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Other titles Vestnik otorinolaringologiĭ
ISSN 0042-4668
OCLC 1777883
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of various forms of the surgical treatment of the patients presenting with chronic odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (COMS) with special reference to its long-term RESULTS: The secondary objective was to assess the quality of life of such patients during the postoperative period. The study included 107 patients divided into two groups. The patients of group 1 (n=32) underwent radical operation on the maxillary sinuses (MS) as described by Caldwell and Luc. The patients of group 2 (n=75) were treated with the use of endoscopic surgery on maxillary sinuses. The results of the study suggest that endoscopic surgery on maxillary sinuses can be employed for the minimally invasive revision of the maxillary sinuses; it thereby ensures a smoother course of the postoperative period and improves the quality of life of the treated patients.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):77-79.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present work was to study the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying nasal bleeding (NB) in the patients presenting with arterial hypertension (AH). A total of 47 patients with AH suffering from NB were available for the examination of whom 28 experienced a single bleeding episode and19 had recurrent bleeding. 11 of them were treated by endonasal surgical intervention for the achievement of hemostasis. Simultaneously, mucoperichondreal biopsies were taken from the anterior septal portions and used for histological and ultrastructural investigations. The laboratory examination of all the patients has demonstrated hyperfibrinogenemia and the enhanced level of soluble monomeric fibrin complexes in the blood (especially in the patients with recurrent nasal bleeding) despite the normal platelet levels, prothrombin and thrombin times. These findings gave reason to characterize the hemostasiological status of the patients as chronic compensated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) syndrome. The histological study revealed hyaline, erythrocyte-rich and fibrin thrombi in the vessels of the microcirculatory system whereas ultrastructural studies showed desquamation of endothelial cells, massive desendothelization, and disintegration of the basal membrane with the exposure of subendothelium. It is supposed that these changes provoked the development of thrombosis and focal necrosis in nasal mucosa. The authors conclude that the cause of nasal bleeding associated with arterial hypertension is directly related to the lesions of vascular endothelial, microcirculatory disorders, and modification of the blood coagulation processes rather than to the mechanical rupture of blood vessels. These changes are believed to be responsible for the development of local intravascular coagulation.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):41-45.

  • Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):44-46.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present work was to study syntopy of the artery of labyrinth using block-preparations of the posterior cranial fossa, variants of its branching-off from the vertebro-basiliar basin (VBB), and peculiar features of its anatomical structure. A total of 12 block-preparations of the posterior cranial fossa were available for the investigation. They were preliminarily stained with red latex and fixed in a three-point system. These procedures were followed by retrosigmoid craniotomy, opening of dura mater in the supero-lateral part of the cerebellomedulllary cistern, traction of the cerebellum, and blunt separation of the basiliar artery (BA). Variants of branching of the antero-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) and branching of the artery of labyrinth from AICA were studied. It was shown that the artery of labyrinth branches off from the antero-inferior cerebellar artery in 100% of the cases. The latter artery formed a loop in 14% of the cases (3 ears). The average diameter of the labyrinth artery was 0.32 mm and its mean area 0.06 The artery of labyrinth branched off from the posterior para-stem segment of the antero-inferior cerebellar artery in 42.6% of the cases (9 ears), and from the anterior para-stem segment of AICA in 14.2% of the cases (3 ears). Within the conventional «rhombus», the artery of labyrinth was straight in 76.2% of the cases (16 ears) and arc-shaped in 23.8% (4 ears).
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):30-33.

  • Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):85-87.
