Surgery (SURGERY )

Publisher: Society of University Surgeons; Society for Vascular Surgery (U.S.); Central Surgical Association, Elsevier


For over 60 years, Surgery has published practical, authoritative information about procedures, clinical advances, and major trends shaping general surgery. Each issue features original scientific contributions and clinical reports. Peer-reviewed articles cover topics in oncologic, trauma, gastrointestinal, vascular, and transplantation surgery. The journal also publishes papers from the meetings of its sponsoring societies, the Society of University Surgeons, the Central Surgical Association, and the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. The journal ranks in the top 3.6% of the 4,779 scientific journals most frequently cited (Science Citation Index). Surgery is recommended for initial purchase in the Brandon-Hill study, Selected List of Books and Journals for the Small Medical Library (1997/98 Edition). Editors: Andrew L. Warshaw, M.D., Michael G. Sarr, M.D.

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    • Publisher last contacted on 18/10/2013
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Publications in this journal

  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):1-5.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):176-7.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):168.
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    ABSTRACT: The benefits of anatomic resection in patients with small (<5 cm), solitary hepatocellular carcinomas remain unclear. Outcomes were therefore evaluated in patients who underwent anatomic resection or nonanatomic resection of small solitary hepatocellular carcinomas. Factors affecting overall survival and disease-free survival were investigated in 330 patients who underwent curative hepatectomy for solitary (≤5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas without macroscopic vascular invasion. In addition, a propensity score matching model with 330 patients was constructed to overcome bias, with subgroups analyzed by tumor diameter (<3 cm and 3-5 cm). ICG-R15 ≥25% was confirmed as being independently associated with poorer overall survival and disease-free survival. One-to-one matching of preoperative characteristics yielded 72 pairs of patients receiving anatomic resection and nonanatomic resection, with long-term outcomes, including overall survival and disease-free survival, being similar in these 2 groups. Subgroup analysis showed that, in patients with tumors <3 cm in diameter, short-term outcomes were better in the nonanatomic resection group than in the anatomic resection group, including significantly reduced operation time (P = .02), blood loss (P = .01), blood transfusion (P < .01), complications (particularly bile leakage and abdominal abscess) (P = .04), and postoperative hospital stay (P < .01). Anatomic resection was not superior to nonanatomic resection in survival outcomes in patients with solitary small hepatocellular carcinomas without macroscopic vascular invasion. Rather, postoperative short-term outcomes were more favorable with nonanatomic resection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):27-36.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):8-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is regarded as a feasible and safe surgical alternative to open distal pancreatectomy for lesions of the pancreatic tail and body. The aim of the present systematic review was to provide recommendations for clinical practice and research on the basis of surgical morbidity, such as pancreas fistula, delayed gastric empting, safety, and clinical significance of laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy for malignant and nonmalignant diseases of the pancreas. A systematic literature search (MEDLINE) was performed to identify all types of studies comparing laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and open distal pancreatectomy. Random effects meta-analyses were calculated after critical appraisal of the included studies and presented as odds ratios or mean differences each with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. A total of 4,148 citations were retrieved initially; available data of 29 observational studies (3,701 patients overall) were included in the meta-analyses. Five systematic reviews on the same topic were found and critically appraised. Meta-analyses showed superiority of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy in terms of blood loss, time to first oral intake, and hospital stay. All other parameters of operative morbidity and safety showed no difference. Data on oncologic radicality and effectiveness are limited. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy seems to be a safe and effective alternative to open distal pancreatectomy. No more nonrandomized trials are needed within this context. A large, randomized trial is warranted and should focus on oncologic effectiveness, defined end points, and cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):45-55.
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    ABSTRACT: Rectal hyposensitivity (RH) can lead to fecal incontinence (FI). Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) is known to modulate rectal sensation, but no data about affecting FI owing to RH are available. This prospective study aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of temporary SNS on patients with FI owing to RH. Twenty-four patients with FI owing to RH had temporary SNS (4 weeks on followed by 1 week off). Before SNS (baseline), after 4 weeks of stimulation (on), and at the end of the off week we recorded first constant sensation (FCS), defecatory desire volume (DDV), maximum tolerated volume (MTV), anal pressures, bowel diaries, Wexner incontinence score, and FI quality-of-life score (FIQOL). There were significant decreases in DDV and MTV during the on-treatment period (P < .0001); this decrease was not significant during the off period. FCS was not significantly affected by SNS. FI episodes significantly improved during the on period in 22 patients (from 5.3 to 1.1 per week; P < .0001) and mean Wexner incontinence score improved from 13.3 to 1.7 (P < .0001). Anal pressures (resting and squeeze) significantly increased during the on period but not during the off period. There was significant improvement in FIQOL during the on period only. SNS can be effective in restoring continence and improving QOL in patients with FI owing to RH. Improved continence might be related to improvement of rectal sensation and/or increased anal pressure. The washout effect of SNS on the continence score, DDV, and MTV after cessation of stimulation needs to be explained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):56-63.
