Pharmazie (PHARMAZIE)

Publisher: Pharmazeutische Gesellschaft der DDR; Deutsche Arzneibuch-Kommission

Journal description

DiePharmazie is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical journals. As a peer-reviewed scientific journal, DiePharmazie is regularly indexed in Current Contents/Life Sciences, Excerpta Medica, Analytical Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Beilstein Current Facts in Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Abstracts (CEABA) and Science Citation Index. The journal DiePharmazie publishes reviews, experimental studies, letters to the editor, as well as book reviews. The following fields of pharmacy are covered: Pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis and drug control, pharmaceutical technolgy, biopharmacy (biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, biotransformation), experimental and clinical pharmacology, pharmaceutical biology (pharmacognosy), history of pharmacy.

Current impact factor: 1.00

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 1.003
2012 Impact Factor 0.962
2011 Impact Factor 1.006
2010 Impact Factor 0.869
2009 Impact Factor 0.812
2008 Impact Factor 0.858
2007 Impact Factor 0.775
2006 Impact Factor 0.606
2005 Impact Factor 0.677
2004 Impact Factor 0.587
2003 Impact Factor 0.696
2002 Impact Factor 0.74
2001 Impact Factor 0.498
2000 Impact Factor 0.471
1999 Impact Factor 0.446
1998 Impact Factor 0.419
1997 Impact Factor 0.504
1996 Impact Factor 0.487
1995 Impact Factor 0.466
1994 Impact Factor 0.334
1993 Impact Factor 0.34
1992 Impact Factor 0.309

