Tissue and Cell (TISSUE CELL)
Tissue and Cell is devoted to original research in the organization of cells, their components and extracellular products at all levels. Emphasis is placed on biological aspects of cell structure, function and behavior, and primarily morphological accounts include substantial new information of general interest. Timely review articles on topics of particular interest, and accounts of new techniques and applications that deal with aspects of cell structure and function are invited.
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Other titlesTissue & cell, Tissue and cell, Tissue and cell
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Publications in this journal
Tissue and Cell 01/2012;
Article: Orexin-B-like immunoreactivity localized in both luteinizing hormone- and thyroid-stimulating hormone-containing cells in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pituitary.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunohistochemical techniques were employed to examine orexin-like immunoreactivities in the pituitary of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Rabbit anti-orexin-A serum and mouse anti-orexin-B monoclonal antibodies were used as primary antibodies. Orexin-B immunoreactive cells corresponded to luteinizing hormone (LH)- or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-containing cells, and all LH- and TSH-containing cells were immunoreactive for orexin-B. However, we found no orexin-A immunoreactive cells in the pituitary. In the Nile tilapia, an orexin-B-like substance may be secreted from LH- or TSH-containing cells and may regulate pituitary function, rather than the orexin-A-like substance in the pituitaries of Japanese seaperch and medaka.Tissue and Cell 02/2009; 41(1):75-8.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this in situ study is to quantify the inflammatory cell subsets and the area fraction (AA%) occupied by collagen fibers in human healthy and diseased (four different stages) gingival connective tissue in order to establish a possible correlation between periodontal disease resulting in collagen breakdown and specific inflammatory cell subsets. Paraffin gingival tissue sections from eight healthy controls (group 0), 10 patients with gingivitis (group 1), 10 patients with moderate periodontitis (group 2) and 10 patients with severe periodontitis (group 3) were immunohistochemically investigated using antibodies against CD-45+, CD-3+, CD-8+, CD-20+, CD-68+, and EMA+ (plasma cells). The AA% occupied by gingival collagen fibers significantly decreased from 54.12% in group (0) to 38.58% in group (1), to 31.87% in group (2), and to 25.46% in group (3). In progressive lesions of periodontal disease, CD-3(+) and CD-8+ cell numbers were increased in early stages within the connective tissue, while CD-20+ cell numbers were increased only in late stages. On the other hand, EMA+, CD-68+ and CD-45+ cell numbers were progressively increased from group (0) to group (3). We demonstrated that CD-68+ monocyte/macrophages, CD-45+ leukocyte common antigen and notably EMA+ plasma cells are pertinently correlated with the severity of periodontal disease and related collagen breakdown.Tissue and Cell 12/2008; 41(2):141-50.
Article: Ultrastructural and proliferative features of the ventral lobe of the prostate in non-obese diabetic mice (NOD) following androgen and estrogen replacement associated to insulin therapy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes causes harmful effects on prostatic function. Thus, the aims of this study were to characterize morphological and proliferative features of the prostate of diabetic mice after long-term glycemic control and testosterone and estrogen replacement. A total of 48 mice (Nod and BALBc) were used. After 20 days in a diabetic state, the mice were divided into six groups: the control group received a 5mL/kg dose of peanut oil; the diabetic group received the same treatment as the control group; the diabetic-insulin group received 4IU doses of insulin; the diabetic-testosterone group received a 5mg/kg dose of testosterone cypionate; the diabetic-estrogen group received a 25 microg/kg dose of 17beta-estradiol; the diabetic-insulin-testosterone-estrogen group received insulin, testosterone and estrogen at the same concentration as the other groups. After 20 days, the ventral lobe was processed for morphological and immunological analyses. The results showed structural disorganization, which was more intense in the diabetic group than in the other groups. The diabetic state showed a proliferation and apoptosis rate that was two times higher than that found in the control group. To conclude, diabetes disturbed the prostatic secretory activity and the association of insulin, testosterone and estrogen was crucial for glandular structural restoration, characterizing the complex activity of the prostate. The imbalance verified between the proliferation process and apoptosis in diabetic mice showed diabetes to be a triggering factor for prostatic pathogenesis.Tissue and Cell 12/2008; 41(2):119-32.
