Progress in Organic Coatings (Progr Org Coating )

Publisher: Elsevier


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Publications in this journal

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of the glassflake nanoparticles on the rheology, morphology and protective properties of epoxy/glassflake nanocomposites has been studied in this work. Mechanical mixing and sonication process were used to incorporate nano-glassflakes (NGF) into the epoxy. Effects of the time and method of mixing on the morphology and dispersion quality of NGF/epoxy were studied by means of scanning electron microscopic (SEM). Results showed that a 30 min mechanical mixing followed by a 30 min sonication is a best mixing process to design nano-scale glassflake composites. The rheological analysis of epoxy pre-polymer/NGF dispersions indicates that an addition of NGF up to 1 wt% forms microstructure and improves the rheological properties. Barrier properties of the epoxy/NGF coated samples were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a function of immersion time in a sodium chloride solution (5 wt%). The experimental results showed that the barrier properties of the epoxy/NGF coating systems improved by an increase of the NGF content up to 0.5 wt%.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):124–130.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preparation and structure analysis of a bio-based hybrid material composed of natural lacquer, epoxy, and organic silane compounds were investigated using liquid and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The good composition of additives in the hybrid was determined by the drying, hardness, and resin-molding properties. Although natural lacquer alone cannot form thick resins, this bio-based hybrid material showed good resin formation at room temperature without thermal treatment. This result could be based on the enhancement of curing by the sol–gel reaction between natural lacquer and the organic silane compound, and a crosslink reaction between organic silane and epoxy groups. At the same time, oxidative polymerization at the unsaturated side chains in the urushiol was enhanced by the sol–gel reaction because the catechol hydroxyl groups, which have an antioxidative property, reacted with the organic silane. In addition, this bio-based resin possesses a thermoset property because curing of the hybrid was improved by thermal treatment. Based on the structure analyses, the sol–gel reaction between urushiol and organic silane compound proceeded immediately, indicating the high reactivity of this sol–gel reaction. On the other hand, the reaction between bisphenol A-type epoxy resin and the organic silane seems to progress slowly after the epoxy ring opening. In addition, a sol–gel reaction occurred between the amine group in the organic silane and the hydroxyl group formed after the crosslink reaction of the epoxy group. These results suggested that the improvement in drying and molding properties of the hybrid was based on the chemical reactions among all components (i.e., natural lacquer, epoxy, and organic silane).
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):24–29.
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The combination of UV-curing technology and nanotechnology has been applied in this study to synthetize by in situ photopolymerization method, UV-cured topcoats based on acrylate matrix reinforced (1 and 3 wt%) individually with three different types of commercial organoclays, namely Cloisite 10A (C10A), Cloisite 15A (C15A) and Cloisite 30B (C30B). The morphological study was quantitatively and qualitatively performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and optical clarity of these nanocomposites were also assessed. TEM images obtained for those UV-cured coatings respectively reinforced with C10A and C30B showed that the absence of diffraction peaks in XRD patterns of these samples do not mean necessarily a possible exfoliation of their layered silicate nanoparticles by acrylate matrix (AM). Indeed, according to TEM images, we believe that C30B was not dispersible in the AM; while both UV-cured nanocomposites containing C10A and C15A respectively seemed to have an intercalated morphology regardless of the clay content (1 and 3 wt%). All the organoclays used in this study have had an effect on both WVTR and optical clarity. The tortuous path created by the organoclay dispersed into the AM, by retarding the progress of water vapor through a sample, best explain the decrease of WVTR whereas the decrease of optical clarity is due to the light scattering by organoclay particles. Based on the above mentioned results, among the three different reinforcing agents used in this study, C10A appears to be the ideal organoclay for practical application.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):1–11.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, a polysulfide rubber emulsion was synthesized through the pre-emulsification of polysulfide rubber by mixed-emulsifiers and polyvinyl alcohol as a weight stabilizer and the emulsification by adding deionized water dropwise at a speed of 1 ml/min, stirring at a speed of 1500 rpm and adjusting pH to 8 by ammonia. The epoxy coating was modified by the polysulfide rubber emulsion. The anticorrosive coating was prepared by using waterborne amine dispersion as a curing agent and polysulfide rubber as a modifier. It had a good chemical resistance and excellent overall mechanical performance. The coatings were characterized by Tafel polarization curves and Scanning electron microscope.