Impact factor over time

Impact factor
Year

Additional details

5-year impact 0.98
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.23
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.21
Website Pharmazie website
Other titles Pharmazie
ISSN 0031-7144
OCLC 1779245
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metformin is usually used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently, many studies suggest that metformin and vitamin D have broad-spectrum antitumor activities. Our aim in this research was to study the effects of vitamin D3 combined with metformin on the apoptosis induction and its mechanisms in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Cell proliferation was measured by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The morphology of cell apoptosis was observed after Hoechst 33342 staining. Here we show that vitamin D3 280 μg/ml or vitamin D3 300 μg/ml or vitamin D3 320 μg/ml seperately combined with metformin 15000 μg/ml exhibited synergistic effects on cell proliferation and apoptosis. The underlying anti-tumor mechanisms may involve m-TOR related pathways, which are related to activating expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and p-AMPK, as well as inhibiting expressions of p-Bcl-2, c-Myc, p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4535
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Taspoglutide has elicited a long-lasting glycemic control effect with favorable body weight loss. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative model to delineate the net efficacy of taspoglutide on body weight (WT) loss from the response of placebo in type 2 diabetes patients, and further find pharmacodynamic potency of taspoglutide for half of maximum reduction response of WT. Several PD data about taspoglutide treatments for type 2 diabetes patients were digitalized from the published papers. The model based metaanalysis (MBMA) study for WT loss was performed with Monolix 4.3 software. The MBMA successfully described the effects of placebo and taspoglutide on the pharmacological index of WT loss in clinical trials. The pharmacodynamic potency (41.7 pmol/l) produced 50% of maximum response of WT (–1.85 kg) from the responses of placebo (–1.33 kg). The longitudinal MBMA could be utilized to quantitatively describe the efficacy of taspoglutide on body weight loss and may lead to a clinical guideline for treatment of type 2 diabetes patients in the future.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4716
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Propofol is a widely used intravenous anesthetic agent with antioxidant/antiapoptotic properties. Aldose reductase (AR) has been implicated in oxidative stress and apoptosis in endothelial cells. AR inhibition may protect cells from cardiovascular injury. Although the cytoprotective effect of propofol against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury has been widely studied, there is no information about the effects of propofol on AR. We therefore investigated the effect of propofol on H2O2-mediated injury and on aldose reductase expression. We found that propofol protected HUVECs against H2O2-induced damage and apoptosis and ameliorated AR expression induced by H2O2. Propofol also inhibited H2O2-induced p38 MAPK, JNK and Akt phosphorylation. Epalrestat (an AR inhibitor) or ablation of AR siRNA had a similar effect to propofol. The results suggest that propofol may be a preemptive anesthetic in patients with cardiovascular disease and inhibition of AR might be a new cytoprotective pathway for propofol.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4734
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of loxoprofen (LX) and its active metabolite (trans-OH form) after a single dermal application of LX gel (LX-G) to rats. In the skin at the treated site, generation of the trans-OH form was detected and both LX and the trans-OH form remained at high concentrations for 24 h after dermal application. Furthermore, both LX and the trans-OH form also remained in the skeletal muscle over 24 h after the single dermal application, while they eliminated rapidly after the single oral administration. The area under the curve up to the last measurable point (AUC0-t) for plasma concentrations of LX or the trans-OH form after dermal application of LX-G was less than 11% of that after oral administration of LX. In addition, Cmax and AUC0-t increased in a saturable manner while increasing the dose. Overall, these results demonstrated that the trans-OH form was generated at the treated site with the process of dermal absorption of LX and it remained at the target site for a long period with low systemic exposure compared to oral administration.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4077
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The therapeutic potential of pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. var. hainanensis Tsiang in ulcerative colitis were investigated. This study showed that pectic polysaccharides extracted from Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill.var.hainanensis Tsiang ameliorated ulcerative colitis and were proposed to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects via increased expression of IκB-α proteins and suppressing NF-αB translocation.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4749
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is associated with serious invasive infections and high mortality rates due to a large number of toxins released. The persistent increasing resistance of S. aureus has driven the need for new anti-infection agents and innovative therapeutic strategies. RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) has been reported to reduce bacterial virulence by interfering with S. aureus quorum sensing system. The present study aimed to investigate whether two new RIP derivatives (RIP-V and RIP-L) could improve the survival rate of mice in a MRSA sepsis model. We found that neither anti-bacterial nor cell toxicity were displayed by all RIPs in vitro. In vivo protective effects were observed using a MRSA-induced mice sepsis model. Among RIPs, RIP-V exhibited the strongest protection function on mice survival and inhibition of pathological damages. Our studies firstly verified that RIPs could inhibited the RNAIII expression of S. aurues isolated from liver tissue of BALB/c mice. Moreover, RIP-V exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on RNAIII and can decrease markedly the secretion of α-hemolysin in liver. These findings indicate that RIP-V might be considered as a potential and specific drug candidate for treating S. aureus infections, especially for MRSA.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4750