Article: Ultrastructure of oogenesis of two oviparous demosponges: Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata (Porifera).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the cytology of the oogenic cycle in two oviparous demosponges, Axinella damicornis and Raspaciona aculeata, during 2 consecutive years both by light and electron microscopy. Oocytes of both species were similar in their basic morphological features but differences were noticed in time required to complete oocyte maturation and mechanisms of acquisition of nutritional reserves. The oogenic cycle of A. damicornis extended for 7-8 months in autumn-spring, while that of R. aculeata did it for 3-5 months in summer-autumn. Yolk of A. damicornis was predominantly formed by autosynthesis. Oocytes endocytosed bacteria individually and stored them in groups in large vesicles. Bacteria were digested and lipidic material was added to the vesicles to produce a peculiar granular yolk hitherto unknown in sponges. Scarce cells carrying heterogeneous inclusions were observed in the perioocytic space, and were interpreted as putative nurse cells. Such cells were presumably releasing lipid granules to the perioocytic space. In contrast, large numbers of nurse cells were found surrounding the oocytes of R. aculeata. They transported both lipid granules and heterogeneous yolk bodies to the oocytes. R. aculeata also produced some of their yolk by autosynthesis. The involvement of nurse cells in the vitellogenesis of R. aculeata shortened the oocyte maturation, whereas a largely autosynthetic vitellogenesis in A. damicornis prolonged the duration of oogenesis.Tissue and Cell 11/2008; 41(1):51-65.
Article: Nitric oxide stimulates embryonic somatotroph differentiation and growth hormone mRNA and protein expression through a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-independent mechanism.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the pituitary gland, NO is locally synthesized by gonadotroph and folliculo-stellate cells. Many reports have shown that NO can modulate the growth hormone (GH) secretion. However, its role on mice embryo GH regulation remains unclear. In addition, it is unknown whether the regulation is associated with the proliferation of pituitary cells. In this study, we have investigated the regulatory effects of NO on somatotroph differentiation, proliferation and GH mRNA and protein expression using primary cell cultures of mice fetal pituitaries (embryonic days 16.5, ED 16.5). Our results show that incubation of pituitary cells in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1mM), a NO donor, for 4.5h resulted in a significant increase in GH mRNA and protein expression (P<0.05) and the stimulation of SNP can be inhibited by hemoglobin, a NO scavenger. But the addition of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP; 3.0mM), the second messenger of multiple NO actions cannot influence GH mRNA and protein expression. The cyclic nucleotide cellular efflux pumps existed in the pituitary cells can transport the majority of de novo-produced cGMP and effectively block cGMP accumulation. For maintaining intracellular concentration of cGMP, probenecid (0.5mM), a blocker of cGMP efflux pump, combined with cGMP (3.0mM) was used to treat the pituitary cells. This also cannot influence GH mRNA and protein expression. In addition, the ratio of GH-positive cells is increased significantly after the stimulation of SNP (P<0.05). However, SNP cannot modulate the pituitary cell proliferation. From these results we conclude that NO can increase GH mRNA and protein expression in fetal pituitary cells and cGMP is not involved in this hormonal regulation. Stimulation of NO on the somatotroph differentiation does not occur due to pituitary cell proliferation.Tissue and Cell 11/2008; 41(2):133-40.
Article: Sperm structure and ultrastructure of the Melittobia hawaiiensis, Perkins and M. australica, Girault (chalcidoidea: eulophidae).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spermatozoa morphology has, for some years, been used to help answer some phylogenetic questions for Hymenoptera. This is the second study describing spermatozoa morphology of an Eulophidae species in which important characteristics were observed. Melittobia spermatozoa are spiralled and measure approximately 270microm in length. The head contains a small acrosome, apparently formed only by an acrosomal vesicle, which, together with the initial nuclear region, is surrounded by an extracellular sheath, from which innumerable filaments irradiate. The nucleus is helicoidal and completely filled with compact chromatin. A centriolar adjunct is observed at the nucleus-flagellum transition; it associates laterally with the nucleus and exhibits two small expansions, which reach around the centriole. In the flagellum there are two mitochondrial derivatives, which in cross-sections are asymmetric. In the derivative with the larger diameter, two distinct regions are observed, a small one, near the axoneme, with a clear "fissure" inside, and a larger region where the cristae occur. Both derivatives initiate at the nuclear base, but the larger diameter derivative finishes first, before the flagellum extremity. At the end of the axoneme, the accessory microtubules are the first to finish.Tissue and Cell 11/2008; 41(2):113-7.