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the relationship between the BRAF V600E mutation and clinicopathologic parameters and to assess the impact of the BRAF V600E mutation and established risk scores on survival in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Retrospective analysis of a consecutive, single-institutional cohort of patients with PTC larger than 1 cm. Clinical risk scores according to the Metastases, Age, Completeness of Resection, Invasion, Size (MACIS), European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), and tumor, node, metastases (TNM) scoring systems were determined. BRAF exon 15 mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing. BRAF V600E mutations were found in 75/116 (65%) PTC. The rates for 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were 92% and 87%, 98% and 96%, and 96% and 94%, respectively. Low MACIS scores were associated with longer OS (10 y 95% vs 75%, P = .008), DSS (10 y 100% vs 89%, P = .02) and RFS (100% vs 85%, P = .006). Comparable survival advantages were observed for patients with early EORTC scores and low TNM stage. BRAF V600E mutation status was not associated with clinicopathologic characteristics of aggressive behavior such as extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastases, higher T-categories, male sex, and greater age. Furthermore, BRAF V600E mutation status was not correlated with clinical risk scores and decreased survival. In concordance with other studies, we did not find a negative prognostic impact of a positive BRAF V600E mutation status on survival. In contrast, the risk algorithms MACIS, EORTC score, and TNM stage were associated with impaired prognosis. Therefore, clinical staging systems represent better tools for risk stratification than BRAF V600E mutation status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):119-125.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):169-170.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):178-9.
  • Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):6-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Nerve-preserving surgery has been provided for patients with rectal cancer; however, sexual dysfunction remains a common complication of rectal cancer surgery. This study explored the efficacy of udenafil to treat erectile dysfunction in male patients who underwent total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 80 male patients who had decreased International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) scores after TME for rectal cancer. Patients received placebo (50 mg) or udenafil (50 mg) for 12 weeks. The primary outcome variable was the change in IIEF-5 scores. The secondary outcome variables were Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) questions 2 (Q2) and 3 (Q3), and the Global Assessment Question (GAQ). Baseline IIEF-5 scores, SEP Q2 and Q3 responses, and spontaneous erection rates were consistent in both groups. At the end of treatment, the change in IIEF-5 scores from the baseline was significantly higher in the udenafil group than it was in the placebo group (mean IIEF-5 score, 4.8 ± 4.0 vs 2.0 ± 1.7; P < .05). Responses to SEP Q2, SEP Q3, and GAQ were significantly higher in the udenafil group than they were in the placebo group (SEP Q2, P = .025; SEP Q3, P = .044; GAQ, P < .001). Treatment-related adverse events (n = 4) were all mild in severity. Oral udenafil was deemed safe and effective for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients who underwent TME for rectal cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 01/2015; 157(1):64-71.
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    ABSTRACT: Although D2 lymphadenectomy has been shown to improve outcomes in gastric cancer, it may increase postoperative morbidity, mainly owing to splenopancreatic complications. In addition, the effects of nodal dissection along the proper hepatic artery have not been extensively elucidated. We hypothesized that modified D2 (ie, D1+) lymphadenectomy may decrease surgical risks without impairing oncologic adequacy. Patients with node-positive gastric cancer undergoing curative total gastrectomy were intraoperatively randomized to D1+ (group 1, 36 patients) or standard D2 lymphadenectomy (group 2, 37 patients), the latter including splenectomy and nodal group 12a. The index of estimated benefit was used to assess the efficacy of dissection of each nodal station. The primary endpoint for oncologic adequacy was the disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Surgical complications were significantly more common in group 2, which also included 2 postoperative deaths. Overall, 35 patients (49%) experienced tumor recurrence. The primary site of tumor relapse and the 5-year DFS rate were not different between the 2 groups. Involvement of the second nodal level was associated with a worse DFS rate; however, patients undergoing more extensive lymphadenectomy did not show a better DFS rate. The incidence of involvement of nodal stations 10, 11d, and 12a was 5%, and the 5-year DFS rate was zero. Consequently, the benefit to dissect such lymph nodes was null. These findings suggest that modified D2 lymphadenectomy confers the same oncologic adequacy as standard D2 lymphadenectomy, with a significant reduction of postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Whether thorough mediastinal dissection is indicated in patients with Siewert type II adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) remains controversial. We conducted a multicenter study to find a preoperative indicator of mediastinal node metastasis. We retrospectively collected data on 315 patients with pT2-T4 Siewert type II tumors who underwent R0 or R1 resection. The rates of metastasis or recurrence were investigated for the upper, middle, and lower mediastinal lymph nodes. Multivariate logistic analysis was used to identify significant indicators of metastasis or recurrence in the mediastinal nodes. The overall rates of metastasis or recurrence in the upper, middle, and lower mediastinal lymph nodes were 4%, 7%, and 11%, respectively. Rates were significantly higher when the distance from the EGJ to the proximal edge of primary tumor was >3 cm for the upper and middle mediastinal nodes and >2 cm for the lower mediastinal nodes. Multivariate analysis revealed that this distance was the only factor significantly associated with metastasis or recurrence in any mediastinal region. The 5-year overall survival rate in the 12 patients with metastasis in the upper or middle mediastinal lymph nodes was 17%. The distance from the EGJ to the proximal edge of primary tumor may be a significant indicator of metastasis or recurrence in the mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with Siewert type II tumors. Thorough mediastinal lymph node dissection via a transthoracic approach may provide a therapeutic benefit when the distance is >3 cm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To describe a standardized, efficient, and cost-effective protocol for the diagnosis of temporary/persisting postoperative hypoparathyroidism after (total) thyroidectomy. We included 237 consecutive patients who underwent (total) thyroidectomy without central neck dissection for various indications. Serum calcium (sCa) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were measured prospectively on the morning of postoperative day 1 to predict the long-term parathyroid metabolism. On the morning of postoperative day 2, measurements were repeated. Follow-up was performed at 1 and 6 months postoperatively. On the morning of postoperative day 1, patients with iPTH ≥ 15 pg/mL (178/237; 75%) and sCa > 2.0 mmol/L were normocalcemic, and "normal" parathyroid metabolism was predicted. iPTH levels of <10 pg/mL and sCa levels of ≤2.0 mmol/L were present in 33 of the 237 patients ("disturbed" parathyroid metabolism; 14%). A "gray zone" included patients with "uncertain" parathyroid metabolism demonstrating iPTH levels between 10 and 15 pg/mL (26/237; 11%). Patients with "disturbed" and "uncertain" parathyroid metabolism were given oral calcium and vitamin D. On the morning of the second postoperative day, iPTH turned to "normal" in 10 of those 26 (38%) patients, and no further calcium or vitamin D was given. During follow-up, supplemental calcium and vitamin D was able to be stopped in all but 2 patients ("permanent" hypoparathyroidism; 2/237; 0.8%). Measurement of iPTH on the morning after operation allows accurate prediction of postoperative parathyroid function in ≥99% of cases. This simple recommendation is practicable in all surgical units, and is an efficient and cost-effective way to recognize patients who require calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Main duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (MD-IPMNs) may occur in 1 or multiple segments of the pancreatic duct. Unlike multifocal branch duct (BD)-IPMNs, the clonality of multisegmental MD-IPMNs remains unclear. GNAS mutations are common and specific for IPMNs, and mutational assessment might be useful to determine the clonality of IPMNs as well as to detect high-risk IPMN with distinct ductal adenocarcinoma (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDAC]). Our aim was to clarify clonality using GNAS status in multisegmental MD-IPMNs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 patients with MD-IPMN. Histologic subtypes and KRAS/GNAS mutations were investigated, and the clonal relationships among multisegmental MD-IPMNs were assessed. Mutational analysis was performed using high-resolution melting analysis and subsequent Sanger/pyrosequencing. Thirteen patients had multiple synchronous and/or metachronous lesions. Seven of these 13 patients had multiple MD-IPMNs; 3 had multiple MD-IPMNs and distinct BD-IPMNs; 1 had multiple MD-IPMNs and a distinct PDAC; 1 had a solitary MD-IPMN, BD-IPMN, and PDAC; and 1 had a solitary MD-IPMN and PDAC. KRAS/GNAS mutations were consistent in 10 of 11 multisegmental MD-IPMNs, whereas MD-IPMNs, BD-IPMNs, and PDACs tended to show different mutational patterns. The frequency of malignant IPMNs was significantly higher in the multisegment cohort; malignant IPMNs constituted 90% (9/10) of the multiple cohort and 56% (32/57) of the solitary cohort (P = .04). Mutant GNAS was more frequently observed in the intestinal subtype (94%) than the others. MD-IPMNs can be characterized by monoclonal skip progression. Close attention should be paid to the possible presence of skip areas during or after partial pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Surgery 12/2014;