete choice paradigm of random regret minimization (RRM) has been recently proposed in several choice contexts. In the route choice context, the paradigm has been used to model the choice among three routes and to formulate regret-based stochastic user equilibrium. However, in the same context the RRM literature has not confronted three major challenges: (i) accounting for similarities across alternative routes, (ii) analyzing choice set composition effects on choice probabilities, and (iii) comparing RRM-based models with advanced RUM-based models. This paper looks into RRM-based route choice models from these three perspectives by (i) proposing utility-based and regret-based correction terms to account for similarities across alternatives, (ii) analyzing the variation of choice set probabilities with the choice set composition, and (iii) comparing RRM-based route choice models with C-Logit, Path Size Logit and Paired Combinatorial Logit. The results illustrate the definition of the correction terms within the regret function, the effect of the choice set specificity of RRM-based route choice models, and the positive performance of these models when compared to advanced RUM-based models.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Young people appear to be using public transit more than their predecessors, reversing twentieth century trends, but the importance of such findings depends on whether high transit use persists as these riders age. This paper examines whether transit mode share for commuting trips is increasing; socio-economic and geographic trends are also explored to attempt to determine whether these trends are likely to continue. The study uses repeated cross-sectional origin–destination surveys of Greater Montreal (1998, 2003 and 2008). Over 45,000 home-to-work and home-to-school trips are studied for each survey year. A general lifecycle pattern of decreasing transit share with age is apparent within cohorts until individuals reach their early 30s, followed by decades of stability. This pattern appears to hold in recent years, but with higher youth use rates, and it is argued that the higher use will continue as current younger cohorts mature. Suburbanization by those in their early 30s is evident and, along with household composition changes, appears to explain much of the final within-cohort mode share declines before equilibrium. Transit providers might see lasting ridership gains, as those currently in their early 30s and younger replace lower-use cohorts in the workforce, provided service provision keeps pace. Addressing the needs of young people, whose mode choices are comparatively unsettled, should be a priority for transit agencies to ensure higher transit usage in the future.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the effects of the provision of traffic information on toll road usage based on a stated preference survey conducted in central Texas. Although many researchers have studied congestion pricing and traffic information dissemination extensively, most of them focused on the effects that these instruments individually produce on transportation system performance. Few studies have been conducted to elaborate on the impacts of traffic information dissemination on toll road utilization. In this study, 716 individuals completed a survey to measure representative public opinions and preferences for toll road usage in support of various traffic information dissemination classified by different modes, contents, and timeliness categories. A nested logit model was developed and estimated to identify the significant attributes of traffic information dissemination, traveler commuting patterns, routing behavior, and demographic characteristics, and analyze their impacts on toll road utilization. The results revealed that the travelers using dynamic message sign systems as their primary mode of receiving traffic information are more likely to choose toll roads. The potential toll road users also indicated their desire to obtain traffic information via internet. Information regarding accident locations, road hazard warnings, and congested roads is frequently sought by travelers. Furthermore, high-quality congested road information dissemination can significantly enhance travelers’ preferences of toll road usage. Specifically the study found that travelers anticipated an average travel time saving of about 11.3 min from better information; this is about 30 % of travelers’ average one-way commuting time. The mean value of the time savings was found to be about $11.82 per hour, close to ½ of the average Austin wage rate. The model specifications and result analyses provide in-depth insights in interpreting travelers’ behavioral tendencies of toll road utilization in support of traffic information. The results are also helpful to shape and develop future transportation toll system and transportation policy.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although researchers have long argued in favor of off-peak transit service, studies that have empirically estimated its benefits regarding revenue generation, trip diversions, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission are rare. This study provides important evidence about the benefits of off-peak commuter rail service by focusing on the Pascack Valley line in New Jersey, where off-peak service was introduced in October 2007. The research involved two focus groups and an onboard survey of passengers. Benefits were estimated regarding additional revenue generation and reduction in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and GHG emission. The research shows that the new off-peak service potentially reduced VMT by more than 12 million annually due to diversions from other modes. Although diversions from other modes resulted in a substantial reduction in GHG emissions, due to the additional diesel fuel used by the new trains, the net GHG savings were in the range of 28–49 %. The research further shows that both peak period and off-peak riders benefited from the new off-peak service. Evidence is found about an increase in new transit riders and a modest increase peak period usage because of the off-peak service.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, transit planners are increasingly turning to simpler, faster, and more spatially detailed “sketch planning” or “direct demand” models for forecasting rail transit boardings. Planners use these models for preliminary review of corridors and analysis of station-area effects, instead of or prior to four-step regional travel demand models. This paper uses a sketch-planning model based on a multiple regression originally fitted to light-rail ridership data for 268 stations in nine U.S. cities, and applies it predictively to the Phoenix, Arizona light-rail starter line that opened in December, 2008. The independent variables in the regression model include station-specific trip generation and intermodal–access variables as well as system-wide variables measuring network structure, climate, and metropolitan-area factors. Here we compare the predictions we made before and after construction began to pre-construction Valley Metro Rail predictions and to the actual boardings data for the system’s first 6 months of operations. Depending on the assumed number of bus lines at each station, the predicted total weekday ridership ranged from 24,767 to 37,907 compared with the average of 33,698 for the first 6 months, while the correlation of predicted and observed station boardings ranged from r = 0.33 to 0.47. Sports venues, universities, end-of-line stations, and the number of bus lines serving each station appear to account for the major over- and under-predictions at the station level.
    Transportation 01/2014;

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