Radiology (RADIOLOGY )

Publisher: Radiological Society of North America; Radiological Society of North America. Scientific Assembly, Radiological Society of North America

Description

Published regularly since 1923, Radiology has long been recognized as the authoritative reference for the most current, clinically relevant, and highest quality research in the field of radiology. Each month the journal publishes 296 pages of peer-reviewed original research, authoritative reviews, well-balanced commentary on significant articles, and expert opinion on new techniques and technologies.

Impact factor 6.21

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    Impact factor
  • 5-year impact
    6.74
  • Cited half-life
    9.90
  • Immediacy index
    0.83
  • Eigenfactor
    0.08
  • Article influence
    2.28
  • Website
    Radiology website
  • Other titles
    Radiology, RSNA index to imaging literature., RSNA-SCVIR special series
  • ISSN
    0033-8419
  • OCLC
    1763380
  • Material type
    Periodical, Internet resource
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publisher details

Radiological Society of North America

  • Pre-print
    • Author cannot archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author cannot archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Can request from Publisher permission to link to article
    • RSNA will deposit final published version of NIH author's article in PubMed Central
    • RSNA requires a 12 months embargo on submission to PubMed Central
  • Classification
    ​ white

Publications in this journal

  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):14-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Summary In the study of Zhang et al (1), tumor-bearing mice were vaccinated with magnetically labeled, tumor antigen-primed dendritic cells (DCs). After homing of these antigen-presenting cells to the draining lymph node (LN), it was shown that the iron oxide-induced decrease in LN magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal intensity correlated with the observed tumor growth delay, suggesting that the degree of hypointensity can serve as a surrogate marker for the efficacy of tumor vaccination.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):1-3.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):17-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Advances in image quality over the past few years, mainly due to refinements in hardware and coil systems, have made diffusion-weighted ( DW diffusion weighted ) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging a promising technique for the detection and characterization of pancreatic conditions. DW diffusion weighted MR imaging can be routinely implemented in clinical protocols, as it can be performed relatively quickly, does not require administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and enables qualitative and quantitative assessment of tissue diffusivity (diffusion coefficients). In this review, acquisition parameters, postprocessing, and quantification methods applied to pancreatic DW diffusion weighted MR imaging will be discussed. The current common clinical uses of DW diffusion weighted MR imaging (ie, pancreatic lesion detection and characterization) and the less-common applications of DW diffusion weighted MR imaging used for the diagnosis of pancreatic parenchymal diseases will be reviewed. Also, the limitations of the technique, mainly image quality and reproducibility of diffusion parameters, as well as future directions for pancreatic DW diffusion weighted MR imaging will be discussed. The utility of apparent diffusion coefficient ( ADC apparent diffusion coefficient ) measurement for the characterization of pancreatic lesions is now well accepted but there are a number of limitations. Future well-designed, multicenter studies are needed to better determine the most appropriate use of ADC apparent diffusion coefficient in the area of pancreatic disease. © RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):45-63.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):308.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):7-8.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):304-5.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):306-7.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):12-3.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):20-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) electric impedance tomography (EIT) technique for in situ monitoring of electric field distribution during in vivo electroporation of mouse tumors to predict reversibly electroporated tumor areas. Materials and Methods All experiments received institutional animal care and use committee approval. Group 1 consisted of eight tumors that were used for determination of predicted area of reversibly electroporated tumor cells with MR EIT by using a 2.35-T MR imager. In addition, T1-weighted images of tumors were acquired to determine entrapment of contrast agent within the reversibly electroporated area. A correlation between predicted reversible electroporated tumor areas as determined with MR EIT and areas of entrapped MR contrast agent was evaluated to verify the accuracy of the prediction. Group 2 consisted of seven tumors that were used for validation of radiologic imaging with histopathologic staining. Histologic