Water Research (WATER RES )

Publisher: International Association on Water Pollution Research; International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control; International Association on Water Quality, Elsevier


Water Research publishes refereed, original research papers on all aspects of the science and technology of water quality and its management worldwide. A broad outline of the journal's scope includes: Treatment processes for water and wastewaters, municipal, agricultural and industrial, including residuals management. Water quality standards and the analysis, monitoring and assessment of water quality by chemical, physical and biological methods. Studies on inland, tidal or coastal waters, including surface and ground waters, and point and non-point sources of pollution. The limnology of lakes, impoundments and rivers. Solid and hazardous waste management, including source characterization and the effects and control of leachates and gaseous emissions. Environmental restoration, including soil and groundwater remediation. Analysis of the interfaces between sediments and water, and water/atmosphere interactions. The application of mathematical and modelling techniques. Public health and risk assessment. Education and training.

  • Impact factor
    Show impact factor history
    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
  • Cited half-life
  • Immediacy index
  • Eigenfactor
  • Article influence
  • Website
    Water Research website
  • Other titles
    Water research
  • ISSN
  • OCLC
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Voluntary deposit by author of pre-print allowed on Institutions open scholarly website and pre-print servers
    • Voluntary deposit by author of authors post-print allowed on institutions open scholarly website including Institutional Repository
    • Deposit due to Funding Body, Institutional and Governmental mandate only allowed where separate agreement between repository and publisher exists
    • Set statement to accompany deposit
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to journal home page or articles' DOI
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
    • NIH Authors articles will be submitted to PMC after 12 months
    • Authors who are required to deposit in subject repositories may also use Sponsorship Option
    • Pre-print can not be deposited for The Lancet
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, the uptake and elimination of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in Daphnia magna was tested. Daphnids were exposed during 10 days to sublethal concentrations of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles and corresponding metal salts (ZnCl2 and CuCl2.2H2O), after which they were transferred to unexposed medium for another 10 days. At different times during the exposure and none-exposure, the total and internal zinc or copper concentration of the daphnids was determined and the nanoparticles were localized in the organism using electron microscopy. The exposure concentrations were characterized by measuring the dissolved, nanoparticle and aggregated fraction in the medium. The results showed that the ZnO nanoparticles quickly dissolved after addition to the medium. Contrarily, only a small fraction (corresponding to the dissolved metal salt) of the CuO nanoparticles dissolved, while most of these nanoparticles formed large aggregates. Despite an initial increase in zinc and copper concentration during the first 48 hour to 5 day exposure, the body concentration reached a plateau level that was comparable for the ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl2, but much higher for the CuO nanoparticles (with visible aggregates accumulating in the gut) than CuCl2.2H2O. During the remaining exposure and subsequent none-exposure phase, the zinc and copper concentration decreased fast to concentrations comparable with the unexposed daphnids. The results indicate that D. magna can regulate its internal zinc and copper concentration after exposure to ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, similar as after exposure to metal salts. The combined dissolution, accumulation and toxicity results confirm that the toxicity of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles is caused by the dissolved fraction.
