The Psychological record (PSYCHOL REC )

Publisher: Denison University

Description

  • Impact factor
    0.96
  • 5-year impact
    0.80
  • Cited half-life
    9.70
  • Immediacy index
    0.23
  • Eigenfactor
    0.00
  • Article influence
    0.21
  • Website
    Psychological Record website
  • Other titles
    The Psychological record
  • ISSN
    0033-2933
  • OCLC
    1353882
  • Material type
    Periodical
  • Document type
    Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present article discusses the concepts of having a goal and of goal-directed behavior from a behavior-analytic perspective. In clinical psychology as well as in the study of human behavior at large, goals delineate an important area of investigation when it comes to health, well-being, and behavioral change. While concepts like goals and goal-directed behavior may be more frequently used outside the theoretical boundaries of behavior analysis, we argue that by incorporating recent behavior analytic research on verbal behavior, new and fruitful ways open up for approaching the phenomenon of having a goal. A behavior-analytic approach thereby may increase both precision in understanding and the potential for influencing essential aspects of human behavior. This analysis starts with the concept of rule-governed behavior and develops that analysis by using the concept of derived relational responding.
    The Psychological record 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined the effects of acceptance of thoughts, mindful awareness of breathing, and spontaneous coping on both pain tolerance and pain threshold during a cold pressor task. Eligible participants (N = 58), 16 males and 42 females (M age = 29.31, SD = 11.21), were randomized into three groups and completed two cold pressor trials. The first cold pressor trial formed a baseline for all three groups. The acceptance of thoughts and mindfulness of breathing groups listened to recorded instructions and then completed a second administration of the cold pressor task. The spontaneous coping group completed the cold pressor task twice with instructions to select their own coping style. Multilevel linear modeling showed significant group differences in pain tolerance. The acceptance of thoughts and mindfulness of breathing conditions resulted in significantly higher pain tolerance in post hoc analysis than spontaneous coping. Results were interpreted to be consistent with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Further examination of the effects of ACT processes on experimentally induced pain tolerance is needed.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated children’s self-report accuracy as a function of task type and also verified generalization of do-say correspondence across tasks. Six children between 6 and 11 years of age participated in the study. “Doing” consisted of reading words, playing a computer game, solving a math problem, and labeling music-related stimuli. “Saying” consisted of reporting on the accuracy of performance following the automated computer feedback. Baseline assessed correspondence for the different tasks. Correspondence training was conducted for the task in which levels of accuracy were the lowest. Generalized do-say correspondence was then assessed in untrained tasks. For four children, correspondence was lowest for the academic tasks. Four of six children exhibited generalized correspondence after the first training, and the remaining two children did so following a second training with a different task. Distinct tasks seemed to control different patterns of self-report accuracy. Results on generalization indicated do-say correspondence as a generalized operant behavior.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Delay and probability discounting occur when the subjective value of an outcome decreases because it is delayed or uncertain, respectively. Research using monetary outcomes has shown that both types of discounting are influenced by the magnitude of the outcome, but in the opposite direction. In Experiment 1, university participants completed a delay-discounting task involving hypothetical monetary ($100 or $100,000) or medical treatment (acne or brain cancer) outcomes. In Experiment 2, university participants completed a probability-discounting task involving those same outcomes. Results from Experiment 1 replicated previous research in that participants discounted the “smaller” outcomes ($100 & acne treatment) more than the “larger” ones ($100,000 & brain-cancer treatment). Results from Experiment 2 demonstrated that this magnitude effect reversed for probability discounting of the monetary outcomes, with $100,000 discounted more than $100. However, acne treatment was discounted more than brain-cancer treatment. This study represents the novel finding that the magnitude effect for medical outcomes may not reverse between delay and probability discounting as it does for monetary outcomes. The results suggest that delay and probability discounting are at least partially independent.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the impact of gender role perceptions on ratings of aggressiveness. Male participants completed a laboratory aggression paradigm and were asked to rate the aggressiveness of their (bogus) opponent. Opponents were clearly identified as male or female and feminine or masculine. Further, all aggressive actions by the bogus opponent were standardized to be the same. Participants were significantly more likely to rate masculine opponents as aggressive, compared to feminine opponents, regardless of the gender of the opponent. These results imply that the subjective perception of aggression from others appears to be more strongly influenced by the gender role, rather than gender, of an aggressor.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Based on the assumption that substitution of functions or function transfer is a fundamental principle underlying all conditioning processes, we attempt to produce an account wherein both operant and respondent events are understood in terms of substitution. We contend that, if event interactions are described in a way that accounts for all the stimulus and response events involved in a contingency relation, and further, if we assume symmetry as a property of substitution of functions as excitatory backward conditioning findings seem to suggest, traditional distinctions between operant and respondent conditioning may be rendered unnecessary. We present a reconceptualization of respondent and operant processes and suggest alternatives for empirical research.