analysis results were then compared with predicted reversible electroporated tumor areas from group 1. Results were analyzed with Pearson correlation analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Results Mean coverage ± standard deviation of tumors with electric field that leads to reversible electroporation of tumor cells obtained with MR EIT (38% ± 9) and mean fraction of tumors with entrapped MR contrast agent (41% ± 13) were correlated (Pearson analysis, r = 0.956, P = .005) and were not statistically different (analysis of variance, P = .11) from mean fraction of tumors from group 2 with entrapped fluorescent dye (39% ± 12). Conclusion MR EIT can be used for determining electric field distribution in situ during electroporation of tissue. Implementation of MR EIT in electroporation-based applications, such as electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation tissue ablation, would enable corrective interventions before the end of the procedure and would additionally improve the treatment outcome. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):115-123.
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is an increasingly important pediatric imaging modality that is most often used to evaluate inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD inflammatory bowel disease ), while sparing children and adolescents from potential risks of ionizing radiation exposure. MR enterography allows for evaluation of the bowel lumen and wall, adjacent mesentery and soft tissues, as well as a variety of extraintestinal abdominopelvic IBD inflammatory bowel disease manifestations. While MR enterography can be used to initially confirm the diagnosis of IBD inflammatory bowel disease , particularly small bowel Crohn disease, it has also proven useful in assessing the degree inflammatory activity over time, serving as a radiologic biomarker for response to medical therapy, and identifying a variety of disease-related complications, including strictures, fistulae, and abscesses. The purpose of this review article is to provide radiologists with a systematic approach for MR enterography review and interpretation in children and adolescents with known or suspected of having IBD inflammatory bowel disease and to illustrate both common and infrequent but important imaging findings. Additionally, the authors will present their well-established and clinically successful pediatric MR enterography protocol, up-to-date clinical indications for MR enterography, and briefly mention the role of MR enterography in assessing non- IBD inflammatory bowel disease abnormalities affecting the bowel. Online supplemental material is available for this article . © RSNA, 2015.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):29-43.
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    ABSTRACT: History A 75-year-old woman with a medical history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and type II diabetes presented to the hospital with a 3-month history of gradually worsening headaches, vague upper abdominal pain, and lower back pain. The patient denied fevers, night sweats, contact with sick individuals, occupational exposure to infection, bleeding, immunodeficiency, intravenous drug use, alcohol or tobacco abuse, history of malignancy, family history of genetic disorders, and international travel. Physical examination revealed a skin-colored mass protruding from the right side of her forehead, but there were no other notable abnormalities. Her diabetes was managed with diet, and the only prescription medication she was taking was esomeprazole. She was not taking anticoagulants. Initial laboratory work-up revealed anemia and profound thrombocytopenia (hemoglobin level, 9.4 g/dL; platelet count, 16 × 10(9)/L); these were refractory to aggressive treatment, including plasmapheresis, immunosuppression with prednisolone, and numerous transfusions. Contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the head was performed at admission to further evaluate the patient's headache and the mass on the patient's forehead. Ultrasonography (US) of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of abdominal pain. The discovery of liver lesions at US led us to perform contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the abdomen was performed to narrow the diagnostic considerations for the lesions identified at CT. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no evidence of infectious or neoplastic processes. Endoscopy and colonoscopy were performed; however, they revealed no abnormalities. Further laboratory work-up included extensive testing for parasites, fungi, bacteria, and viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All of the results were negative. On the 17th day of admission, the patient became acutely unresponsive, her condition deteriorated rapidly, and she died. Unenhanced head CT was performed at the time of the patient's acute decompensation.
    Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):298-303.