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ABSTRACT: Fibrillin-1 is the major structural component of extracellular microfibrils. However, the mechanism by which extracellular fibrillin-1 assembles into microfibrils is not fully understood. Fibrillin-1 contains the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which may allow binding to RGD-recognizing integrins. We hypothesized that integrin alphavbeta3 on the cell surface of human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts may influence fibrillin-1 assembly into cell/matrix layers. We treated PDL fibroblasts with an integrin alphavbeta3-specific antagonist to examine fibrillin-1 assembly. Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis showed that treatment with the integrin alphavbeta3 antagonist at 5 muM clearly abolished fibrillin-1 deposition. These results provide for the first time evidence that integrin alphavbeta3 regulates extracellular assembly of fibrillin-1, thereby modulating cell-mediated homeostasis of microfibrils.Tissue and Cell 10/2008; 41(2):85-9.
Article: Comparison of the spermatozoan morphology of Isognomon bicolor and Isognomon alatus (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Isognomonidae).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study we used transmission and scanning electron microscopy to examine the spermatozoan structure of Isognomon bicolor and Isognomon alatus. The spermatozoa of both species were of the primitive or ect-aquasperm type. The acrosomal morphologies were essentially similar but the top of the acrosomal vesicle in I. bicolor sperm had a slightly flattened edge whereas the apex of the acrosomal vesicle of I. alatus sperm had a rounded outline. This difference suggested that acrosomal morphology could be an important character for taxonomic differentiation. In the present work, the results demonstrated that the gamete ultrastructure of the two distinct species I. alatus, from Panama, and I. bicolor, from the southeastern region of Brazil, were similar to the other studied species of the superfamily Pterioidea.Tissue and Cell 10/2008; 41(1):67-74.
Article: Cell dynamics during cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum (Annelida: Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One distinguishing feature of clitellate annelids is the presence of specialized segments comprising the clitellum, whose primary function is to secrete a cocoon. Using histological analyses, we have documented cell types (I-V) and cellular processes associated with cocoon secretion in the aquatic leech, Theromyzon tessulatum. Our data indicate that the bulk of the cocoon's biomass arises from precursor cells of a single type that hypertrophy and proliferate approximately 1 week prior to egg laying, and then differentiate into either of two cell types (i.e., Type II or Type III) depending on their position within the clitellum. Type II cells are concentrated along the lateral edges and venter of the clitellum and secrete alcian blue-staining granules that form opercula (i.e., glue-like material that seals both cocoon ends), while Type III cells populate the dorsal midline and secrete azocarmine-staining granules that build the cocoon wall. Both cell types occupy spaces between deep muscle layers and extend long-neck tubules to the surface epithelium as they fill with granules a few days prior to egg laying. Other cell types appear to make minor contributions to the cocoon (e.g., Type I, Type IV) or have supporting or signaling roles (e.g., Type V). Our observations suggest that post-translational modification (i.e., glycosylation) of the same core protein(s) distinguishes the granules of Type II/III cells, and that the default state of the Type II/III precursor may be evolutionarily linked to secretory cells in basal polychaetes.Tissue and Cell 10/2008; 41(1):35-42.
Article: A new paradigm in the periodontal disease progression: gingival connective tissue remodeling with simultaneous collagen degradation and fibers thickening.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacterial dental plaque is considered to be the main cause of periodontal diseases, but progression of the disease is also related to the host inflammatory response. The earliest affected tissue is the gingiva, but the specific mechanisms involved in the onset of this condition remain unclear. Frequently, collagen degradation is pointed as the main marker of periodontal disease progression, but the organization of the fibers in the gingival tissue is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the gingival extracellular matrix in a model of ligature-induced periodontal disease. Analysis of the microbiota indicated a progressive increase in the ratio of Gram-negative/Gram-positive microorganisms. There was no difference in the organization of reticulin fibers next to the epithelial basement membrane, whereas the arrangement of collagen fibers in the gingival connective tissue was significantly affected. Animals with inflammation presented a reduction of 35% in the total area occupied by collagen fibers. However, these fibers were thicker and more densely packed. These alterations involve type I, type III and type VI collagens as determined by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated the occurrence of marked reorganization of the gingival extracellular matrix in response to the inflammatory process, indicating a new paradigm in the periodontal disease progression: collagen degradation and fibers thickening, simultaneously.Tissue and Cell 10/2008; 41(1):43-50.