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background It is difficult for the public to identify differences between psychologists and other types of mental health professionals. Understanding the sources of perceptions is important for the psychology profession in maintaining an accurate public image and in determining appropriate venues for helping the public to distinguish psychologists from other HSPs. Methods We surveyed 259 students enrolled in a general psychology class at a selective private comprehensive university in the Midwest in order to determine the sources that inform their perceptions of professional psychologists. Results We found that students reported learning about psychologists from a variety of sources. Common knowledge (73%), movies (54%), books (47%), school or education (43%), friends or associates (38%), and television (33%) were identified most frequently. Statistically significant Chi Squares were found. Conclusions Identifying sources that inform student perceptions is especially important given the fact that previous research has indicated that the public has certain fundamental negative misperceptions of psychologists. Determining the sources of these perceptions can be useful in attempting to remedy these mistaken notions and in guiding advocacy activities.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty college students were given standard matching-to-sample-based training and testing to form three 5-member equivalence classes that had linear series training structures (A→B→C→D→E). A matching to sample (MTS) based derived-relations test was used to assess the emergence of the classes. Thereafter, 15 cards, each of which contained one of the 15 stimuli in the classes, were given to the participants who were asked to sort them into piles of “related” cards. There was a very high concordance between measures of equivalence-class formation produced by relation tests and sorting tests. In some cases, sorting tests appeared to be more sensitive to tracking class formation than the MTS-based derived-relations tests. In addition, sorting tests were administered in a fraction of the time needed to administer an MTS-based derived-relations test to document class formation. Finally, sorting test data were very easy to interpret, especially when findings other than experimenter-defined class formation was produced. Therefore, sorting may be a viable alternative for tracking equivalence class formation.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: This research explored some factors involved in the emergence of intraverbals as demonstrated by Pérez-González, Herszlikowicz, and Williams (2008) in three experiments. Eleven adults learned to say the chemical elements corresponding to two chemical groups (the A-B relations) and to say the atomic numbers of two elements (the B-C relations). Thereafter, we probed the relations that result from combining these stimuli. For example, we asked the groups corresponding to the atomic numbers (the C-A relations). In Experiment 1, we taught A-B and B-C and probed the remaining relations without additional teaching. In Experiment 2, with Categories, participants learned to say the categories of the exemplars (i.e., “What is polonium?” –the correct answer was “an element”). In Experiment 3, with Exemplars, participants learned to say the exemplars of the categories (i.e., “Name a chemical element”; the correct answers were the two chemical elements). The Categories facilitated emergence in some but not all participants. The Exemplars was shown to be effective in promoting the emergence of the emergent relations. These results indicate that the simpler intraverbals (Categories and Exemplars) play a role in the emergence of the more complex intraverbals.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: The generalized matching law was used to evaluate play selection (passing versus rushing) in professional football game situations defined by combinations of football-specific factors. Archival statistics were analyzed to determine whether play selection covaried with yards gained from passing and rushing plays, and whether the details of this relationship, as measured by the matching law's fitted parameters, varied systematically across game situations. The matching law accounted for substantial variance in play selection for several combinations of game situations, and statistically significant situation-interaction effects were found for bias, but not sensitivity. Follow up analyses revealed that, across game situations, play-selection bias effects were closely related to relative probability of a turnover (can be described in terms of punishment) and the relative yards-gained variance (which can be described in terms of variable-magnitude reinforcement schedules). These results bolster an operant-choice interpretation of football play selection; they reveal two separate aspects of play preference (generic matching versus bias); and provide a rare example of how face-valid effects in a domain of everyday interest may relate to a theoretically-important term of a laboratory-based quantitative model of choice.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Background The present study examined the history effects of exposure to reinforcement that increased in magnitude as a function of time between responses in a first-person shooter video game preparation of the escalating interest task. Results When reinforcement density increased as a function of time, it encouraged participants to wait longer between responses (shots of a weapon). Participants exposed to such contingencies waited significantly longer to fire their weapons than participants who were exposed to linear growth, where long inter-response times were not differentially reinforced. Those with experience in conditions where reinforcement density increased as a function of time showed persistently longer wait times when the contingencies changed in the latter portion of the game when the disincentive to fire quickly was removed. Conclusion The potential utility of such contingencies for training tolerance to delay of reinforcement and the broader implications of training self-control are discussed.
