Progress in Organic Coatings (Progr Org Coating )

Publisher: Elsevier


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    Progress in organic coatings
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyaniline/montmorillonite (PANI/Mt) nanocomposites (1–7% (w/w) Mt based on the aniline content) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with a 73.4–75.8% monomer conversion level. Fourier-transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mt incorporation into PANI, whilst X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the exfoliated structure and that PANI was intercalated between the Mt layers. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the thermal properties of PANI and PANI/Mt composites were enhanced with increasing Mt levels.The corrosion protection of steel coated with PANI/Mt nanocomposites was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and revealed that PANI/Mt nanocomposites showed an enhanced corrosion protection of steel against 1.0 M H2SO4 in comparison to that of a pure PANI coating. Increasing the Mt content in the PANI/Mt nanocomposites and the applied film thickness (10–50 μm) both improved the anticorrosive properties, presumably due to an increasing tortuosity of the diffusion pathway for corrosion agents. The best corrosion resistance of steel to salt spray was, however, obtained with a PANI/Mt nanocomposite with 5% (w/w) Mt when applied as a 50 μm thick film.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(7):1155–1162.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topcoat constituting multi-layer coatings for wood furniture used in high humidity environments, like bathrooms, must have not only good barrier properties, but also good mechanical properties. Three different types of commercial organoclays, namely Cloisite 10A (C10A), Cloisite 15A (C15A) and Cloisite 30B (C30B), were chosen in this study as reinforcing agents. These nanoparticles were dispersed (1 and 3 wt% into the formulation) into a commercial epoxy acrylate oligomer by means of a three roll mill. Samples obtained from free standing UV-cured coatings were used for mechanical assessments. Mechanical tests were performed in both dynamic and static mode in order to investigate the viscoelastic behavior and tensile properties of coatings. Results from dynamic mechanical analysis have shown that all nanocomposite coatings have higher (72–75 °C) glass transition temperature compared to that observed (71 °C) in unreinforced coatings. The restriction of polymer chains mobility, due to the presence of layered silicate nanoparticles, has been used to explain the increase of glass transition temperature related to the decrease of the free volume. The storage modulus for nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of C10A, C15A and C30B was found to be slightly higher than that observed in pure coatings. The analysis of tensile stress–strain curves has revealed that tensile properties are affected by relative humidity (RH) due to the plasticization effect of humidity. In fact, results have shown that regardless of the organoclay type, the increase of RH decreases both Young's modulus and tensile strength while increasing maximum strain. We believe that low interfaces between photocrosslinked polymer chains and organoclays explain the lack of any effect of organoclays on both storage and Young's moduli. Among samples from each type of UV-cured coating tested at 0, 20 and 80% of RH, regardless of the organoclay type and content, only samples tested (tensile tests in static mode) at RH = 80% were broken. SEM images obtained from the fractured surface of these samples have shown that unreinforced UV-cured coatings and nanocomposite coatings are respectively characterized by smooth and rough fracture surface.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):12–23.
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(6):1085–1094.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the structure of tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)-based alkyd resins and waterborne alkyd–acrylic copolymers. An increase in the functionality of the polyol that is used in the alkyd resin synthesis was found to increase the reactivity of the polyol towards the diacid compared with the TOFA, which causes the formation of more branched and higher molar mass alkyd resin structures. During the copolymerization, polyacrylate chains were grafted to the double bonds and allylic sites of the fatty acid chains in the alkyd resin. Butyl acrylate preferentially grafted to the double bonds, while methyl methacrylate tended to graft to the allylic position. High proportions of the double bonds remaining after copolymerization were crucial to the film formation of copolymers, because the chemical drying of copolymer films occurred by an autoxidation process.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(2):361–368.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, a polysulfide rubber emulsion was synthesized through the pre-emulsification of polysulfide rubber by mixed-emulsifiers and polyvinyl alcohol as a weight stabilizer and the emulsification by adding deionized water dropwise at a speed of 1 ml/min, stirring at a speed of 1500 rpm and adjusting pH to 8 by ammonia. The epoxy coating was modified by the polysulfide rubber emulsion. The anticorrosive coating was prepared by using waterborne amine dispersion as a curing agent and polysulfide rubber as a modifier. It had a good chemical resistance and excellent overall mechanical performance. The coatings were characterized by Tafel polarization curves and Scanning electron microscope.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):219–224.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An environmentally friendly inhibitor, cerium cinnamate (CeCin), was studied as an additive to an epoxy coating. The effects of corrosion inhibition on AA 2024-T3 provided by cerium cation and cinnamate anion were investigated by electrochemistry impedance spectra (EIS) and polarization tests. It was found that cerium ion and cinnamate group have synergistic inhibiting effects. The EIS results show that CeCin is an effective inhibitor pigment for improving the corrosion resistance of epoxy coatings on AA2024-T3, as reflected by the much higher coating resistance than that of the blank epoxy coating. The inhibiting effect of CeCin during the onset of corrosion in defects of the epoxy coating was verified using scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), which is in agreement with the EIS results.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A film of 1-octadecyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole (OTA) was formed on a fresh copper surface by self-assembly technique. The optimum concentration of OTA and immersion time for the formation of a protective OTA film have been established using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). These are (i) 15 mM concentration of OTA in methanol and (ii) immersion period of 48 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), reflection absorption FTIR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements have been used to characterize the OTA film on copper surface. The efficiency of OTA film to protect copper from corrosion in aqueous NaCl environment has been investigated using EIS, potentiodynamic polarization studies, cyclic voltammetry and weight-loss studies. All these studies showed that the OTA film affords excellent protection against corrosion of copper.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):202–212.
