Transportation (TRANSPORTATION )

Publisher: Springer Verlag


Although the transportation needs of cities and nations around the world may differ in detail there is much that is common. The benefit to be derived by sharing research findings and practical experience is therefore vast. Transportation lends itself to that vital process of information exchange by publishing carefully selected papers which advance the international fund of knowledge. Transportation focuses on issues of direct relevance to those concerned with the formulation of policy the preparation and evaluation of plans and the day-to-day operational management of transport systems. It concerns itself with the policies and systems themselves as well as with their impacts on and relationships with other aspects of the social economic and physical environment. Transportation is relevant to all parts of the world: industrialized newly industrialized or developing. The journal has no model bias and is totally apolitical. Its mission is simply to help improve the transportation of people and goods by bringing an improved understanding of the subject to the theorists practitioners and policy makers who study it.

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Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: The parameters for travel time and travel cost are central in travel demand forecasting models. Since valuation of infrastructure investments requires prediction of travel demand for future evaluation years, inter-temporal variation of the travel time and travel cost parameters is a key issue in forecasting. Using two identical stated choice experiments conducted among Swedish drivers with an interval of 13 years, 1994 and 2007, this paper estimates the inter-temporal variation in travel time and cost parameters. It is found that the travel time parameter has remained constant over time but that the travel cost parameter has declined in real terms. The trend decline in the cost parameter can be entirely explained by higher average income level in the 2007 sample compared to the 1994 sample. The results support the recommendation to keep the travel time parameter constant over time in forecast models but to deflate the travel cost parameter according to forecasts of income increases among travellers and the relevant income elasticity of the cost parameter. Evidence from this study further suggests that the inter-temporal and the cross-sectional income elasticity of the cost parameter are equal. The average elasticity is found to be -0.8- -0.9 in the present sample of drivers, and the elasticity is found to increases with real income level, both in the cross-section and over time.
    Transportation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines how the built environment and weather conditions influence the use of walking as a mode of transport. The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia, Canada is the study area for this work. Data are derived from three sources: a socio-demographic questionnaire and a GPS-enhanced prompted recall time-use diary collected between April 2007 and May 2008 as part of the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project, a daily meteorological summary from Environment Canada, and a comprehensive GIS dataset from the regional municipality. Two binary logit multilevel models are estimated to examine how the propensity to use walking is influenced by the built environment and weather while controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. The built environment is measured via five attributes in one model and a walkability index (derived from the five attributes) in the other. Weather conditions are shown to affect walking use in both models. Although the walkability index is significant, the results demonstrate that this significance is driven by specific attributes of the built environment—in the case of this study, population density and to a lesser extent, pedestrian infrastructure.
    Transportation 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The modeling of service dynamics has been the focus of recent developments in the field of transit assignment modeling. The emerging focus on dynamic service modeling requires a corresponding shift in transit demand modeling to represent appropriately the dynamic behaviour of passengers and their responses to Intelligent Transportation Systems technologies. This paper presents the theoretical development of a departure time and transit path choice model based on the Markovian Decision Process. This model is the core of the MIcrosimulation Learning-based Approach to TRansit Assignment. Passengers, while traveling, move to different locations in the transit network at different points in time (e.g. at stop, on board), representing a stochastic process. This stochastic process is partly dependent on the transit service performance and partly controlled by the transit rider’s trip choices. This can be analyzed as a Markovian Decision Process, in which actions are rewarded and hence passengers’ optimal policies for maximizing the trip utility can be estimated. The proposed model is classified as a bounded rational model, with a constant utility term and a stochastic choice rule. The model is appropriate for modeling information provision since it distinguishes between individual’s experience with the service performance and information provided about system dynamics.