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    ABSTRACT: Digital video-otoscopy (DVO) is one of the modern high-tech methods for otiatric diagnostics that allows to enlarge the image of the area being examined, i.e. the otoscopic picture. DVO has been shown to facilitate the objective dynamic observation of the clinical course of the disease by means of photo- and videodocumentation of he changes in the tympanic membrane and other otoscopicstructures. The DVO technique makes it possible to substantially improve the quality of diagnostics, detect the middle ear conditions at the early stagesof their alteration, and choose the optimal strategy for the continued conservative and/or surgical treatment.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):74-76.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper highlights the problems and difficulties associated with the introduction of the modern radiodiagnostic methods including computed and magnetic resonance tomography into the otorhinolaryngological practice in this country. The approaches to addressing these problems and overcoming difficulties are proposed. The review of the diagnostic potential of various modalities is presented. The modern algorithms for the examination of the patients presenting with various diseases of the ears, nose, and throat are described with special reference to their diagnostic value.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):4-7.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present work was to study the spectrum of bacterial pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute otitis media under present conditions and to elucidate the relationship between the pathogen species and the clinical course of the inflammatory process in the middle ear. A total of 60 patients of either sex at the age varying from 18 to 64 patients were available for the examination. All of them complained of ear pain, purulent discharge from the ears, hearing impairment, and general weakness. The following methods were employed: the analysis of the patients' complaints and their medical histories, visualexamination of the ENT organs, tonal threshold audiometry, tympanometry, and the analysis of secretion from the tympanic cavity using the real-time PCR technique. The study has demonstrated some regular patterns of the clinical manifestations of the disease depending on its causative agent. Specifically, it turned out that acute otitis media associated with the infection by Streptоcoccus pneumoniae is characterized by the more reactive clinical symptoms and the greater amount of complications compared with acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae that is largely a subclinical pathology. However, the latter condition more frequently leads to chronization of the pathological process.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):52-55.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to develop a system of laboratory diagnostics ofchlamydial infection in the mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the patients presenting with chronic sinusitis. A total of 168 subjects at the age varying from 18 to 65 years were available for the examination based at the Department of Otorhinolaryngologyduring the period of exacerbation of chronic sinusitis. Chlamydia were identified by simultaneously using two direct (polymerase chain reaction and direct immunofluorescence) and one indirect (immunoenzymatic assay) methods. The study has demonstrated the high degree of probability of the detection of chlamydial infection based on the above complex of the laboratory methods. It is concluded that the use of the proposed algorithm in practical medicine makes it possible to improve the quality of laboratory verification of chlamydial infection and thereby to choose the adequate diagnostic strategy for the patients suspected of having chlamydial infection and to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapeutic measures being taken.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):61-64.
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    ABSTRACT: The up-to-date bedside otoneurological examination of the dizzy patients consists of a number of tests and procedures of paramount importance for the localization and diagnostics of the causes underlying dizziness. Recent progress in neurootology made it possible to improve the quality of physical examination and diagnostics; thereby, it promoted the choice of the most adequate treatment. The authors maintain that the modern otoneurological examination must include the following mandatory stages: the measurement of the head tilt and the eye position; the assessment of the presence and the character of nystagmus, oculomotor reactions (saccades, smooth pursuit movements, optokinetic reflex), and vestibular-ocular reflex; the performance of provocative tests and positioning maneuvers; posture and balance control estimation; evaluation of the hearing function.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):60-66.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work were the development and clinical testing of the method for the closure of defects in the anterior wallsof the frontal and maxillary sinuses with the use of the allotransplants. We have carried out the experimental studies with the transposition of the cartilaginous allograft into the bone defect by means of the press-fit technique. Within six months after the operation, the transplantation resulted in the formation of a regenerate composed of the lamellar bone tissue. We have also undertaken the clinical testing of the method forthe closure of defects in the anterior wallsof the frontal and maxillary sinuses using the cartilaginous allograft. In all the cases, the favourable clinical outcome has been achieved as evidenced by the integrity of the restored anterior wall of the sinus.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):27-29.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present work was to study the structure of childhood diseases in the patients presenting with hospital-acquired ENT pathology based at the results of analysis of the annual reports presented by the heads of departments of otorhinolaryngology of Moscow children's hospitals for the period from 2011 till 2013. It was shown that pharyngeal pathologies predominate among the children amounting to 43.9% of the total ENT morbidity. These conditions are followed by nose and paranasal sinus pathologies (29.2%), ear diseases (22.5%), laryngeal, bronchial and tracheal pathologies (4.4%). The analysis of the internal structure of different classes of diseases was made separately for the ear, throat, and nose (ICD-10). The results of the study give evidence of the tendency toward the higher incidence of selected forms of acute inflammatory diseases and chronic ENT pathologies in the childhood.