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):219–224.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An environmentally friendly inhibitor, cerium cinnamate (CeCin), was studied as an additive to an epoxy coating. The effects of corrosion inhibition on AA 2024-T3 provided by cerium cation and cinnamate anion were investigated by electrochemistry impedance spectra (EIS) and polarization tests. It was found that cerium ion and cinnamate group have synergistic inhibiting effects. The EIS results show that CeCin is an effective inhibitor pigment for improving the corrosion resistance of epoxy coatings on AA2024-T3, as reflected by the much higher coating resistance than that of the blank epoxy coating. The inhibiting effect of CeCin during the onset of corrosion in defects of the epoxy coating was verified using scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET), which is in agreement with the EIS results.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the structure of tall oil fatty acid (TOFA)-based alkyd resins and waterborne alkyd–acrylic copolymers. An increase in the functionality of the polyol that is used in the alkyd resin synthesis was found to increase the reactivity of the polyol towards the diacid compared with the TOFA, which causes the formation of more branched and higher molar mass alkyd resin structures. During the copolymerization, polyacrylate chains were grafted to the double bonds and allylic sites of the fatty acid chains in the alkyd resin. Butyl acrylate preferentially grafted to the double bonds, while methyl methacrylate tended to graft to the allylic position. High proportions of the double bonds remaining after copolymerization were crucial to the film formation of copolymers, because the chemical drying of copolymer films occurred by an autoxidation process.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(2):361–368.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hybrid latex particles have an increasing importance in industrial applications especially for high performance waterborne coatings. They provide combined properties of different phase compositions for the final polymer which can also be enhanced by additives such as nanoclays. The present study describes the preparation of a hybrid polyacrylate/OMMT nanocomposite latex via two stage in situ emulsion polymerization with a low emulsifier content (1 wt%) which is usually a challenge for the preparation of stable polymer/OMMT nanocomposite latexes. The obtained nanocomposite latex was stable and had a fine average size diameter of 151 nm with a very narrow size distribution. The copolymer films exhibited a well exfoliated structure observed by WAXD and TEM. Other polymer properties were investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA, DMTA and rheological measurements. The results indicated that the addition of clay even in low amount (2 wt%) yielded significantly improved mechanical and thermal properties of the final polymer. In addition, the nanocomposite latex was also applied on leathers as coating binder in a finishing formulation and the results of the performance tests revealed substantially increased rubbing and heat resistance whereas a slight decrease was observed at water vapor permeability of the coated leathers.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):110–117.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Four types of silicone-modified polyester resins were synthesized for cleanable characteristics with silicone intermediate, which has a long chain, to extend the polymer chains of the resins. These resins were formulated to make polyester/melamine heat-cured coatings to control the formability. The characteristics, viscoelastic behavior and flexibility of the resins were measured by DMA and tensile test. The contact angle measurement can be measured by the water repellence of the coating surface, which is a standard method to evaluate cleanable characteristics. The surface free energy was calculated by the contact angle measurement, and the surface analysis of each cured coating was evaluated using an XPS. Silicone-modified polyester coatings were coated on the cold rolled steel sheets to verify their formability, using a deep drawing test. Results showed that the storage modulus decreased, and the glass transition temperature shifted to a lower temperature with increasing contents of silicone intermediate. So, silicone intermediate provides lower stiffness and higher softness to polyester coating. To analyze the formability, we calculated FU (the forming coefficient based on strain energy) and Fɛ (the forming coefficient based on strain). When FU and Fɛ are both larger than 1, the polyester coatings have good formability. CSiPE-3 and CSiPE-5 had good formability. Also, CSiPE-5, which had the highest amount of silicone intermediate, had 93.5° of water contact angle, and had 26.5 mN/m of surface free energy and had 5.5 N/25 mm of the peel strength. So, it is implied that silicone intermediate can give a low surface energy and peel strength to polyester coatings. From those tests, the polyester/melamine coating of CSiPE-5 that had 0.5 mol of silicone intermediate had good formability and low peel strength, which are semi-removable characteristics. So, it would be an appropriate coating as a clearcoat for automotive pre-coated metals.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):184–193.