    Transportation 03/2014; 41(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Using a single line model, it has been shown recently that the presence of a stringent financial constraint induces a less than optimal bus frequency and larger than optimal bus size. This occurs because the constraint induces a reduction of the importance of users’ costs (their time); in the extreme, users’ costs disappear from the design problem. In this paper we show that such a constraint also has an impact on the spatial structure of transit lines. This is done departing from the single line model using an illustrative urban network that could be served either with direct services (no transfers) or with corridors (transfers are needed). First, the optimal structure of lines is investigated along with frequencies and vehicle sizes when the full costs for users and operators are minimized (unconstrained case); the optimal lines structure is shown to depend upon the patronage level, the values of time and the cost of providing bus capacity. Then the same problem is solved for the extreme case of a stringent financial constraint, in which case users’ costs have relatively little or no effect in determining the solution; in this case the preferred outcome would be direct services under all circumstances, with lower frequencies and larger bus sizes. The impact of the financial constraint on the spatial structure of transit lines is shown to be caused by the reduction in cycle time under direct services; the introduction of users’ costs in the objective function makes waiting times reverse this result under some circumstances.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the current research effort is to develop a framework for a better understanding of commuter train users’ access mode and station choice behavior. Typically, access mode and station choice for commuter train users is modeled as a hierarchical choice with access mode being considered as the first choice in the sequence. The current study proposes a latent segmentation based approach to relax the hierarchy. In particular, this innovative approach simultaneously considers two segments of station and access mode choice behavior: Segment 1—station first and access mode second and Segment 2—access mode first and station second. The allocation to the two segments is achieved through a latent segmentation approach that determines the probability of assigning the individual to either of these segments as a function of socio-demographic variables, level of service (LOS) parameters, trip characteristics, land-use and built environment factors, and station characteristics. The proposed latent segment model is estimated using data from an on-board survey conducted by the Agence Métropolitaine de Transport for commuter train users in Montreal region. The model is employed to investigate the role of socio-demographic variables, LOS parameters, trip characteristics, land-use and built environment factors, and station characteristics on commuter train user behavior. The results indicate that as the distance from the station by active forms of transportation increases, individuals are more likely to select a station first. Young persons, females, car owners, and individuals leaving before 7:30 a.m. have an increased propensity to drive to the commuter train station. The station model indicates that travel time has a significant negative impact on station choice, whereas, presence of parking and increased train frequency encourages use of the stations.
    Transportation 01/2014; 41(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Private car ownership plays a vital role in the daily travel decisions of individuals and households. The topic is of great interest to policy makers given the growing focus on global climate change, public health, and sustainable development issues. Not surprisingly, it is one of the most researched transportation topics. The extant literature on car ownership models considers the influence of exogenous variables to remain the same across the entire population. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous variable effects might vary across the population. To accommodate this potential population heterogeneity in the context of car ownership, the current paper proposes the application of latent class versions of ordered (ordered logit) and unordered response (multinomial logit) models. The models are estimated using the data from Quebec City, Canada. The latent class models offer superior data fit compared to their traditional counterparts while clearly highlighting the presence of segmentation in the population. The validation exercise using the model estimation results further illustrates the strength of these models for examining car ownership decisions. Moreover, the latent class unordered response models perform slightly better than the latent class ordered response models for the metropolitan region examined.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The percentage of the population being served by a transit system in a metropolitan region is a key system performance measure but depends heavily on the definition of service area. Observing existing service areas can help identify transit system gaps and redundancies. In the public transit industry, buffers at 400 m (0.25 miles) around bus stops and 800 m (0.5 miles) around rail stations are commonly used to identify the area from which most transit users will access the system by foot. This study uses detailed OD survey information to generate service areas that define walking catchment areas around transit services in Montreal, Canada. The 85th percentile walking distance to bus transit service is found to be around 524 m for home-based trip origins, 1,259 m for home-based commuter rail trip origins. Yet these values are found to vary based on our analysis using two statistical models. Walking distances vary based on route and trip qualities (such as type of transit service, transfers and wait time), as well as personal, household, and neighbourhood characteristics. Accordingly, service areas around transit stations should vary based on the service offered and attributes of the people and places served. The generated service areas derived from the generalized statistical model are then used to identify gaps and redundancies at the system and route level using Montreal region as an example. This study can be of benefit to transport engineers and planners trying to maximize transit service coverage in a region while avoiding oversupply of service.