  • Radiology 01/2015; 274(1):305-6.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To examine whether x-ray vector radiographic ( XVR x-ray vector radiography ) parameters could predict the biomechanically determined vertebral failure load. Materials and Methods Local institutional review boards approved the study and donors provided written informed consent before death. Twelve thoracic vertebral bodies were removed from three human cadavers and embedded in resin. XVR x-ray vector radiography measurements were performed by using a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer with the beam direction in anterior-posterior and lateral direction. The mean anisotropy and the mean local average scattering power were calculated for a region of interest within each vertebra. Trabecular bone mineral density ( BMD bone mineral density ) was determined in each vertebra by using a clinical multidetector computed tomographic scanner. Failure load of the vertebral bodies was determined from destructive biomechanical tests. Statistical analyses were performed with statistical software with a two-sided Pvalue of .05 to calculate Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression model. Results Statistically significant correlations (P < .05) for failure load with XVR x-ray vector radiography parameters in the lateral direction (r = -0.84 and 0.68 for anisotropy and local average scattering power, respectively) and for failure load and anisotropy in anteroposterior direction (r = -0.65) were found. A multiple regression model showed that the combination of the local average scattering power in lateral direction and BMD bone mineral density predicted failure load significantly better than BMD bone mineral density alone (adjusted R = 0.88 compared with 0.78, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion The study results imply that XVR x-ray vector radiography can improve the prediction of osteoporosis. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine whether changes in coronary opacification normalized to the aorta (corrected coronary opacification [CCO]) across stents can help identify in-stent restenosis (ISR) severity with use of invasive coronary angiography as the standard of reference. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, and the requirement to obtain informed consent was waived. The authors retrospectively analyzed 106 patients (88 men, 18 women; mean age, 59.6 years ± 10.4; age range, 36-84 years) who had previously undergone stent implantation within 3 months of coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography. Attenuation values in the coronary lumen were measured proximal and distal to the stents and normalized to the descending aorta. The CCO corrected coronary opacification difference across the stent was compared with the severity of ISR in-stent restenosis . One-way analysis of variance least significant difference was used for comparison. Results A total of 141 stents were assessed. Seventy-six stents were normally patent, 18 had ISR in-stent restenosis of less than 50%, 28 had ISR in-stent restenosis of 50%-99%, and 19 were fully occluded. The median CCO corrected coronary opacification differences in the four groups were 0.078, 0.163, 0.346, and 0.606, respectively. There was no significant difference between stents with an ISR in-stent restenosis of at least 50% and those with total occlusion (P = .056), although the other groups had significant differences at pairwise comparison (P < .01 for all). For stents smaller than 3 mm in diameter, the median CCO corrected coronary opacification differences in the four groups were 0.086, 0.136, 0.390, and 0.471, respectively. The CCO corrected coronary opacification differences across normal stents and stents with ISR in-stent restenosis of less than 50% were significantly less than those across stents with an ISR in-stent restenosis of at least 50% and those with total occlusion (P < .01 for all). There were no significant differences between stents with no ISR in-stent restenosis and those with an ISR in-stent restenosis of less than 50% (P = .821) and between stents with an ISR in-stent restenosis of at least 50% and those with an ISR in-stent restenosis of 100% (P = .836). Conclusion The CCO corrected coronary opacification difference across coronary stents is related to ISR in-stent restenosis severity in obstructive ISR in-stent restenosis in stents smaller than 3 mm in diameter. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of four tracer kinetic analysis methods to quantify myocardial perfusion from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cardiac perfusion data sets in terms of their ability to lead to the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the regional ethics committee, and all patients gave written consent. A representative sample of 50 patients with suspected ischemic heart disease was retrospectively selected from the Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease trial data set. Quantitative myocardial blood flow ( MBF myocardial blood flow ) was estimated from rest and adenosine stress MR imaging perfusion data sets by using four established methods. A matching diagnosis of both an inducible defect as assessed with single photon emission computed tomography and a luminal stenosis of 70% or more as assessed with quantitative x-ray angiography was used as the reference standard for the presence of myocardial ischemia. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic ( ROC receiver operating characteristic ) curve analysis for each method, with stress MBF myocardial blood flow and myocardial perfusion reserve ( MPR myocardial perfusion reserve ) serving as continuous measures. Results Area under the ROC receiver operating characteristic curve with stress MBF myocardial blood flow and MPR myocardial perfusion reserve as the outcome measures, respectively, was 0.86 and 0.92 for the Fermi model, 0.85 and 0.87 for the uptake model, 0.85 and 0.80 for the one-compartment model, and 0.87 and 0.87 for model-independent deconvolution. There was no significant difference between any of the models or between MBF myocardial blood flow and MPR myocardial perfusion reserve , except that the Fermi model outperformed the one-compartment model if MPR myocardial perfusion reserve was used as the outcome measure (P = .02). Conclusion Diagnostic performance of quantitative myocardial perfusion estimates is not affected by the tracer kinetic analysis method used. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the use of dual-energy spectral computed tomographic (CT) quantitative parameters compared with the use of conventional CT imaging features for preoperative diagnosis of metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the ethics committee and all patients provided written informed consent. Analyses of quantitative gemstone spectral imaging data and qualitative conventional CT imaging features were independently performed by different groups of radiologists. Excised lymph nodes were located and labeled during surgery according to location on preoperative CT images and were evaluated histopathologically. Single and combined parameters were fitted to simple and multiple logistic regression models, respectively, by means of the generalized estimating equations method. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed by using receiver operating characteristic curves and were compared with data from the qualitative analysis. Results The slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU), normalized iodine concentration, and normalized effective atomic number (Zeff-c) measured during both arterial and venous phases were significantly higher in metastatic than in benign lymph nodes. The best single parameter for detection of metastatic lymph nodes was venous phase λHU, with sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 62.0%, 91.1%, 80.6%, 79.7%, and 81.0%, respectively. The best combination of parameters was venous phase λHU and arterial phase normalized iodine concentration, with values of 73.0%, 88.4%, 82.9%, 78.0%, and 85.3%, respectively. Compared with qualitative analysis, the venous phase λHU showed higher specificity (91.1% vs 83.0%, P < .001) and similar sensitivity (62.0% vs 61.9%, P > .99), and the combined venous phase λHU and arterial phase normalized iodine concentration showed higher sensitivity (73.0% vs 61.9%, P < .001) and specificity (88.4% vs 83.0%, P < .001). Conclusion Quantitative assessment with gemstone spectral imaging quantitative parameters showed higher accuracy than qualitative assessment of conventional CT imaging features for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic cervical lymph nodes in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    Radiology 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To develop a positron emission tomography (PET) attenuation correction method for brain PET/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging by estimating pseudo computed tomographic (CT) images from T1-weighted MR and atlas CT images. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved and HIPAA-compliant study, PET/MR/CT images were acquired in 20 subjects after obtaining written consent. A probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression ( PASSR probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression ) method was developed for pseudo CT estimation. Air segmentation was performed with assistance from a probabilistic air map. For nonair regions, the pseudo CT numbers were estimated via sparse regression by using atlas MR patches. The mean absolute percentage error ( MAPE mean absolute percentage error ) on PET images was computed as the normalized mean absolute difference in PET signal intensity between a method and the reference standard continuous CT attenuation correction method. Friedman analysis of variance and Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests were performed for statistical comparison of MAPE mean absolute percentage error between the PASSR probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression method and Dixon segmentation, CT segmentation, and population averaged CT atlas (mean atlas) methods. Results The PASSR probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression method yielded a mean MAPE mean absolute percentage error ± standard deviation of 2.42% ± 1.0, 3.28% ± 0.93, and 2.16% ± 1.75, respectively, in the whole brain, gray matter, and white matter, which were significantly lower than the Dixon, CT segmentation, and mean atlas values (P < .01). Moreover, 68.0% ± 16.5, 85.8% ± 12.9, and 96.0% ± 2.5 of whole-brain volume had within ±2%, ±5%, and ±10% percentage error by using PASSR probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression , respectively, which was significantly higher than other methods (P < .01). Conclusion PASSR probabilistic air segmentation and sparse regression outperformed the Dixon, CT segmentation, and mean atlas methods by reducing PET error owing to attenuation correction. © RSNA, 2014.
    Radiology 12/2014;