Social biology (Soc Biol )

Publisher: Society for the Study of Social Biology

Description

  • Impact factor
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  • 5-year impact
    0.00
  • Cited half-life
    0.00
  • Immediacy index
    0.00
  • Eigenfactor
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  • Article influence
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  • Website
    Social Biology website
  • Other titles
    Biodemography and social biology (Print), Biodemography and social biology
  • ISSN
    0037-766X
  • OCLC
    309845773
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

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    ABSTRACT: Human pair-bonding and paternal involvement have long been attributed to the need for biparental rearing of altricial offspring with extended periods of dependency. More recently, researchers have focused on the fertility benefits that pair-bonding offers men and have re-conceptualized paternal care as a stratagem designed to curry favor with the recipient children's mother. These models, however, fail to explain a number of puzzling empirical findings, namely the lack of a significant and robust effect of father-presence cross-culturally, despite what appears to be true paternal involvement. I argue that the record is better explained by conceptualizing reproduction within unions as a joint venture, in which men's contributions are not simply lumped onto women's invariant levels of parental investment, but one in which men's involvement allows wives to reduce their own allocations to parental investment and increase those to fertility (fertility model), thereby maximizing the production of the union, not simply child survivorship.
    Social biology 01/2006; 53(1-2):100-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Usually face-to-face dominance contests between humans are nonviolent, even amiable. Most violence between young men occurs when dominance contests infrequently escalate beyond their usually bounds. Heightened testosterone is not a direct cause of male violence. Occasional outbreaks of violence occur for other reasons, and are often random outcomes. However testosterone does encourage (nonviolent) dominant behavior among young men, increasing the frequency of dominance contests, hence increasing the likelihood of violent outcomes. "Honor subcultures" such as are found in our inner cities place inordinate importance on the enhancement of personal reputations and the humiliation of losing face. This atmosphere of persistent challenge produces heightened testosterone in young black men of the inner city, raising the likelihood that they will engage in dominance competition, which in turn raises the likelihood of a violent, even fatal, outcome.
    Social biology 01/2006; 53(1-2):24-9.
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    ABSTRACT: A lost less is known about the morbidity and mortality consequences of male infertility. It was the aim of our study to analyse the association between sperm concentration and individual lifetime mortality in men. The data sources included medical records of 601 men who attended the andrological service at the Marburg University Hospital between 1949 and 1985, and vital data gathered from public registration offices and a statutory health insurance. A Cox regression model estimated a two-fold higher mortality risk for oligozoospermic men as compared to the normozoospermic group for cohorts born between 1892 and 1931. Since a selection bias could not be found, we assume there to be a connection between poor fertility status and a shorter lifespan in men. Possible explanations for the variation in mortality risk are: (i) Lifestyle and health behaviour in adulthood, (ii) conditions in utero, and (iii) genetic dispositions.
    Social biology 01/2006; 53(1-2):46-60.
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    ABSTRACT: While the basics of testosterone production, effects and metabolism have been known for decades, there has been a flow of novel insights in the genomics of testosterone action on a molecular and cellular level, as well as in the clinical effects from modern clinical trials, improving the understanding of the role of testosterone in male life course. Androgens are produced under the control of an endocrine cascade from GnRH via gonadotropins to the testicular Leydig cells. In some organs, testosterone is reduced to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone prior to the receptor binding by the 5alpha reductase. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X chromosome in the q11-12 region, each mutation in the gene will induce phenotypic manisfestations. In the first stage of the male life course, testosterone moderates the male embryonic development under the control of a complex molecular genetic network. The next important phase of male maturation is the puberty, in which testosterone levels increase and induce the development of somatic and psychological characteristics of male sexuality. In the adult male, testosterone maintains sexual functions and fertility. In aging men, testosterone levels decrease slowly. Testosterone supplementation in the aging male is able to restore the function of androgen target organs only in part.
    Social biology 01/2006; 53(1-2):4-12.
  • Social biology 01/2006; 53(1-2):1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Anthropometric measures including height provide an indication of childhood health that allows exploration of relationships between early life circumstances and adult health. Height can also be used to provide some indication of how early life health is related to selection of migrants and the Hispanic paradox in the United States. This article joins information on persons of Mexican nativity ages 50 and older in the United States collected in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (NHANES IV 1999-2002) with a national sample of persons of the same age living in Mexico from the Mexican Health and Aging Survey (MHAS 2001) to examine relationships between height, education, migration, and late-life health. Mexican immigrants to the United States are selected for greater height and a high school, rather than higher or lower, education. Return migrants from the United States to Mexico are shorter than those who stay. Height is related to a number of indicators of adult health. Results support a role for selection in the Hispanic paradox and demonstrate the importance of education and childhood health as determinants of late-life health in both Mexico and the United States.