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This is a study of the addition of hydrophilic bentonite nano-platelets in acrylic polymer resin to make nano-composite coatings. The mechanism of the dispersion of the nano-platelets during film formation and curing form aqueous suspensions is described. The morphological features of the coating and the degree of exfoliation are examined via X-ray diffraction. The impact of the solvent evaporation rate on the properties of the film is studied. The influence of the shape of the nano-sized objects and their dispersion level on the transport characteristics of the nanocomposite film is measured and their effect on the polymer free volume is discussed.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(8):1316–1324.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel melamine-based hyperbranched polyphosphonate acrylate (MHPA), successfully synthesized via the Michael addition polymerization of 2-(2-amino-ethylamino)-4,6-bisethylamino-1,3,5-triazine with tri(acryloyloxyethyl) phosphate, was blended with the epoxy acrylate (EA) to prepare UV-cured flame retardant coatings. The study of their flammability revealed that MHPA can improve the flame retardancy and the sample with 45 wt% MHPA (EA3) showed a good intumescent behavior when combusted. The results of their thermal degradation displayed that MHPA had a dual effect on the thermal stability of EA: leading to its earlier degradation catalyzed by acidic species from the relatively weak phosphorus-bearing parts, but improving the thermal stability of the char layer at high temperature due to the formed intumescent phosphorus–carbon compounds. Besides, the total release amount of gas products of EA3 was much lower than that of pure EA and various flammable gases like hydrocarbons and highly toxic CO were also reduced
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):94–100.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A self-healing polymer for coating application was developed based on thermoreversible Diels–Alder (DA) reactions. The polymer network is formed by reacting a mixture of trifunctional and difunctional furanized resins (3F and 2F) with a bismaleimide (2M). The DA reaction occurs at temperature above 50 °C whilst retro-DA reaction occurs at about 120 °C. FTIR spectra were taken in order to monitor the reaction progress, and the thermal reversibility of the reaction was proved by DSC and DMA tests. A significant improvement of both the mechanical properties and the self-healing behaviour was achieved by introduction of small amount of a suitable plasticizer like benzyl alcohol. Self-healing properties of the plasticized polymer resulted in complete scratch recovery after retro-DA and DA reaction, whilst tensile testing reveals a 48% restoring of the pristine mechanical strength.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study about the dispersion of carbon nanotubes into an epoxy matrix can be considered as a first approach to investigate a potential industrial coating. In order to well disperse carboxylic acid-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes (a-MWCNT) in a commercial epoxy-based resin, its nanostructuring with an amphiphilic epoxidized styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene triblock copolymer that also acts as surfactant was carried out. In order to determine if coating performance is suitable for industrial applications, morphologies generated for copolymer-modified coating and the dispersion of a-MWCNT was characterized by atomic force microscopy. Contact angle measurements, Taber abrasion testing and thermogravimetric analysis were also performed. A tailor-made coating was developed with improved a-MWCNT dispersion and hydrophobicity due to the effect of block copolymer. System modified with 5 wt% of block copolymer and filled with 1 wt% a-MWCNT present the lowest value in weight loss in the wear test, while systems filled with 0.2 wt% of a-MWCNT showed increased thermal stability. Coating properties analyzed depend largely on the amount of components and a-MWCNT dispersion level, thus adding new application possibilities to the coatings, while most of the conventional epoxy-coating advantages are retained.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(9):1452–1458.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), an emerging renewable nanomaterial, was subjected to carbon chains grafting in order to improve its dispersion and its ability to transfer its rigidity properties into less polar matrixes, especially acrylic wood coatings. Chemical modifications used to this purpose are required to be simple, not affecting the CNC main structure and compatible or synergistic to oligomer reticulation inside the targeted UV-waterborne formulation. Those modifications were carried out using either alkyl quaternary ammonium bromides or acryloyl chloride. These new chemical functionalities, not inducing deep structural changes in modified CNCs, were highlighted through nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and nitrogen content analyses. CNC derivatives were better dispersed in aqueous acrylic coating as suggested by atomic force microscopy, with a mean surface roughness falling from 9 to 6 nm on the coatings containing unmodified and treated CNCs, respectively. For mechanical evaluations, the coatings including various CNC derivatives were applied on sugar maple wood, a much appreciated material as indoor timber or wooden furniture which requires an efficient surface protection. The abrasion tests indicated that the modified CNCs confer a higher scratch resistance, with an improvement from 24% to 38% for coatings containing CNC derivatives over those with unmodified CNC.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) resins are the dominant component of some of the most weatherable commercially available decorative coatings, which can have color retention and chalk resistance service lifetimes of decades. We have recently oultined a service life prediction model for the decorative properties of coatings of this type (Wood, 2009). The model is based on the “contraction” theory of gloss loss and chalking, coupled with simple assumptions about the photochemical kinetics of two-resin hybrid systems where one resin (PVDF) is much more weatherable than the other (in this case, an acrylic). Because different mechanisms account for gloss loss, color change, and chalking, the relative rates of change for each of these properties can be different, in accordance with experimental observations. In this paper, we combine insights from the model, empirical data from accelerated tests, and long-term weathering test data from solvent-based baked PVDF coatings, to predict the service life of new waterborne no-bake PVDF coatings.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;

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