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin® (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin® with a significant difference (p < 0.05) considering healing ranks of tissue samples.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2):67.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bazedoxifene is used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. After peroral application, bazedoxifene is metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) to bazedoxifene-4'-glucuronide (M4) and bazedoxifene-5-glucuronide (M5). It has already been shown that a relatively common UGT1A1*28 polymorphism can considerably affect raloxifene pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. As pharmacokinetics of bazedoxifene and raloxifene are very similar, the influence of UGT1A1*28 polymorphism on metabolism of bazedoxifene was investigated by genotyped microsomes. Our results indicate an influence of UGT1A1*28 allele on the formation clearance of both bazedoxifene metabolites. The decreased metabolic clearance was most pronounced in microsomes from polymorphic homozygote (*28/*28) where a 7 to 10-fold lower metabolic clearance was observed for both metabolites compared to other genotypes. In conclusion, the significant UGT1A1*28 genotype effect on bazedoxifene intrinsic metabolic clearance indicates that this subject is worth further exploration in vivo and provides valuable information research in this field.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4738
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) respond to sensory stimulation via climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, and generate motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processed by PC in mouse cerebellar cortex are currently unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABAA) antagonist, gabazine, on the stimulation train on the simple spike firing of PCs by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that the output of cerebellar PCs could be significantly affected by all pulses of the low-frequency (0.25 -2 Hz) sensory stimulation train, but only by the 1st and 2nd pulses of the high-frequency (≥ 4 Hz) sensory stimulation train. In the presence of gabazine (20 M), each pulse of 1 Hz facial stimulation evoked simple spike firing in the PCs, but only the 1st and 2nd pulses of 4 Hz stimulation induced an increase in simple spike firing of the PCs. These results indicated that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition did not significantly affect the frequency properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in the mouse cerebellar PCs.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4769
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Calcitonin gene related protein (CGRP) is increased in both lesional and non-lesional psoriasis. The role of CGRP in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris is still not clear. We designed to determine the CGRP-I (or CALCA), II (or CALCB) gene expression and morbidity and CALCA T-692C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma samples were collected, and CGRP level and CGRP-I, II mRNA expression were measured in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. The CALCA T-692C genetic polymorphism in psoriasis and control subjects was also compared. A higher expression of CGRP-I, II mRNA in PBMCs in psoriasis patients. The plasma CGRP level in psoriasis patients was also higher than that in healthy subjects. SNP analysis showed carriers of the T-692C allele were over-represented in non-drinking Patients. The plasma CGRP level was higher in alcohol-drinking patients with TT genotype than that with TC genotype. The plasma CGRP level is increased in psoriasis patients and CALCA T-692C polymorphism TT genotype is a factor for the affectability in alcohol-drinking Psoriasis vulgaris patients.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4722
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the present study chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (EYO) and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) were formulated successfully aiming at enhanced topical treatment of dermal burns the combination of traditional approaches with modern drug delivery systems. Physicochemical properties of the formulations were analyzed and efficacy of the formulations prepared were evaluated versus a commercial product; Silverdin® (1% silver sulfadiazine) in vivo on Wistar rats. Burns were generated on the back of the rats and at predetermined time intervals tissue samples were collected and evaluated histologically. The analyses showed that chitosan based gel formulations containing Egg Yolk Oil (E1) and chitosan based gel formulations containing EYO and EGF (M1) formulations seem to be better alternatives for Silverdin® with a significant difference (p Document Type: Research Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1691/ph.2015.4126 Publication date: February 1, 2015 More about this publication? Pharmazie is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical journals. As a peer-reviewed scientific journal, DiePharmazie is regularly indexed in Current Contents/Life Sciences, Excerpta Medica, Analytical Abstracts, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Beilstein Current Facts in Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology Abstracts (CEABA) and Science Citation Index. Information for Authors Submit a Paper Subscribe to this Title Terms & Conditions ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher In this Subject: Biology/Life Sciences , Medicine , Pharmacology By this author: Yenilmez, E. ; Başaran, E. ; Arslan, R. ; Berkman, M. S. ; Güven, U. M. ; Bayçu, C. ; Yazan, Y. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4126
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To study the effects of vitamin D3 combined with metformin on the proliferation and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cell line SW-780 and its possible mechanism. Methods: MTT assay and fluorescence microscope observations were used to study the effects of vitamin D3 combined with metformin on the proliferation and apoptosis of SW-780 cells in vitro. Western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins p-Bcl-2, Bax, Cyclin D1, c-Myc and related signaling pathways activated proteins p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6. Results: MTT results showed that 320 μg/ml vitamin D3 combined with 620 μg/ml metformin acting on cells for 48 h had a significant synergistic effect on proliferation. Fluorescence microscope observations showed that compared with negative control group and monotherapy treatment group, the apoptosis features of combination treatment group were obvious and the apoptosis rate increased greatly. Western blot showed that compared with the negative control group and monotherapy treatment group, the expression levels of p-Bcl-2, Cyclin D1 and c-Myc in combination treatment group significantly decreased, whereas the expression level of Bax significantly increased, and the expression levels of p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K and p-S6 in combination treatment group significantly decreased. Conclusion: Vitamin D3 combined with metformin exhibited obvious inhibitory effects on the cell proliferation and apoptosis induction in SW-780 cells. The underlying anti-tumor mechanism might be related to inhibiting the expressions of p-Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, c-Myc, p-IGF-IR, p-mTOR, p-P70S6K, p-S6 and activating the expression of Bax.
    Pharmazie 02/2015; 70(2). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.3936