    Water Research 01/2015;
  • Mariya Ikari, Yoshihiko Matsui, Yuta Suzuki, Taku Matsushita, Nobutaka Shirasaki
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlorine oxidation followed by treatment with activated carbon was studied as a possible method for removing radioactive iodine from water. Chlorination time, chlorine dose, the presence of natural organic matter (NOM), the presence of bromide ion (Br–), and carbon particle size strongly affected iodine removal. Treatment with superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC) after 10-min oxidation with chlorine (1 mg-Cl2/L) removed 90% of the iodine in NOM-containing water (dissolved organic carbon concentration, 1.5 mg-C/L). Iodine removal in NOM-containing water increased with increasing chlorine dose up to 0.1 mg-Cl2/L but decreased at chlorine doses of >1.0 mg-Cl2/L. At a low chlorine dose, nonadsorbable iodide ion (I–) was oxidized to adsorbable hypoiodous acid (HOI). When the chlorine dose was increased, some of the HOI reacted with NOM to form adsorbable organic iodine (organic-I). Increasing the chlorine dose further did not enhance iodine removal, owing to the formation of nonadsorbable iodate ion (IO3–). Co-existing Br– depressed iodine removal, particularly in NOM-free water, because hypobromous acid (HOBr) formed and catalyzed the oxidation of HOI to IO3–. However, the effect of Br– was small in the NOM-containing water because organic-I formed instead of IO3–. SPAC (median particle diameter, 0.62 μm) had a higher equilibrium adsorption capacity for organic-I than did conventional PAC (median diameter, 18.9 μm), but the capacities of PAC and SPAC for HOI were similar. The reason for the higher equilibrium adsorption capacity for organic-I was that organic-I was adsorbed principally on the exterior of the PAC particles and not inside the PAC particles, as indicated by direct visualization of the solid-phase iodine concentration profiles in PAC particles by field emission electron probe microanalysis. In contrast, HOI was adsorbed evenly throughout the entire PAC particle.
    Water Research 01/2015;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Uncertainty regarding changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality has created interest in managing peatlands for their ecosystem services such as drinking water provision. The evidence base for such interventions is, however, sometimes contradictory. We performed a laboratory climate manipulation using a factorial design on two dominant peatland vegetation types (Calluna vulgaris and Sphagnum Spp.) and a peat soil collected from a drinking water catchment in Exmoor National Park, UK. Temperature and rainfall were set to represent baseline and future conditions under the UKCP09 2080s high emissions scenario for July and August. DOC leachate then underwent standard water treatment of coagulation/flocculation before chlorination. C. vulgaris leached more DOC than Sphagnum Spp. (7.17 versus 3.00 mg g−1) with higher specific ultraviolet (SUVA) values and a greater sensitivity to climate, leaching more DOC under simulated future conditions. The peat soil leached less DOC (0.37 mg g−1) than the vegetation and was less sensitive to climate. Differences in coagulation removal efficiency between the DOC sources appears to be driven by relative solubilisation of protein-like DOC, observed through the fluorescence peak C/T. Post-coagulation only differences between vegetation types were detected for the regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs), suggesting climate change influence at this scale can be removed via coagulation. Our results suggest current biodiversity restoration programmes to encourage Sphagnum Spp. will result in lower DOC concentrations and SUVA values, particularly with warmer and drier summers.
    Water Research 12/2014; 67:66-76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Electrode polarity reversal is evaluated for electrochemical transformation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in aqueous solution using flow-through reactors with mixed metal oxide electrodes and Pd catalyst. The study tests the hypothesis that optimizing electrode polarity reversal will generate H2O2 in Pd presence in the system. The effect of polarity reversal frequency, duration of the polarity reversal intervals, current intensity and TCE concentration on TCE removal rate and removal mechanism were evaluated. TCE removal efficiencies under 6 cycles h�1 were similar in the presence of Pd catalyst (50.3%) and without Pd catalyst (49.8%), indicating that Pd has limited impact on TCE degradation under these conditions. The overall removal efficacies after 60 min treatment under polarity reversal frequencies of 6, 10, 15, 30 and 90 cycles h�1 were 50.3%, 56.3%, 69.3%, 34.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Increasing the frequency of polarity reversal increases TCE removal as long as sufficient charge is produced during each cycle for the reaction at the electrode. Electrode polarity reversal shifts oxidation/reduction and reduction/oxidation sequences in the system. The optimized polarity reversal frequency (15 cycles h�1 at 60 mA) enables two reaction zones formation where reduction/oxidation occurs at each electrode surface.