    Transportation 01/2014; 41(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we developed a persuasive communication program to induce public-transport-oriented residential (PTOR) choice. We implemented an experiment that targeted students from the University of Tsukuba, Japan, who were in the process of changing their residential location. These students were randomly assigned to four groups: the first group was a control group; the second group received an information brochure about apartment flats typically used by students in Tsukuba city; the third group received a brochure identical to the one given to the second group, except that it also included information about the level of bus service for every flat; and the fourth group was provided with a leaflet that provided motivation for PTOR choice, in addition to the brochure used for the third group. The residential locations were investigated 5 months after the intervention. There was a significant difference between the control group and the third and fourth groups. The ratio of PTOR choice in the group with the information was twice as high as that for the control group. Furthermore, the persuasive message also increased PTOR choice. Additionally, the target groups’ frequency of bus use from home or the university was significantly high compared with the control group.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In 2000, the city of Bogotá, Colombia embarked on a grand land use and transportation system experiment. The transformation of Bogotá included building the TransMilenio Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, a city-wide system that offers speed and convenience similar to that of an underground metro. TransMilenio is widely regarded as a success, and cities around the world are planning or building similar systems. In this paper, we use a repeated cross-section labor market dataset to assess whether access to the new BRT system affects the incomes of those who live in station area neighborhoods. Our results indicate that the opening of the TransMilenio system was associated with increased income for those living near—but not immediately adjacent to—trunk line stations. This relationship is strongest in the lower and middle-income range. There are at least two possible explanations for this result: 1. existing residents earn higher wages, or 2. higher income workers move to the neighborhood. Our data do not allow us to distinguish clearly between them, but available evidence suggests that much of the effect is likely due to relocation. Our results stand in contrast to prior work, which has largely suggested that improvements in public transit will tend to reduce wages in station areas.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Although researchers have long argued in favor of off-peak transit service, studies that have empirically estimated its benefits regarding revenue generation, trip diversions, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission are rare. This study provides important evidence about the benefits of off-peak commuter rail service by focusing on the Pascack Valley line in New Jersey, where off-peak service was introduced in October 2007. The research involved two focus groups and an onboard survey of passengers. Benefits were estimated regarding additional revenue generation and reduction in vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and GHG emission. The research shows that the new off-peak service potentially reduced VMT by more than 12 million annually due to diversions from other modes. Although diversions from other modes resulted in a substantial reduction in GHG emissions, due to the additional diesel fuel used by the new trains, the net GHG savings were in the range of 28–49 %. The research further shows that both peak period and off-peak riders benefited from the new off-peak service. Evidence is found about an increase in new transit riders and a modest increase peak period usage because of the off-peak service.
    Transportation 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The present study considers underground passengers and investigates the ways in which they spend their time during a trip of average length or shorter. Using a structured procedure that had been refined after a preliminary study, more than 1,700 passengers were observed in London. The results showed that even when the length of travel is very short (2–6 stops), underground passengers engage in several occupations, especially those involving the use of mobile Information and Communication Technologies. These occupations depend on the specific spatial and temporal conditions of the travel, as well as on gender and age. These results should be useful in designing travel services that enhance passengers’ experiences; they also suggest a criterion for comparing trips using different transportation modes (i.e., looking at the time point during the trip at which the ratio of active versus passive occupations changes).
    Transportation 01/2013;
  • Transportation 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: In many countries, dial-a-ride services are provided by public authorities to elderly and handicapped people who cannot use regular transit. Cost minimization is key to running these services, but one can observe a growing interest in quality measurement and improvement. A first step in improving quality is to define a quality measurement scale specific to dial-a-ride services. A second step is to incorporate quality measurements in mathematical models that serve as a basis for optimization algorithms. To this end, an extensive survey of dial-a-ride users was conducted in Longueuil, the largest suburb of Montreal, Canada. This paper describes the steps of the survey and presents its main conclusions: (1) 56 attributes were identified based on interviews, (2) the questionnaire developed has proved to be reliable and valid, (3) an exploratory factor analysis allowed us to determine 13 dimensions of quality in dial-a-ride services, (4) the most important criteria for users were identified, and (5) population segmenting variables by which subgroups of users can be categorized were also determined. Managerial implications of our results are also discussed.
    Transportation 05/2012; 2012(39):3.
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    ABSTRACT: Hägerstrand’s original framework of time geography and the subsequent time–space prism computational methods form the foundation of a new computational method for potential path areas (PPA) in a realistic representation of dynamic urban environments. In this paper the time–space prism framework is used to assess sensitivity of PPA size to different parameters and to build choice sets for regional destination choice models. We explain the implication of different parameters to choice set formation in a step-wise manner and illustrate not only the complexity of the idea and the high computational demand but also behavioral realism. In this context, this paper tests the feasibility of using constraint-based time–space prism to find the choice sets for a large-scale destination choice model, and identifies a variety of implementation issues. Computational demand is estimated based on a household travel survey for the Southern California Association of Government, and the feasibility of using time–space prisms for destination choice models is assessed with different levels of information on the network and destinations available. The implications of time of day effects and flexibility in scheduling on choice set development due to varying level of service on the network and availability of activity opportunities are discussed and numerically assessed.
    Transportation 04/2012; 39(4).
  • Transportation 01/2012;

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