Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (REV PALAEOBOT PALYNO )

Publisher: International Conference on Palynology, Elsevier


The Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology is an international journal for articles in all fields of palaeobotany and palynology dealing with all groups, ranging from marine palynomorphs to higher land plants. Original contributions and comprehensive review papers should appeal to an international audience. Typical topics include but are not restricted to systematics, evolution, palaeobiology, palaeoecology, biostratigraphy, biochronology, palaeoclimatology, paleogeography, taphonomy, palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, vegetation history, and practical applications of palaeobotany and palynology, e.g. in coal and petroleum geology and archaeology. The journal especially encourages the publication of articles in which palaeobotany and palynology are applied for solving fundamental geological and biological problems as well as innovative and interdisciplinary

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    Review of palaeobotany and palynology, Review of palaeobotany & palynology
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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three compression specimens of a fossil moss from the Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Inner Mongolia, China, are described as Ningchengia jurassica, sp. nov. Ningchengia forms dense tufts, is characterized by erect to erect-spreading leaves that gradually narrow into a slender to stout point and have a strong, simple percurrent to excurrent costa. Several sporophytes are preserved in place, showing elongate setae and oblong cylindrical capsules. These morphological character states indicate affinities of the fossils to the Bryophytina. Ningchengia jurassica is one of only a few compression moss taxa with sporophytes preserved in situ.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 03/2014; 204:50-55.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Middle Devonian spore successions from northwestern and southeastern Poland show a rapid reduction of taxonomic diversity that occurs close to the boundary between the Middle and Late Givetian. Similar diversity decline was recorded from European Russia and Belarus where it is well marked, and from northern France and Scotland where less taxa are thought to be involved. The assemblages from Poland are assigned to the local ‘Geminospora’ extensa (Ex) and Geminospora aurita (Aur) Biozones. The Ex 3 Sub-biozone, the highest of the three sub-units of the Ex Biozone, is the time equivalent of the Taghanic Crisis interval or most of it. Spore assemblages of the lower part of the Ex 3 Sub-biozone that are recorded from the lithostratigraphic members reflecting the initial transgressive pulse of the T–R cycle, show no diversity reduction. But the aneurophyte spores Rhabdosporites langii became less frequent in that unit while Aneurospora extensa, also belonging to the aneurophytes, flourished. The diversity reduction occurs in the higher part of the Ex 3 Sub-biozone where as many as nine well established species disappear. The impoverished assemblages of the Aur Biozone are dominated by archaeopterid spores and they lack aneurophyte spores. It is supposed that during the Taghanic Crisis, the initial sea level rise caused a serious loss of habitats for aneurophytes — the producers of R. langii. The following, repeated shoreline shifts were the important modifier of the ecosystem pattern and they speeded up the spread of highly competitive archaeopterids. Those shifts were especially extensive in cratonic, low-relief areas in the eastern part of Laurussia. The dryness of climate extinguished a high number of plants, and had a particularly adverse influence on aneurophytes.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014; 200:108–121.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The legume fossil record is varied and abundant in the Cenozoic strata, especially throughout the Neogene. In northwestern Argentina there are outcrops of the Santa María Group, including the Miocene and Pliocene continental formations of the Santa María valley. These cenozoic formations contain a great variety of fossil remains (plants, invertebrates and vertebrates). In this paper, a new species of fossil wood, Paraalbizioxylon caccavariae Martínez (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae) nov. sp., from Upper Miocene Argentina, is described. The fossil wood herein described has features of the Mimosoideae subfamily, and particularly of the extant genus Albizia Durazzini and Acacia Miller. The diagnostic features present in the new fossil are: semi-ring to diffuse porous, medium to large diameter vessels, simple perforation plates, alternate and vestured intervessel pits, homogenous rays (generally 2-seriate), scanty paratracheal parenchyma, and diffuse and cristaliferous apotracheal parenchyma. The possible climatic conditions of the Chiquimil Formation were inferred from the xylological features present in the fossil wood described, suggesting a humid forest with a marked season in the localities studied.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014; 201:1–11.