Article: The influence of type I diabetes mellitus in periodontal disease induced changes of the gingival epithelium and connective tissue.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Periodontal disease constitutes the most frequent chronic diseases in human dentition. Bacterial plaque is the main etiologic agent, although it is the host immune response that causes periodontal tissue destruction. Diabetes is considered an important risk factor, not only for the onset but also for progression of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyze structural changes in the rat gingival epithelium and connective tissue in response to the experimental periodontal disease induced by the ligature technique, under the influence of diabetes. The results showed that experimental periodontal disease is characterized by marked inflammation, affecting both the epithelial and connective tissues, causing degeneration of the dermal papilla, increase in the number of inflammatory cells, destruction of reticulin fibers, and accumulation of dense collagen fibers (fibrosis). These changes were worsened by diabetes, apparently by hampering the inflammatory response and affecting tissue repair of the affected tissues.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 40(4):283-92.
Article: A light and transmission electron microscope study of hepatic portal tracts in the rhesus monkey (Macacus rhesus).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study reports on morphological features of hepatic portal tracts in the liver of a rhesus monkey. The light microscope shows that the number of each type of principal component comprising a portal tract varies but that there are usually one to five lymphatics, one bile ductule, one bile duct, one arteriolar and one arterial branch of the hepatic artery, and one hepatic portal vein. Bile ductules, in cross section, have 6-10 cells (mostly low pyramidal, but with a few cuboidal) bordering the lumen, an outside diameter of from about 20 to 25 microm, and a luminal diameter of from 2 to 10 microm. Bile ducts, in cross section, have more than 10 cells (about equal numbers of low pyramidal and cuboidal) bordering the lumen, an outside diameter greater than 25 microm and a luminal diameter of greater than 10 microm. The term "pyramidal" has not previously been applied to the cells of the ductules and ducts. The monkey tracts show several cytological features previously undescribed, viz., abortive cilia and basal bodies in the duct cells, abortive cilia in the ductule cells, and an occasional aggregation of ribosomes in arterial endothelial cells. They also show a major histological feature previously mentioned but not illustrated, viz., bundles of nerve processes which exhibit a preferential location, i.e., proximity to the arterioles and arteries.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 40(4):271-82.
Article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-like immunoreactivity localization in the retina and brain of Cichlasoma dimerus (Teleostei, Perciformes).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin involved in the development and maintenance of vertebrate nervous systems. Although there were several studies in classical animal models, scarce information for fish was available. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of BDNF in the brain and retina of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus. By immunohistochemistry we detected BDNF-like immunoreactive cells in the cytoplasm and the nuclei of the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer of the retina. In the optic tectum, BDNF-like immunoreactivity was detected in the nucleus of neurons of the stratum periventriculare and the stratum marginale and in neurons of the intermediate layers. In the hypothalamus we found BDNF-like immunoreactivity mainly in the cytoplasm of the nucleus lateralis tuberis and the nucleus of the lateral recess. To confirm the nuclear and cytoplasm localization of BDNF we performed subcellular fractionation, followed by Western blot, detecting a 39 kDa immunoreactive-band corresponding to a possible precursor form of BDNF in both fractions. BDNF-like immunoreactivity was distributed in areas related with photoreception (retina), the integration center of retinal projections (optic tectum) and the control center of background and stress adaptation (hypothalamus). These results provide baseline anatomical information for future research about the role of neurotrophins in the adult fish central nervous system.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 40(4):261-70.
Article: Histological evaluation of gonadal differentiation in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The timing of sex determination and the pattern of sex differentiation have not been studied in fathead minnow even though this species of fish are commonly used as a research model for toxicological studies. In this study, the developmental histology of gonadal development was investigated. Fish were cultured in the laboratory conditions and spawning obtained at a photoperiod of 16 h-light and 8 h-dark. Samples were collected from day 7 fish post-spawning (day 7 fps) to day 150 fps and their gonads were processed for histological examination. Developmental histology was assessed by using a light microscopy. The results showed that ovarian differentiation normally occurs at around day 13 fps, while testicular differentiation normally occurs at around day 22 fps.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 40(4):299-306.