    Water Research 09/2014; 67:267-275.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current water treatment technologies are inefficient at treating water contaminated with metaldehyde, an 8-member cyclic tetramer of acetaldehyde widely used as a molluscicide in large-scale agriculture and in gardens, and which has been frequently observed to breach European regulatory limits in the UK due to its high solubility and frequent use. Here, we examine the controls on metaldehyde adsorption onto activated phenolic carbon, namely the influence of activation degree, pore size distribution, particle size, point of zero charge and surface functionalisation, by synthesising “tailored” carbons from phenolic resin. Metaldehyde adsorption has been found to be independent of specific surface area (SBET), which is highly unusual for an adsorption process, and is favoured in carbons with (a) high microporosity with narrow pore size distribution, (b) presence of mesopores which allow efficient diffusive transport, and (c) an absence of negatively charged functional groups. The maximum adsorption capacity of the phenolic resin-derived carbons, tested at an elevated (i.e. exceeding environmental levels) water concentration of 64 mg metaldehyde/L, was 76 mg metaldehyde/g carbon compared with 13 mg metaldehyde/g carbon in industrial granular activated carbon (GAC). The phenolic resin-derived carbons and GAC showed similar adsorption kinetics with maximum metaldehyde uptake occurring within 30 min under batch adsorption conditions, although adsorption isotherms indicate much stronger adsorption of metaldehyde on the phenolic resin-derived carbons. Adsorption efficiency for metaldehyde was maintained even in the presence of high background concentrations of organic matter and inorganic salts, indicating the potential utility of these “designer” carbons in waste and/or drinking water treatment.
    Water Research 09/2014; 41:56.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study we characterised the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains isolated in biofilm and sediments from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharge point and its receiving river. We also examined the prevalence of qnrA, qnrB, qnrS and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes in these isolates and determined whether they harbour plasmid-encoded β-lactamases such as TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Moreover, antibiotic concentrations were also measured to evaluate the level of contamination of these pharmaceuticals in the sampling area. Antibiotics were found in the range of ng L(-1) in WWTP effluents, but most of them were no longer found in downstream river. However, some fluoroquinolones were detected in sediment downstream demonstrating their high persistence and their capacity to be retained in the river sediments. Most of the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates belonged to the Gammaproteobacteria class and 17 of them, 8 (7.6%) from the first sampling and 9 (6.1%) from the second sampling, carried a qnr gene. In particular, 15 isolates carried the qnrS gene and 2 carried the qnrB gene. Among the qnr-positive isolates, 12 harboured the aac(6')-lb-cr gene and 2 of them also carried a β-lactamase on the same plasmid, indicating that they may be transferred simultaneously. It is also noteworthy that all qnr-positive isolates identified as Aeromonas species harboured the same qnrS allele, namely the qnrS2. This study reinforces the importance of environmental bacteria as vehicles for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.
    Water Research 09/2014; 61:67–76.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biological methane biodegradation is a promising treatment alternative when the methane produced in waste management facilities cannot be used for energy generation. Two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs), provided with a non-aqueous phase (NAP) with high affinity for the target pollutant, are particularly suitable for the treatment of poorly water-soluble compounds such as methane. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of the presence of the NAP on the resulting biodegradation kinetics in TPPBs. In this study, an experimental framework based on the in situ pulse respirometry technique was developed to assess the impact of NAP addition on the methane biodegradation kinetics using Methylosinus sporium as a model methane-degrading microorganism. A comprehensive mass transfer characterization was performed in order to avoid mass transfer limiting scenarios and ensure a correct kinetic parameter characterization. The presence of the NAP mediated significant changes in the apparent kinetic parameters of M. sporium during methane biodegradation, with variations of 60, 120, and 150% in the maximum oxygen uptake rate, half-saturation constant and maximum specific growth rate, respectively, compared with the intrinsic kinetic parameters retrieved from a control without NAP. These significant changes in the kinetic parameters mediated by the NAP must be considered for the design, operation and modeling of TPPBs devoted to air pollution control.