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    ABSTRACT: The leaves of extant plants occur within a well-defined economic spectrum reflecting the nutrient and carbon investment in the construction of the foliage and the photosynthetic return over the life of the leaf. The dry leaf mass per area (LMA) is commonly used to predict leaf lifespan, photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance, nutrient investment and ecosystem productivity. However, direct quantification of LMA in fossil plants (fLMA) is not possible due to the loss of internal leaf structures and leaching of solutes during the fossilisation process. Estimation of fLMA based upon leaf fossil leaf macro-morphology has also been restricted due to the frequency of fragmentation incurred during transport prior to deposition. Therefore, application of this important ecological parameter to key episodes of evolutionary and environmental change in deep-time has been restricted. Here we utilise a correlation between adaxial epidermal cell density and LMA of extant Ginkgo biloba to reconstruct fLMA of fossil Ginkgoales during a major global warming event at the Triassic – Jurassic boundary. fLMA values suggest reduced ecosystem productivity, possibly indicative of increasing ecological stress, towards the Late Triassic; coincident with increased fire frequency and palaeo-atmospheric [CO2] as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province developed. Early Jurassic fLMAs indicate the recovery of ecosystem function to pre-boundary levels. Analyses of leaf micro-morphological characters may have widespread application to the reconstruction of fossil leaf economics from fragmentary plant fossils through Earth History.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heterophyllous coniferous genera belonging to the family Cheirolepidiaceae are not always easily distinguished from one another morphologically. The taxonomically controversial genus Suturovagina from the Cretaceous of East China was studied by ultra-thin sectioning and examination under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. A detailed comparison between this genus and Pseudofrenelopsis was made based on cuticle micro- and ultrastructure as well as gross morphology. Suturovagina intermedia is among the few fossil coniferous plants for which cuticle and stomatal structures have been examined using both scanning and transmission electron microscopes and reconstructed using statistical data. Despite a slight overlap morphological in gross morphology of leafy shoot , Suturovagina intermedia is well distinguished from Pseudofrenelopsis and all other cheirolepidiaceous conifers in cuticle and stomata micro- and ultrastructure, especially in the very deep stomatal chamber composed of tiers of subsidiary cells. The characteristic stomatal structure and the extremely thick cuticle with a wavy polylamellate layer in the cuticle proper also provide additional evidence for a xerothermic environment for the plant-bearing formation. The informative results of this study suggest that the potential taxonomic and palaeoecological significance of these features should not be neglected.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The anachoropterid ferns, previously assigned to the family Anachoropteridaceae, are a group of anatomically preserved late Paleozoic filicalean ferns characterized by a C-shaped foliar xylem with abaxially recurved arms (inversicatenalean anatomy) and two main protoxylem strands. The variously curved to strongly inrolled foliar xylem certainly reflects different evolutionary trends within the morphogenus Anachoropteris. The occurrence of two groups of Tubicaulis is supported by differences in cauline and foliar anatomy and the presence vs. absence of precocious pinnae. Tubicaulis with solid protostele bears petioles which are not of the Anachoropteris type. Protostelic, rarely siphonostelic, cauline structures corresponding to several types of epiphyllous shoots are well documented on rachides of several Anachoropteris species and in the genus Kaplanopteris. These shoots, borne on dominant scrambling fronds, are a common means of vegetative propagation, similar to those known in the contemporaneous botryopterid ferns. This contrasts with the highly branched rhizomatous cauline system of Psalixochlaena (a whole plant reconstruction is provided) and the erect stems, of tree-ferns type, known in some Tubicaulis and the probably related Grammatopteris. A hemi-epiphytic habit characterized some Anachoropteris and Tubicaulis. This group of ferns therefore exhibited an important diversity of habits. Information on the distal regions of fronds, i.e. on pinnule morphology and fertile parts, is unfortunately missing in the majority of taxa. Where known, the pinnules are small, dissected and sporangia, grouped in sori, have a lateral annulus. However, differences in soral and sporangial morphology support the recognition of the families Sermayaceae, Kaplanopteridaceae and Psalixochlaenaceae. The discovery of new fertile anachoropterid pinnae with adaxially borne branched soral receptacles will justify the distinction of a new family. Finally, there is no well supported anatomical evidence of fertile frond compressions belonging to anachoropterid ferns.