Article: The method of mouse embryoid body establishment affects structure and developmental gene expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate formation of the three primary germ layers in mouse embryoid bodies (EBs), we observed changes in structure and gene expression over a 7-day culture period. We compared these changes using two methods for EB formation: hanging drop (HD) and static suspension culture (SSC). Light microscopy showed that a stratified columnar epithelial layer developed on the surface of EBs formed using the HD method. From Day 3 in culture, ultrastructural changes occurred in the aligned cellular membranes. Condensation of actin filaments was followed by formation of complicated adherent junctions and dilatation of intercellular canaliculi containing well-developed microvilli. These changes were more marked in EBs formed by the HD method than the SSC method. On Day 5 of culture, Brachyury gene expression, a marker for mesoderm formation, was detected only with the HD method. Nestin, an ectoderm marker, and Foxa2, an endoderm marker, were expressed with both methods. These results suggest that in EBs formed with the HD method, actin formation and Brachyury gene expression mark the transition from two to three primary germ layers. Additionally, the HD method promotes more rapid and complete development of mouse EBs than does the SSC method. While the SSC method is simple and easy to use, it needs improvement to form more complete EBs.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 41(1):79-84.
Article: Degeneration of normal articular cartilage induced by late phase osteoarthritic synovial fluid in beagle dogs.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate the pathogenesis of late phase osteoarthritic (OA) synovial fluid (SF) on normal articular cartilage in vivo and provide an understanding of degenerative cartilage extending in OA joint. A random knee, each of 8 beagle dogs, received anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and was confirmed to have late phase OA degenerative changes at 24 weeks after operation. Thereafter, one random elbow of each canine was injected with autologous late phase OA knee SF. The contralateral elbow was injected with normal saline (NS) of the same volume as SF aspirated from ACLT knee. These two groups of elbows were labeled "SF" and "NS". 8 other beagle dogs were left intact and placed in Group Control. After aseptic arthrocentesis was performed weekly on both elbows for 24 weeks, morphological changes were observed in the cartilage of the elbows, and expressions of 7 biological etiological factors of chondrocytes of the elbows were determined in Group SF, Group NS and Group Control, respectively. Morphological changes were observed in articular cartilage of the elbows in Group SF. Levels of unit area of collagen type I in the noncalcified, calcified and full zones of articular cartilage of the elbows in Group SF increased significantly. Level of unit area of collagen type III in the calcified zone of articular cartilage of the elbows in Group SF remained unchanged. Meanwhile, expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-3 of chondrocytes of the elbows in Group SF increased significantly. There was almost no difference between articular cartilage in Group NS and Group Control. Based on these results, we conclude that OA degeneration of normal articular cartilage can be independently induced by late phase OA SF. Endogenous OA biological etiological factor may be one of the reasons causing degenerative cartilage extending in OA joint.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 41(1):13-22.
Article: Development of the subsoephageal body cells and the pericardiac cells during embryogenesis with diapause in Locusta migratoria (Linnaeus 1758) (Orthoptera: Acrididae).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During Locusta migratoria embryogenesis, the yolk is progressively degraded and the resulting metabolites are released in the haemolymph. We researched the organs possibly involved in the uptake of haemolymphatic proteins. Among organs originated from mesoderm, the SOB (suboesophageal bodies) situated in the embryonic head are remarkable by a very early acquisition of differentiated cytological characters, while most other cells of the embryo are undifferentiated. The SOB quite disappear before hatching. Just before katatrepsis stage, the other organs derived from mesoderm begin to differentiate, including the PC (pericardial cells) which take over from the SOB. These cells, situated in thorax and abdomen, are developed during the dorsal close of embryo. The development and the ultrastructural changes of the SOB cells and of the PC were studied during an embryogenesis with diapause. The morphology of embryos which enter diapause is comparable with that of a continuous development at the beginning of katatrepsis. However, the cells of SOB and PC cells suffer from remarkable changes not only physiologically but cytologically. At the beginning of diapause, the proteosynthetic activity practically disappears in the SOB cells and the lysis areas appear. Nevertheless, the exchanges between these cells and the haemolymph still remain important. For the period of cold, which is necessary to the resumption of development, the aspect of the SOB cells changes and in particular the areas of lysis become less wide. When the embryo reopens its development, the SOB cells show a proteosynthetic activity and the areas of lysis disappear. The changes of the SOB cells and of the PC cells are regularized during the resumption of the development: the SOB cells which had again taken a normal activity start to regress from the stage VII on, while the PC cells take over.Tissue and Cell 09/2008; 41(1):23-33.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
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