Social biology (Soc Biol)

Publisher: Society for the Study of Social Biology

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Website Social Biology website
Other titles Biodemography and social biology (Print), Biodemography and social biology
ISSN 0037-766X
OCLC 309845773
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • Social biology 08/2010; 26(2):93-93. DOI:10.1080/19485565.1979.9988367
  • Social biology 08/2010; 19(4):367-378. DOI:10.1080/19485565.1972.9988010
  • Social biology 03/2006; 53(1-2):1-3. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2006.9989111
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    ABSTRACT: Human pair-bonding and paternal involvement have long been attributed to the need for biparental rearing of altricial offspring with extended periods of dependency. More recently, researchers have focused on the fertility benefits that pair-bonding offers men and have re-conceptualized paternal care as a stratagem designed to curry favor with the recipient children's mother. These models, however, fail to explain a number of puzzling empirical findings, namely the lack of a significant and robust effect of father-presence cross-culturally, despite what appears to be true paternal involvement. I argue that the record is better explained by conceptualizing reproduction within unions as a joint venture, in which men's contributions are not simply lumped onto women's invariant levels of parental investment, but one in which men's involvement allows wives to reduce their own allocations to parental investment and increase those to fertility (fertility model), thereby maximizing the production of the union, not simply child survivorship.
    Social biology 03/2006; 53(1-2):100-15. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2006.9989119
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    ABSTRACT: Usually face-to-face dominance contests between humans are nonviolent, even amiable. Most violence between young men occurs when dominance contests infrequently escalate beyond their usually bounds. Heightened testosterone is not a direct cause of male violence. Occasional outbreaks of violence occur for other reasons, and are often random outcomes. However testosterone does encourage (nonviolent) dominant behavior among young men, increasing the frequency of dominance contests, hence increasing the likelihood of violent outcomes. "Honor subcultures" such as are found in our inner cities place inordinate importance on the enhancement of personal reputations and the humiliation of losing face. This atmosphere of persistent challenge produces heightened testosterone in young black men of the inner city, raising the likelihood that they will engage in dominance competition, which in turn raises the likelihood of a violent, even fatal, outcome.
    Social biology 03/2006; 53(1-2):24-9. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2006.9989114
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    ABSTRACT: A lost less is known about the morbidity and mortality consequences of male infertility. It was the aim of our study to analyse the association between sperm concentration and individual lifetime mortality in men. The data sources included medical records of 601 men who attended the andrological service at the Marburg University Hospital between 1949 and 1985, and vital data gathered from public registration offices and a statutory health insurance. A Cox regression model estimated a two-fold higher mortality risk for oligozoospermic men as compared to the normozoospermic group for cohorts born between 1892 and 1931. Since a selection bias could not be found, we assume there to be a connection between poor fertility status and a shorter lifespan in men. Possible explanations for the variation in mortality risk are: (i) Lifestyle and health behaviour in adulthood, (ii) conditions in utero, and (iii) genetic dispositions.
    Social biology 03/2006; 53(1-2):46-60. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2006.9989116
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    ABSTRACT: While the basics of testosterone production, effects and metabolism have been known for decades, there has been a flow of novel insights in the genomics of testosterone action on a molecular and cellular level, as well as in the clinical effects from modern clinical trials, improving the understanding of the role of testosterone in male life course. Androgens are produced under the control of an endocrine cascade from GnRH via gonadotropins to the testicular Leydig cells. In some organs, testosterone is reduced to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone prior to the receptor binding by the 5alpha reductase. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X chromosome in the q11-12 region, each mutation in the gene will induce phenotypic manisfestations. In the first stage of the male life course, testosterone moderates the male embryonic development under the control of a complex molecular genetic network. The next important phase of male maturation is the puberty, in which testosterone levels increase and induce the development of somatic and psychological characteristics of male sexuality. In the adult male, testosterone maintains sexual functions and fertility. In aging men, testosterone levels decrease slowly. Testosterone supplementation in the aging male is able to restore the function of androgen target organs only in part.