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Among the most prominent examples for the disjunct distribution of xeromorphic-sclerophyllous plants in Macaronesia and eastern Africa–Arabia, referred to as the Rand flora biogeographic pattern, is the “dragon tree group” within Dracaena (Asparagaceae). However, little is known about the evolutionary origin of this iconic group of semi-desertic trees. Here, we use exceptionally well-preserved fossils from western Anatolia to demonstrate range and ecological shifts of the lineage probably leading to some of the modern dragon trees. Compression fossils of apical leaf rosettes and detached leaves of Dracaena tayfunii spec. nov. were compared to modern Dracaena using the architecture of leaf-bearing branches, leaf morphology, and highly diagnostic leaf epidermal features observed with light and electron scanning microscopy. The palaeoecology of Dracaena was inferred using the depositional setting and associated plant taxa. The ca. 16 million-year-old (Ma) Dracaena from western Anatolia shows a character combination restricted today to the Macaronesian dragon tree, Dracaena draco: (1) Leaves are arranged in terminal rosettes; (2) leaves are ensiform, oblong, with a conspicuously dilated base (pseudo-sheath); and (3) leaf epidermis is strongly papillate with sunken stomata overarched by papillae of four neighbouring epidermal cells. Depositional setting, taphonomy, and the fossil plant association indicate that the Miocene Dracaena either grew in seasonally dry swamps within a complex fluvial–lacustrine environment or on adjacent slopes under a humid, warm climate. Hence, semi-desertic modern dragon trees allied to D. draco displaying distinct xeromorphism may have originated from a western Eurasian mesic lineage that had evolved xeromorphic characteristics by the Miocene. The morphology of this mesic ancestor later enabled the lineage to colonize and survive in the semi-desertic environments where it is found today. The new fossil species of Dracaena represents a classic example of pre-adaptation and niche shift.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014; 200:211–228.
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    ABSTRACT: Foulden Maar crater in Otago, southern New Zealand contains a thick sequence of earliest Miocene (~ 23 Ma) biogenic lacustrine sediments that have preserved a rich terrestrial biota. Diverse spores and pollen recovered from a 183 m core through these sediments provide evidence of warm temperate to subtropical environments with high rainfall and cloud cover. Charcoal, burnt and dark-coloured pollen are common in reworked tephra below the lacustrine diatomite. At this early post-eruptive depositional period a diverse regional podocarp/Casuarina/Brassospora lowland forest flora was present, with gleichenaceous ferns suggesting a locally acidic environment, possibly supporting a fire-induced fernland. The regional vegetation soon became dominated by Nothofagus (Brassospora), while a diverse subtropical forest with abundant Mallotus/Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) developed on fertile volcanic soils around the maar. Evidence from palynomorphs combined with plant macrofossils represented in the lake sediments paints a picture of highly diverse lake margin vegetation that included rare ferns (Davallia), occasional conifers (Podocarpus and Prumnopitys), and a diverse array of monocots including at least one palm, two orchids, and species of Astelia, Cordyline, Freycinetia, Luzuriaga, Ripogonum and Typha. Overall, the vegetation close to the lake was dominated by a wide range of dicots, including Aquifoliaceae (Ilex), Araliaceae, Atherospermataceae (Laurelia), Chloranthaceae, Cunoniaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Gyrostemonaceae (Gyrostemon), Lauraceae (Beilschmiedia, Cryptocarya, Litsea), Onagraceae (Fuchsia), Meliaceae (Dysoxylum), Monimiaceae (Hedycarya), Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Rutaceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae (Cupania), Malvaceae, Strasburgeriaceae, Winteraceae and at least ten Proteaceae. Mistletoes, including several species of Loranthaceae were present. Pollen from bur reeds, bulrushes, flaxes, jointed rushes and sedges suggest that there were some swampy, shallow water edges to the generally steep-sided crater. Pollen evidence from alternate dark and light layers, regarded as being biogenic varves from sedimentology, shows no strong signal for differences in summer and winter pollen deposition. Based on palynology the age of the site is latest uppermost Rhoipites waimumuensis Zone to lower early Proteacidites isopogiformis Zone (New Zealand local stages, late Waitakian–early Otaian, ~ 23 Ma), agreeing with radiometric dates.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Platanus neptuni (Ettingshausen) Bůžek, Holý and Kvaček is a deciduous and preferentially azonal taxon of temperate to warm-temperate vegetation in Europe from the Late Eocene to the Late Miocene. The high fossilization potential of its leaves and easily identifiable stomata and epidermal cells make P. neptuni an excellent source of stomatal data that can be utilized as a CO2 proxy. Moreover, it was found in former studies that CO2 data based on stomatal frequency data of P. neptuni overlapped to a high degree with CO2 results as indicated by contemporaneous taxa. In this study, the stomatal CO2 signal of P. neptuni is expanded to include the early Oligocene and is analysed in more detail with three aims: 1) to evaluate the CO2 signal of P. neptuni stomatal data, 2) to check SI and SD data of P. neptuni for consistency, and 3) to contribute additional terrestrial CO2 data to the Oligocene record. During the Oligocene, full scale Antarctic glaciation occurred, punctuated by various distinct glaciation events. A Evidence is also present that Oligocene glaciation was coupled to atmospheric CO2 level. Presently, the main proxy sources for Oligocene CO2 levels are alkenones and boron-isotope data, both obtained from marine sediments. Since P. neptuni is an extinct taxon, CO2 was reconstructed by using an ecophysiological modelling approach to plant gas exchange which utilizes various other data in addition to stomatal density. Material was considered from sites which are dated to the following time intervals: early Oligocene - 33.9 to 32 Ma, late Oligocene - 27 to 26.2 Ma and 25.3 to 23 Ma, and latest Oligocene - around 24 Ma. Comparison of raw SI and SD data P. neptuni revealed partially conflicting results, with the SD data indicating a decrease in CO2 from the early to the late Oligocene whereas SI data indicate an increase. In contrast, CO2 results calculated with the gas exchange model indicate relatively stable CO2 for the considered time intervals, with levels of about 400 ppm. The reconstructed CO2 data points are similar to other proxy data and are consistent with the general climate development during the Oligocene.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: •Monanthesia was validly published by Wieland in 1934•Bennettites is the most important synonym of Cycadeoidea•We here designate B. gibsonianus as lectotype for Bennettites
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The pollen morphology of the seven known European bladderworts: Utricularia australis, U. bremii, U. intermedia, U. minor, U. ochroleuca, U. stygia and U. vulgaris was studied. Their pollen grains, coming from different populations, were investigated using both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to give data on size, shape (P/E ratio), number of colpori and exine ornamentation: important diagnostic characteristics for Utricularia pollen. Within the investigated species, the pollen grains were usually medium sized (~ 30 μm), sub-isopolar, radially symmetric and zonocolporate. For the non-fruiting species U. bremii, U. stygia and U. ochroleuca, the grains were often malformed, asymmetric or in the form of gigapollen or micropollen. A significant number of gigapollen grains were observed in U. stygia while micropollen was observed in U. ochroleuca. The shape of the normal grains was variable from suboblate to prolate spheroidal and they were (10)-11-18-(19)-zonocolporate. The prevalent ornamentations were psilate (on mesocolpi) and fossulate (on apocolpium) except for U. bremii, which had a somewhat perforate ornamentation. The pollen of U. stygia is described here for the first time. A pollen key, based on these micromorphological data, is presented for European Utricularia species.
    Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 01/2014;

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