    Social biology 09/2005; 52(3-4):164-77.
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    ABSTRACT: How should race be categorized? This article investigates the usefulness of having three categories to describe a black-white racial continuum, focusing on Brazil and the functional ability of elderly (60+) people there. Ironically, even as the U.S. census has started to acknowledge mixed race again, much social research in Brazil has begun not to. Using 1998 national household survey microdata (PNAD) for Brazil, we find it advantageous to use a three-category scheme that separates a mixed black-white (pardo) status from black or white when examining the functional ability of elders. We also find the tantalizing possibility of a crossover in which browns actually have more functional ability than white counterparts after controlling for many demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic factors.
    Social biology 03/2005; 52(1-2):73-84.
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from two surveys in three counties in which the prevalence of uxorilocal marriage differs greatly, this article analyzes the effects of marriage form, individual, family, and social factors on age at first marriage and spousal age difference. The results show that, under the Chinese patrilineal joint family system, compared with the dominant virilocal marriage form, uxorilocal marriage significantly lowers women's age at first marriage, increases men's age at first marriage, and consequently increases spousal age difference. Education, number of brothers, adoption status, marriage arrangement, and marriage circle also significantly affect age at first marriage for both genders. Age at first marriage and spousal age difference vary greatly among the three counties. These findings address the process and consequences of change in rural family and marriage customs during the current demographic and social transition and may help to promote later marriage and later childbearing under the present low fertility conditions in rural China.
    Social biology 03/2005; 52(1-2):18-46.
  • Social biology 01/2005; 52(3-4):89-93.
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    ABSTRACT: Population-level birth rates in the United States were largely stable between 1970 and 1999. This stability contrasts with rapid change in marriage rates and fertility timing during the same period. In this article, I use decomposition techniques to analyze this seeming paradox. I decompose the general fertility rate into four components: age distribution, marital status, age-specific nonmarital fertility, and age-specific marital fertility. Absent other changes, declining time spent married would have led to substantial decline in fertility. Several factors combined to counterbalance these changes in marital behavior. Among white women in the 1970s and 1980s, marital fertility rates increased at older ages, consistent with a scenario in which women postponed both marriage and childbearing; increased nonmarital birth rates during this period were not a driving factor in overall fertility trends. Increased nonmarital fertility was more important in compensating for declining time spent married among African American women and among white women in the 1990s.
    Social biology 01/2005; 52(1-2):1-17.
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    ABSTRACT: We examined two alternative explanations, one demographic, the other sociological, for the uneven distribution of birth months of Major League baseball (MLB) players active between 1880 and 1999. Beginning in 1900, players born between August and October were significantly overrepresented, and this uneven distribution was almost identical for the next five 20-year periods. During the last 20-year period (1980-1999), the disparity in birth months became even more pronounced. Ethnicity, handedness, player position, accomplishment (winning an award), and career length were not significantly related to birth month. Prior to 1980, the distribution of births for MLB players did not differ significantly from the distribution for the general population, but after 1980, it did. We concluded that up until 1980, the uneven distribution of birth months in MLB originated in the demographic seasonality-related excess number of births in August and September in the United States. Beginning in the 1980s, this seasonality pattern was institutionally reinforced by the growing influence of Little League and related junior baseball leagues and their reliance on the August 1 birth date for age grouping.
    Social biology 01/2005; 52(1-2):47-55.
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    ABSTRACT: This cross-national study seeks to understand the lagging child mortality declines in sub-Saharan Africa by using World Bank data to investigate social and economic factors at three points in time: 1970, 1985, and 1997. Women's education, foreign debt-to-export ratio, and GNP per capita are among the strongest correlates of under five mortality over time. Cross-sectional and longitudinal results suggest that female education is the best overall predictor of child mortality. Average national income does not emerge as a strong predictor, particularly since 1985. Increasing levels of foreign debt are associated with a substantial excess mortality burden. In 1997, the effect of adult HIV prevalence on child mortality was moderate and statistically significant. The study concludes that, although future gains in social factors such as female education will likely be beneficial, without simultaneously addressing high levels of foreign debt and high HIV prevalence, it may be difficult to improve child mortality rates across sub-Saharan Africa.
    Social biology 09/2004; 51(3-4):94-120.