Tropical and geographical medicine

Journal description

Current impact factor: 0.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
1997 Impact Factor 0.363

Additional details

5-year impact 0.00
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.00
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.00
Other titles Tropical and geographical medicine
ISSN 0041-3232
OCLC 1767778
Material type Periodical
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High caesarean birth rates are an issue of international public health concern. Determinants of caesarean birth are reviewed in order to formulate strategies to reduce these high rates. A strong independent profession of highly qualified midwives, who care for women with low-risk pregnancies, may contribute to a relatively low caesarean birth rate. Different clinical policies which influence the intervention rate, are discussed for the most frequent reasons to perform caesarean section: dystocia, repeat caesarean birth, breech delivery and foetal distress. The risks and safety of caesarean birth differ from place to place in this world. As the relative safety of the procedure is an important factor contributing to the rise of caesarean birth, the fact that this has only been achieved in some parts of the world should restrict the indications to perform the operation in the best interests of pregnant women.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(1):19-22.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pattern of adult medical deaths in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi was documented over a 12 month period between April 1992 and March 1993. Results were compared with mortality data collected from the same wards in the pre-AIDS era in 1973. Tuberculosis and AIDS together accounted for 49% of all medical deaths in 1992-93. Eighty-two per cent of deaths occurred in the age group 13-49 years; tuberculosis, AIDS, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, pyogenic meningitis and septicaemia were the most important causes of death in these young patients. These findings are very different to those observed in the same wards 20 years previously when tuberculosis was responsible for 13% of deaths and there were no deaths due to AIDS. The predicted upsurge in AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s will have grave consequences not only for the health sector, but for the social and economic fabric of the countries concerned.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):171-4.
  • Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):183.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two annual follow-up measures of incidence, reinfection after treatment and reversion rates were estimated in a large prospective study of Schistosoma mansoni located in the northern Nile Delta of Kafr El Sheikh. Rates were estimated in a cohort established from a probability sample of the entire rural area of Kafr El Sheikh. Infection was determined by the examination of two Kato stool slides. The weighted first and second annual overall incidence rates were 20.4%, SE +/- 1.4 and 15.9%, SE +/- 1.4, respectively. Geometric mean egg counts in incident cases were 35.6 epg, SE +/- 1.2 and 31.0, SE +/- 1.6 in the first and second follow-ups. Incidence was strongly associated with first round prevalence (r2 = 0.34). Reinfection rates were higher: 33.4%, SE +/- 3.1 and 31.0%, SE +/- 2.1. Reinfection was associated with incidence (r2 = 0.32). Reversion rates were highest in children 0 to 4 years old (61.2%, SE +/- 18.1 and 78.5%, SE +/- 7.0, respectively) and increased from the first to second follow-up: 37.2%, SE +/- 3.4 and 47.0%, SE +/- 3.7, respectively. Patterns of these rates by village community, age and sex are also given over both follow-up examinations and comparison with limited data on rates of S. mansoni infection from previous studies, suggests a stable pattern of transmission over time in the Nile Delta.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(6):270-7.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in an immunocompetent host usually remains unrecognized. Sometimes, however, it may cause serious problems in the immunocompromised host due to its enhanced invasiveness. We present here details of three kala-azar patients with fulminating strongyloidiasis manifested by acute diarrhoea with blood and mucus, severe dehydration, cough and dyspnoea with low peripheral blood eosinophils and filariform larvae of S. stercoralis in faeces. No larvae could be detected in the sputum in spite of radiological evidence of infiltration. The impact of albendazole was dramatic with a disappearance of parasites from the faeces and of pulmonary infiltration and an increase in blood eosinophil count. It is emphasized that S. stercoralis infection in kala-azar patients should be considered a serious infection and treated accordingly.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(3):139-41.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main endemic area of kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) in the Sudan is in Eastern State and the Blue Nile area of Central State. In order to obtain more recent information about kala-azar in both States, the major hospitals and health centres were visited, the physicians and medical assistants interviewed and available records inspected. In Eastern State a cross-sectional survey of one village was carried out and a longitudinal population-based study of another village started. In this State, after a decline since 1985, a sharp increase in the number of cases was noted from 1991 onwards. This increase was seen in large areas, especially along the Rahad and Dinder Rivers. In contrast, in Central State, there was a decline in the frequency of the disease since the 1960s in the area around Sennar and Singa, which was regarded as a hyperendemic focus up to about 30 years ago. It was hypothesized that this decline may be related to the extensive agricultural development with regular insecticiding and the deforestation of the area. Several aspects with regard to transmission of kala-azar are discussed.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):151-6.
  • Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(5):231.
  • Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(2 Suppl):S1.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A study to determine the gender factor in the effect of socio-cultural beliefs on patients' perceptions of leprosy was conducted with the participation of 293 leprosy patients in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, the male model is not the single interpretative model for leprosy as far as socio-cultural aspects are concerned. These differences are analysed and appropriate suggestions made.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):175-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 15-year-old male presented on three occasions with fever, aggressive behaviour, poor sleep and mixed affective and schizophreniform symptoms in association with falciparum malaria. The symptoms resolved promptly following anti-malarial treatment. Prophylaxis with proguanil prevented recurrence of the illness.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(5):218-9.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to assess the barriers to cataract surgical acceptance by blind rural Malawians recognized and referred for surgical correction at district hospitals. Cataract blind recognized and referred for surgery by the ophthalmic assistants in Chikwawa and Nsanje Districts were interviewed 9-12 months after enrolment to determine if they had undergone cataract surgery and to assess factors associated with surgical acceptance. There were significant gender-specific baseline differences between men and women presenting to the ophthalmic assistants. Patients living near the district hospital were also most likely to present to the ophthalmic assistant. Men with lower socioeconomic status were more likely to accept surgery than men with higher socioeconomic status. Men and women who either talked to someone about cataract surgery or knew another aphakic patients were more likely to accept surgery. The best approaches to improving cataract acceptance given existing resources might be to encourage patients undergoing cataract surgery to educate and motivate others to accept surgery and to train existing village level health staff in cataract recognition and referral. Economic barriers and lack of family support are likely to continue to impede improved cataract surgical acceptance, especially among women.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(1):15-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Twenty-five confirmed cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection due to blood transfusion have been documented at King Fahad Hospital (KFH) in Al-Baha, southwestern Saudi Arabia since 1986, but complete follow-up was only possible on 19 of these cases and their contacts. Seventeen cases were diagnosed as having acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) after admission to the hospital due to the deterioration of their health status. Two cases were found to be anti-HIV-1 positive on routine screening for blood donation. This cluster of HIV-1 infected patients through blood transfusion allowed us to study the efficiency of sexual transmission of HIV-1 infection between spouses, the rate of perinatal transmission of HIV-1 infection, and to see whether intrafamilial transmission is a possible route of spread of the virus. Firstly, the present results confirm our earlier observation that transmission of HIV-1 infection was more efficient from the infected husband to his wife(s) in contrast to the inefficient transmission of the infection from the infected wife to her husband. Secondly, by the age of 16 months, all nine newborns to HIV-1 infected mothers became HIV-1 infected. This highlights the importance of medical advice to those mothers regarding conception and/or breast-feeding, particularly as breast-feeding up to 2 years is not an uncommon practice among Saudi women. Finally, none of the household contacts of the 19 cases was infected until now, indicating that intrafamilial spread of HIV-1 did not occur among the population studied.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(6):293-5.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the experimental use of fenitrothion to replace malathion for the control of malaria in North West Frontier Province of Pakistan, serious intoxication of Afghan refugee spraymen occurred. A few weeks after commencement of the spraying operations, cholinesterase levels had fallen to 43.8% in personnel mixing the insecticide, and to 60.7% in spraymen, as measured by tintometry. Most of the personnel reported symptoms of overexposure and the spraying operations had to be discontinued. Intoxication of personnel resulted in poor coverage of the target area. High ambient temperatures during Pakistan's spray season discourage the use of full-protective clothing. Fenitrothion intoxication observed in the Afghan refugee programme, and similar experiences in Pakistan in the past, suggest that this insecticide is too toxic for routine use, when the compliance with safety precautions cannot be effectively supervised.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(1):12-4.
  • Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(6):310.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decentralization of finances and responsibilities has been one of the most interesting developments in the health systems in developing countries during the last decades. In 1992, Senanga District (Zambia) was involved in a Pilot Project for Financial Decentralization. In order to evaluate the experiences of the health staff, focus group discussions were organized. Although several constraints were faced during the implementation of the project, decentralization was regarded as a valuable and workable concept. Continuation was advocated by all health workers.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(1):39-42.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seventy-two cases of pyomyositis are reported from the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. The majority (76.4%) came from highland areas over 1,800 meters above sea level. The clinical picture of the disease was similar to that seen in other East African countries. Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 69 of 72 pus cultures. Spontaneous rupture of abscesses was seen in two cases. Four of the five deaths were assumed to be due to complications of the pyomyositis. Further search into non-altitudinal factors is implicated to get a better insight into the nature of the disorder.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(5):200-2.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In African and other Third World countries, 20-50% of schoolchildren lie under the 5th centile of US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference standards for weight- and height-for-age. Such lesser growth, orthodoxly, categorizes those affected as malnourished, at greater risk of disease, of lesser intelligence, and in need of nutritional supplementation. Questions arising include: 'Are there limitations to the application of NCHS reference standards?' In African schoolchildren, is lesser growth attributable largely, or marginally, to insufficient food intake? How powerful are the non-dietary influencing factors? What are the associated disadvantages to health? Conversely, could lesser growth around puberty even be beneficial respecting possible lessening of subsequent risk of degenerative diseases? Discussion indicates that there are numerous complexities in the whole subject of anthropometry, malnutrition and its stigmata, and interventions, dietary and non-dietary, in the youth of poor populations. In view of the invariably low health funds available in Third World countries, only intervention measures of proven significance to pupils' health warrant implementation.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):145-50.
  • Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(5):231.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this report, a case of colonic perforation caused by Taenia saginata is presented. Preoperative ultrasonographic examination showed a 'pseudokidney sign' suggestive of colonic carcinoma. Clinical and ultrasonographic appearance of this rare case and the possible perforation mechanism are discussed.
    Tropical and geographical medicine 02/1995; 47(4):180-2.