    The Psychological record 09/2014; 64(3).
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) is a contextual behavior therapy that targets idiographic behaviors relevant to interpersonal functioning. FAP often targets issues with intimacy, defined as behavior exchanges that are vulnerable to interpersonal punishment. While existing measures examine similar constructs to FAP’s conceptualization of in- timacy, the literature lacks a FAP-consistent self-report measure that adequately captures intimacy-related behavior with the capacity to assess behavior change and aid in clinical outcome research. Method: The Functional Analytic Psycho- therapy Intimacy Scale (FAPIS) is a 14-item measure developed for both clinicians and researchers to assess intimacy-related behavior. Utilizing two samples of undergraduate students, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, supporting factorial validity of the FAPIS. Results: Reliability tests, including internal consistency and test–retest reliability and construct validity were assessed, providing further support for the psychometric properties of the FAPIS. Conclusions: The FAPIS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of intimacy that could assist in future FAP-related research. Further research should also assess the FAPIS for clinical utility.
    The Psychological record 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Conditional discrimination procedures have been widely used in the study of complex human behavior such as language and remembering. Examples of these procedures include identity and arbitrary matching-to-sample (MTS) tasks. Although identity matching is described as a prerequisite to arbitrary matching, it has been suggested that beginning with identity MTS tasks may interfere with responding on subsequent arbitrary MTS, as the participant continues to look for similarities rather than responding in accordance with the experimenter-defined contingencies. The purpose of the present experiment was twofold: (1) to study whether exposure on identity MTS would influence arbitrary MTS performance and (2) to determine whether using 0-s delay would provide different results than simultaneous matching in healthy older adults. Thirty-two participants (ages 70–86 years) were divided randomly into four experimental conditions: (a) identity-arbitrary simultaneous MTS; (b) arbitrary-identity simultaneous MTS; (c) identity-arbitrary 0-s DMTS; and (d) arbitrary-identity 0-s DMTS. The results showed that exposure to identity MTS did not hinder responding on subsequent arbitrary MTS. On the contrary, the arbitrary-identity MTS with simultaneous presentation of the stimuli resulted in the highest number of training trials to criterion during training and the highest number of withdrawals from the experiment, whereas identity MTS before arbitrary MTS led to results similar to those when 0-s delay was used. These results are important for future application of conditional discrimination procedures with older adults.
    The Psychological record 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated emergent stimulus-stimulus relations after two different training procedures. Participants were five typically developing preschool children and three individuals with Down Syndrome. Experiment 1 used two-comparison matching to sample (MTS) to establish AB and BC relations. Experiment 2 used two-comparison and blank-comparison MTS, each on 50% of training trials to establish AB and BC relations. In both experiments, tests for emergent relations (AC, CA) were conducted to assess equivalence class formation. In Experiment 2 subsequently, class expansion was assessed after CD training. All participants showed positive equivalence test outcomes. Seven showed class expansion. After class formation tests in both studies, probe tests were conducted for select and reject relations in baseline relations. Initial results were somewhat variable, but became more consistent after class expansion.
    The Psychological record 06/2014; 64(2):195-208.

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