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):65-68.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of monotherapy with the use of allergoferon gel composed of topical recombinant human interferon-α-2β and loratadine. A total of 105 patients at the age varying from 18 to 55 years presenting with the manifest form of seasonal allergic rhinitis were available for the examination. They were given the topical treatment in the recommended standard doses. The patients included in group 1 (n=65) were treated with allergoferon while those comprising group 3 (n=40) received mometasonefuorate (nasonex). Changes in the clinical symptoms were recorded on days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The best results of the treatment were documented in the patients of group 1 on day 3 afterthe onset of therapy; this effect was attributed to the rapid beginning of the drug action that was apparent within15 minutes after the topical application of the medication. There were no significant difference between the manifestations of the symptoms on days 7 and 14 in the patients of both groups. None of the patients in group 1 refused to continue therapy up to day 28. Two patients in group 2 (5%) wished to discontinue the treatment due to side effects. It is concluded that the treatment with the allergoferon gel for the topical and external applications extends the possibilities for efficacious and safe therapy of the clinical manifestations of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):77-80.
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report a case of the successful function-preserving treatment of a rare neck tumour, chondrosarcoma originating from the hyoid bone. The proposed combined treatment allowed to preserve the respiratory, voice-generating and protective functions of the larynx. The dynamic follow up failed to reveal the development of relapse or metastases during 1 year after surgery.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):91-92.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present work was the comparative comprehensive immunohistochemical study of thepharyngeal tonsillar tissues taken from the children living in the regions of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT) differing in the degree of pollution of the atmospheric air. A total of 100 samples of hyperplastic adenoid vegetation tissuesdivided into three groups were available for the examination. Group 1 included pharyngeal tonsillar tissues obtained from the children (n=20) living in the regions of RT with the low level of atmospheric pollution. Groups 2 and 3 were composed of tissue samples from 48 and 32 children respectively living in the regions of TR with the moderate and high levels of environmental pollution. The analysis of the results obtained in this study demonstrated that the morphological changes in the hyperplastic pharyngeal tonsillar tissues depend on the strength of the environmental impacts. The lymphoid tissue was shown to respond to the effect of the ecopathological factors in the form of both non-specific stromal-vascular reactions and specific immunomorphological reactions. The former are apparent as microcirculatory disorders followed by sclerosis and the latter as the reduced intensity of the local immune response associated with inactivation of its T- and B-cellular components mediated through the changes in the monocytic-macrophagal system.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):30-33.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to systematize the main etiological factors as well as specific clinical, morphological, immunological, and microbiological features characteristic of the development of pathogenic changes in nasal cavity mucosa associated with occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract (URT) of the subjects professionally exposed to the inhaled industrial aerosols (IA) with the special emphasis laid on the role of URT disorders in the development of occupational pathology of the respiratory system. The main clinical forms of occupational diseases of the upper respiratory tract are considered in accordance with the List of occupational diseases. Much attention is given to the criteria for the occupational origin of dystrophic and allergic diseases of the upper respiratory tract developing under the action of industrial aerosols.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):14-18.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute cough associated with influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is one of the most common complaints prompting the patient to visit a general practitioner or an otorhinolaryngologist based at the outpatient clinic. Acute cough during ARVI in the practically healthy subjects is as a rule non-productive, frequently dry, and becomes resolved within 2-3 weeks. In certain cases, however, the cough during ARVI can be productive with the well apparent abnormal expectoration of sputum especially in the aged and elderly subjects, young children, and patients suffering from the chest injuries, dry pleuritis, and other disorders. The early prescription of mucoactive preparations can prevent the development of subacute cough. In such cases, it is recommended to use the mucokinetic ambroxol that improves the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and does not require strong exertion for sputum expectoration. An important aspect in the mechanism of action of ambroxol is the stimulation of surfactant production, antioxidation effect, the improvement of rheological properties of bronchial mucus, ant-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The application of the new pharmaceutical dose form of ambroxol, neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets), produces a very rapid effect (within 1 day after the intake) due to the fast absorption of this medication in the oral cavity, its rapid penetration into the circulatory system and achievement of the high concentration in blood plasma. The volatile metabolites of ambroxol that form as a result of tablet disintegration, such as ambroxol itself, menthol, and cineol, exert the mucolytic, antiseptic, and antibacterial actions, after they reach the trachea and bronchi. Irrigation of the receptors present in the inflamed mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity, with these volatile substances produces an immediate cough-suppressive effect. It is concluded that the preparations of neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets) can be recommended for the inclusion in the combined treatment of the patients presenting with acute and chronic diseases accompanied by the excretion of viscous and difficult-of-discharge bronchial mucus (such as acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma with difficulty in sputum discharge, and bronchoectatic disease).