    Water Research 09/2014; 67C:46-54.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Controlling hypolimnetic hypoxia is a key goal of water quality management. Hypoxic conditions can trigger the release of reduced metals and nutrients from lake sediments, resulting in taste and odor problems as well as nuisance algal blooms. In deep lakes and reservoirs, hypolimnetic oxygenation has emerged as a viable solution for combating hypoxia. In shallow lakes, however, it is difficult to add oxygen into the hypolimnion efficiently, and a poorly designed hypolimnetic oxygenation system could potentially result in higher turbidity, weakened thermal stratification, and warming of the sediments. As a result, little is known about the viability of hypolimnetic oxygenation in shallow bodies of water. Here, we present the results from recent successful tests of side stream supersaturation (SSS), a type of hypolimnetic oxygenation system, in a shallow reservoir and compare it to previous side stream deployments. We investigated the sensitivity of Falling Creek Reservoir, a shallow (Zmax = 9.3 m) drinking water reservoir located in Vinton, Virginia, USA, to SSS operation. We found that the SSS system increased hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen concentrations at a rate of ∼1 mg/L/week without weakening stratification or warming the sediments. Moreover, the SSS system suppressed the release of reduced iron and manganese, and likely phosphorus, from the sediments. In summary, SSS systems hold great promise for controlling hypolimnetic oxygen conditions in shallow lakes and reservoirs.
    Water Research 09/2014; 67C:129-143.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Production and use of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is regulated worldwide. However, numerous potential precursors that eventually decompose into PFOS and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still being used and have not been studied in detail. Therefore, knowledge about the levels and sources of the precursors is essential. We investigated the total concentration of potential PFAA precursors in the Tama River, which is one of the major rivers flowing into the Tokyo Bay, by converting all the perfluorinated carboxylic acid (PFCA) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid (PFSA) precursors into PFCAs by chemical oxidation. The importance of controlling PFAA precursors was determined by calculating the ratios of PFCAs formed by oxidation to the PFAAs originally present (Σ�[PFCA C4-C12] / Σ[PFAAs]before oxidation) (average = 0.28 and 0.69 for main and tributary branch rivers, respectively). Higher total concentrations of �[PFCAs] were found in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. However, the ratios found in the effluents were lower (average = 0.21) than those found in the river water samples, which implies the decomposition of some precursors into PFAAs during the treatment process. On the other hand, higher ratios were observed in the upstream water samples and the existence of emission sources other than the STP effluents was indicated. This study showed that although the treatment process converting a part of the PFAA precursors into PFAAs, STPs were important sources of precursors to the Tama River. To reduce the levels of PFAAs in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to reduce the emission of the PFAA precursors as well.
    Water Research 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mesoporous silica SBA-15 supported iron and cobalt catalysts (Fe-Co/SBA-15) were prepared and used in the electrochemical (EC) enhanced heterogeneous activation of peroxydisulfate (PDS, S2O8(2-)) process for the removal of Orange II. The effects of some important reaction parameters such as initial pH, current density, PDS concentration and dosage of Fe-Co/SBA-15 catalysts were investigated. The results showed that the decolorization efficiency was not significantly affected by the initial pH value, and it did increase with the higher PDS concentration, current density and Fe-Co/SBA-15 dosage. Both the sulfate radical (SO4(·-)) and the hydroxyl radical (OH) are considered as the primary reactive oxidants for the Orange II decolorization. The Fe-Co/SBA-15 catalyst maintained its high activity during repeated batch experiments. The intermediate products were identified by GC-MS analysis and a plausible degradation pathway is proposed accordingly. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were 52.1% and 31.9%, respectively after 60 min of reaction time but reached 82.9% and 51.5%, respectively when the reaction time was extended to 24 h. Toxicity tests with activated sludge indicated that the toxicity of the solution increased during the first 30 min and then decreased as the oxidation proceeded.
    Water Research 09/2014; 66C:473-485.