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Topcoat constituting multi-layer coatings for wood furniture used in high humidity environments, like bathrooms, must have not only good barrier properties, but also good mechanical properties. Three different types of commercial organoclays, namely Cloisite 10A (C10A), Cloisite 15A (C15A) and Cloisite 30B (C30B), were chosen in this study as reinforcing agents. These nanoparticles were dispersed (1 and 3 wt% into the formulation) into a commercial epoxy acrylate oligomer by means of a three roll mill. Samples obtained from free standing UV-cured coatings were used for mechanical assessments. Mechanical tests were performed in both dynamic and static mode in order to investigate the viscoelastic behavior and tensile properties of coatings. Results from dynamic mechanical analysis have shown that all nanocomposite coatings have higher (72–75 °C) glass transition temperature compared to that observed (71 °C) in unreinforced coatings. The restriction of polymer chains mobility, due to the presence of layered silicate nanoparticles, has been used to explain the increase of glass transition temperature related to the decrease of the free volume. The storage modulus for nanocomposites containing 3 wt% of C10A, C15A and C30B was found to be slightly higher than that observed in pure coatings. The analysis of tensile stress–strain curves has revealed that tensile properties are affected by relative humidity (RH) due to the plasticization effect of humidity. In fact, results have shown that regardless of the organoclay type, the increase of RH decreases both Young's modulus and tensile strength while increasing maximum strain. We believe that low interfaces between photocrosslinked polymer chains and organoclays explain the lack of any effect of organoclays on both storage and Young's moduli. Among samples from each type of UV-cured coating tested at 0, 20 and 80% of RH, regardless of the organoclay type and content, only samples tested (tensile tests in static mode) at RH = 80% were broken. SEM images obtained from the fractured surface of these samples have shown that unreinforced UV-cured coatings and nanocomposite coatings are respectively characterized by smooth and rough fracture surface.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):12–23.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polyaniline/montmorillonite (PANI/Mt) nanocomposites (1–7% (w/w) Mt based on the aniline content) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization with a 73.4–75.8% monomer conversion level. Fourier-transform infrared and scanning electron microscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mt incorporation into PANI, whilst X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the exfoliated structure and that PANI was intercalated between the Mt layers. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the thermal properties of PANI and PANI/Mt composites were enhanced with increasing Mt levels.The corrosion protection of steel coated with PANI/Mt nanocomposites was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, and revealed that PANI/Mt nanocomposites showed an enhanced corrosion protection of steel against 1.0 M H2SO4 in comparison to that of a pure PANI coating. Increasing the Mt content in the PANI/Mt nanocomposites and the applied film thickness (10–50 μm) both improved the anticorrosive properties, presumably due to an increasing tortuosity of the diffusion pathway for corrosion agents. The best corrosion resistance of steel to salt spray was, however, obtained with a PANI/Mt nanocomposite with 5% (w/w) Mt when applied as a 50 μm thick film.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bio-composites were prepared from blends of Jatropha curcas oil based alkyd and epoxy resin with different weight percentage of expanded graphite (EG). The effect of EG loading on the thermal, mechanical, flame retardancy and water absorption properties of the bio-composites were studied. Significant improvement in thermal and mechanical properties was observed with 5 wt% EG loading. The prepared bio-composites were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and tensile strength measurement. Morphological study showed the homogeneous dispersion of the EG sheets in the resin matrix. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the bio-composites showed a noticeable improvement in flame retardancy in comparison to neat blend of alkyd and epoxy resin. In vitro degradation of the bio-composites showed low degradation in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4).