    Social biology 03/2006; 53(1-2):4-12. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2006.9989112
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    ABSTRACT: Migrants often have lower mortality than natives in spite of relatively unfavorable social and economic characteristics. Although migrants have a short-run advantage due to the selective migration of healthy workers, persistent health and mortality differences between migrants and natives may be long-run effects of different experiences in childhood. We made use of a natural experiment resulting from rural-to-urban migration in the mid-19th century. Mortality was much higher in urban areas, especially in rapidly growing industrial cities. Migrants usually came from healthier rural origins as young adults. Data used in this study is available from 19th-century Belgian population registers describing two sites: a rapidly growing industrial city and a small town that became an industrial suburb. We found evidence of three processes that lead to differences between the mortality of migrants and natives. First, recent migrants had lower mortality than natives, because they were self-selected for good health when they arrived. This advantage decreased with time spent in the destination. Second, migrants from rural backgrounds had a disadvantage in epidemic years, because they had less experience with these diseases. Third, migrants from rural areas had lower mortality at older (but not younger) ages, even if they had migrated more than 10 years earlier. We interpret this as a long-run consequence of less exposure to disease in childhood.
    Social biology 09/2005; 52(3-4):178-91.
  • Social biology 09/2005; 52(3-4):89-93. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2005.9989103
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    ABSTRACT: Anthropometric measures including height provide an indication of childhood health that allows exploration of relationships between early life circumstances and adult health. Height can also be used to provide some indication of how early life health is related to selection of migrants and the Hispanic paradox in the United States. This article joins information on persons of Mexican nativity ages 50 and older in the United States collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (NHANES IV 1999-2002) with a national sample of persons of the same age living in Mexico from the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS 2001) to examine relationships between height, education, migration, and late-life health. Mexican immigrants to the United States are selected for greater height and a high school, rather than higher or lower, education. Return migrants from the United States to Mexico are shorter than those who stay. Height is related to a number of indicators of adult health. Results support a role for selection in the Hispanic paradox and demonstrate the importance of education and childhood health as determinants of late-life health in both Mexico and the United States.
    Social biology 09/2005; 52(3-4):164-77. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2005.9989107
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    ABSTRACT: How should race be categorized? This article investigates the usefulness of having three categories to describe a black-white racial continuum, focusing on Brazil and the functional ability of elderly (60+) people there. Ironically, even as the U.S. census has started to acknowledge mixed race again, much social research in Brazil has begun not to. Using 1998 national household survey microdata (PNAD) for Brazil, we find it advantageous to use a three-category scheme that separates a mixed black-white (pardo) status from black or white when examining the functional ability of elders. We also find the tantalizing possibility of a crossover in which browns actually have more functional ability than white counterparts after controlling for many demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors.
    Social biology 03/2005; 52(1-2):73-84. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2002.9989100
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from two surveys in three counties in which the prevalence of uxorilocal marriage differs greatly, this article analyzes the effects of marriage form, individual, family, and social factors on age at first marriage and spousal age difference. The results show that, under the Chinese patrilineal joint family system, compared with the dominant virilocal marriage form, uxorilocal marriage significantly lowers women's age at first marriage, increases men's age at first marriage, and consequently increases spousal age difference. Education, number of brothers, adoption status, marriage arrangement, and marriage circle also significantly affect age at first marriage for both genders. Age at first marriage and spousal age difference vary greatly among the three counties. These findings address the process and consequences of change in rural family and marriage customs during the current demographic and social transition and may help to promote later marriage and later childbearing under the present low fertility conditions in rural China.
    Social biology 03/2005; 52(1-2):18-46. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2002.9989097
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    ABSTRACT: Population-level birth rates in the United States were largely stable between 1970 and 1999. This stability contrasts with rapid change in marriage rates and fertility timing during the same period. In this article, I use decomposition techniques to analyze this seeming paradox. I decompose the general fertility rate into four components: age distribution, marital status, age-specific nonmarital fertility, and age-specific marital fertility. Absent other changes, declining time spent married would have led to substantial decline in fertility. Several factors combined to counterbalance these changes in marital behavior. Among white women in the 1970s and 1980s, marital fertility rates increased at older ages, consistent with a scenario in which women postponed both marriage and childbearing; increased nonmarital birth rates during this period were not a driving factor in overall fertility trends. Increased nonmarital fertility was more important in compensating for declining time spent married among African American women and among white women in the 1990s.
    Social biology 03/2005; 52(1-2):1-17. DOI:10.1080/19485565.2002.9989096