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the 19th century, synthetic chemistry discovered completely new chemical entities for medicinal use, which dramatically enriched the therapeutic armamentarium. However, no informationwas available regarding the safety of these new drugs, which were unrelated to most of the medicinal agents formerly known. Therefore, the question arises, if and how far, considerations regarding the relationship between benefit and risks were made. In this study, chloroform, phenazone (antipyrine) and sulfonal, were investigated as examples for drugs newly introduced in the 19th century. The results revealed that these drugs were provided by the manufacturer, tested by the physicians in a multicentre pattern and side effects were published in the medical literature soon after. Within a few years, several hundred cases were reported but the data were rarely summarized statistically. Therefore, physicians needed to stay updated with the medical literature because neither systematic industrial research nor regulatory authorities existed. The number of case reports within the first years were sufficient to detect common (> 1/100 to < 1/10) side effects but rare events were also reported. An extraordinary example is the drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is commonly known as the Lyell syndrome or its less severe form, the Stevens–Johnson syndrome. This reaction has been clearly described by Baruch Spitz (1854–1932) as a side effect of antipyrine in 1887, several decades before Stevens, Johnson and particularly Lyell.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(1):60-63. DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4083
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Daphne gnidium L. (Thymeleacees) is a famous Moroccan plant with cancer-related ethnobotanical use. Previously, we demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of D. gnidium had antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic potential on human breast tumor MCF-7 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the antiproliferative effect of this extract was similar for different human cancer cell lines such as A549 lung cancer and SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells. Moreover, this work essentially focused on the intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. Antiproliferative activity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide on A549 and SMMC-7721 cells. The characterization of the mechanisms involved in this effect was determined by lactate dehydrogenase test, apoptosis assays and western blot analyses. Our present study has shown that this extract strongly inhibited proliferation of A549 (IC50: 213 ± 15 μg/ml) and SMMC-7721 (IC50: 170 ± 13 μg/ml) cells. The characterization of antiproliferative effect demonstrated that this extract was an apoptosis inducer in both cell lines tested. The results of western blot analyses have shown in SMMC-7721 cells that this extract activated caspase signaling triggered by the modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins. These findings suggest that this natural extract-induced effects may have novel therapeutic applications for the treatment of different cancer types.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(3). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4773
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is the most important transporter in the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. OATP1B1 plays an important role in the hepatic uptake of many endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including many clinical drugs. At present, the combinational usage of Chinese traditional herbal medicines and conventional chemical pharmaceuticals may affect the activity of enzymes and transporters activity and cause absorption of their substrates and metabolic changes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of schisandrin A, schisandrin B and tanshinone IIA, which were extracted from medicinal plants, on OATP1B1 activity. HepG2 cells are used as in vitro models for OATP1B1 activity studies. A combination of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tertazolium bromide (MU) assays, real-time RT-PCR, and transporter activity analysis were employed. We found that schisandrin A and B increased OATP1B1 mRNA levels by 1.81-fold (p < 0.01) and 1.87-fold (p < 0.01) at concentration of 10 mu M, respectively. Schisandrin A of 1 mu M and 10 mu M and schisandrin B of 10 mu M significantly increased the uptake of [H-3] estrone-3-sulfate (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Tanshinone IIA had no effect on the mRNA expression and transport activity of OATP1B1 at nontoxic concentrations. Our study suggests that schisandrin A and B induced OATP1B1 expression and increased its transporter activity in HepG2 cells.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(1). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4680
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The neuroprotective effects of torularhodin against oxidative injury and apoptosis in PC12 cells, as well as the related mechanisms, were investigated. The results showed that torularhodin significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and malondialdehyde (MDA) production, meanwhile increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes, which were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The presence of torularhodin attenuated H2O2-induced apoptosis which was proven by flow cytometric detection of Ca2+ influx inhibition and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Furthermore, the oxidative injury produced by H2O2 was mitigated by torularhodin pretreatment via down-regulation of GSK-3β and Keap1 genes while up-regulating the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 genes. The neuroprotective effects of torularhodin against oxidative injury and apoptosis appeared to be associated with the synergistic effect of mitochondria-mediated pathway and GSK-3β/ Nrf2 signaling pathway. These findings demonstrated that torularhodin could be considered as a neuroprotective agent against H2O2-induced oxidative stress.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(1). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4699
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Methyl gallate (MG) was isolated from the bark of Acer barbinerve, which has traditionally been used in Oriental medicine. In the present study, we examined the effects of MG on melanin synthesis in Mel-Ab melanocyte cells. MG decreased melanin pigmentation in a concentration-dependent manner, but did not directly inhibit tyrosinase activity. Further analysis showed that MG had no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, but induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3β, which is known to increase β-catenin accumulation. Accordingly, the β-catenin level was increased by MG. However, a specific GSK3β inhibitor did not rescue the MG-induced inhibition of melanogenesis. Additionally, MG decreased the protein expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and tyrosinase, which regulate melanin synthesis. Based on these results, we conclude that MG inhibits melanogenesis by decreasing the expression of MITF and tyrosinase.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(1). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4683
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptorsinvolved in DA-9701-induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph. DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701-induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrummediated by multiple receptors.
    Pharmazie 01/2015; 70(3). DOI:10.1691/ph.2015.4563