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):87–93.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Epoxy/polyamide coatings were loaded with different mixtures of strontium aluminum polyphosphate (SAPP) and zinc aluminum phosphate (ZPA) pigments. Moreover, a coating containing zinc phosphate (ZP) was prepared as a reference sample. The coatings were applied on St-37 steel substrates and then were exposed to 3.5 wt% NaCl solution up to 35 days. The corrosion inhibition properties of the pigments extracts were studied on bare steel samples by a potentiodynamic polarization technique after 24 h immersion. The morphological properties and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. Results showed that addition of SAPP, ZPA and ZP to coatings caused a decrease in number of blisters and holes after exposure to corrosive electrolyte. The corrosion resistance of coatings was improved using certain loadings of SAPP, ZPA and ZP pigments. The greatest improvement of the corrosion resistance was observed for the coatings loaded with 100% ZPA and mixture of 20:80 of SAPP:ZPA. Results revealed that SAPP did not improve corrosion resistance of coating like ZPA. It was found that replacing ZPA with high loadings of SAPP did not cause higher coating corrosion protection properties. The results obtained in this work revealed that both pigments solubility and corrosion inhibition are important parameters affecting corrosion resistance of the coatings.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):160–167.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A facile synthetic method of soybean oil-based polyfunctional acrylate (PFA) for UV-curable materials was reported.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
  • Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Amine-epoxy polymer systems are widely used, for example as matrix materials for structural composites employed in aerospace industry and in industrial coatings on metal substrates for corrosion protection. This work focuses on the investigation of different epoxy-amine coatings on the adhesion performance on aluminum AA-2024 substrates. Two different epoxies (Epikote 828 (aromatic) and Eponex 1510 (aliphatic)) and four different amines (1,8-diaminooctane, Dytek A, Jeffamine EDR148 and Jeffamine D230) as curing agent were used in different stoichiometric ratios. These different epoxy-amine coatings were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), tensile tests (pull-off) and water-uptake measurements. Pull-off tests in dry conditions showed comparable adhesion of the coatings. Surprisingly, pull-off results showed after water soaking a higher wet adhesion of the coatings prepared with Eponex 1510 as compared to coatings prepared with Epikote 828. Moreover, the combination of Eponex 1510-Jeffamine EDR148 coatings resulted in high adhesion values (∼7 MPa) with pull-off tests and these values did not change after immersion for two weeks in water. This combination shows extreme good wet adhesion performance as compared to any other epoxy-amine coating. Complete recovery was demonstrated of the adhesion of Eponex 1510-Jeffamine D230 coating after being immersed for two weeks in water and dried for two weeks. Furthermore, in contrast with Epikote 828 water uptake measurements showed almost nil water uptake for all coatings prepared with Eponex 1510. Optical microscopy investigations on the residues of the coatings after pull-off tests revealed adhesive failure in wet condition for Epikote 828, while coatings prepared with Eponex 1510 showed cohesive failure.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):176–183.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Linear and branched bio-based semi-aromatic (co)polyesters were evaluated as resins for solvent-based and powder coatings. Dimethyl-2,5-furandicarboxylate (DMF), 2,3-butanediol and various multifunctional comonomers were used to synthesize amorphous hydroxyl-end-capped (co)polyesters. The resins were cross-linked using the ɛ-caprolactam blocked trimer of isophorone diisocyanate. Both the solvent-based and powder coatings proved to be hard but brittle, which was a result of the very stiff molecular structure of the formed network. This was corroborated by the Tg values obtained for the coatings, which exceeded 100 °C for both the solvent-based and powder coatings. The poly(ester urethane) coatings prepared from the branched copolyesters show a reasonable solvent resistance. However, swelling occurred during the solvent treatment, indicating an insufficient network formation. The solvent-based and powder coatings exhibit similar mechanical and physical performance, showing that in this study there was no significant influence of the preparation method. In view of the obtained results it can be concluded that DMF-based branched polyesters are interesting candidates for solvent-based and powder coating applications.
    Progress in Organic Coatings 01/2014; 77(1):277-284.

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