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):85-90.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to analyze the quality of nasopharyngeal sanation during the treatment of the children presenting with exacerbations of chronic adenoiditis with the use of different methods. Another objective was to estimate the influence of individual methods on the indigenous microflora. The study has revealed the prevailing groups of microflora in the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, and palatine tonsils of 2.228 patients. The clinical examination and comparative analysis of the results of the bacteriological study of nasopharyngeal discharge involved 170 children at the mean age of 5.06±2.6 years presenting with exacerbations of chronic adenoiditis. The patients of group 1 (n=60, control group) underwent nasopharyngeal sanation by means of the low-frequency ultrasound treatment, those of group 2 (n=53) were given an oral antibiotics (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) at an age-based dose during 7-10 days. The patients of group 3 (n=57) were treated with bacterial lysate OM-85 BV (Broncho-Vaxom) (a 3.5 mg capsule once daily in the morning hours under the fasting condition for 3 months (during 10 days of every month). The amount of anaerobic bacteria in the control cultures from the patients of group 1decreased six-fold and that of pneumococci by 3 times. In the children comprising group 2 all pathogenic species persisted despite the treatment whereas in group 3 the number of those species largely decreased whose lysates were contained in the medication. In the patients treated with Broncho-Vaxom the beneficial results of therapy 1 and 3 months after its onset were more apparent than in the children of two other groups. Moreover, this preparation did not affect the indigenous microflora.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(4):56-60.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to determine the size of the vocal folds in the children during the first several years of life. The study included 137 children at the age from the birth up to 3 years who were referred to our clinic for the pre-planned surgical intervention with the use of endotracheal intubation. The length and the width of the vocal folds from the muscle tubercle to the anterior commissure in abduction were measured using a probe specially designed and adapted for this purpose. In all the cases, the endoscope was positioned at the same distance from the vocal folds. The fold length (ab) and width (cd) were expressed in millimeters. These parameters were measured in the following age groups of the patients: from the birth to 1 month 29 days (group 1), from 12 mo to 23 mo 29 d (group 2), from 24 mo to 35 mo 29 d (group 3), and above 36 months (group 4). The length and the width of the vocal folds varied from 2.6 mm to 7.8 mm and from 1.3 mm to 3.2 mm respectively. The length of the vocal folds increased at a rate of 1.025 mm per year showing marked variations within each age group, from the maximum value of 1.79 mm during the second year of life to the minimum of 0.48 mm during the fourth year. The authors conclude that these data may be of use for the improvement of the quality of the surgical treatment and subsequent rehabilitation of the respiratory and voice-generating functions of the larynx.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):56-59.
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    ABSTRACT: The review of the clinical studies designed to evaluate the prophylactic effectiveness of ribosomal immunization is presented. It is shown that the application of the ribosomal vaccine ribomunyl causes a significant reduction in the occurrence of acute respiratory infections in the frequently ill children, lowers the frequency of exacerbation of chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract, and allows to decrease the use of antibiotics. The authors emphasize the high therapeutic effectiveness and safety of preventive measures against respiratory infections in the frequently ill children with the use of the anti-influenza vaccine in combination with ribosomal immunization.
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii 11/2015; 80(5):80-84.