Pharmacology (PHARMACOLOGY )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


This journal communicates research in basic and clinical pharmacology and related fields. It covers biochemical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, immunopharmacology, drug metabolism, pharmacogenetics, analytical toxicology, neuropsychopharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology. In addition to original papers and short communications of investigative findings and pharmacological profiles the journal contains reviews, comments and perspective notes. ëPharmacologyí is an international forum to present and discuss current perspectives in drug research.

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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Montelukast, a leucotriene receptor antagonist, binds the cysteinyl leucotriene type 1 receptor. Montelukast is commonly prescribed to asthma patients as add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids. Several clinical trials emphasized that montelukast can be considered a safe drug. However, recent evidence reconsidered the benefit/risk ratio of the use of montelukast for both paediatric and adult patients. Summary: The present review analyzed the previous published case reports regarding montelukast-induced adverse drug reactions (ADRs). They included agitation, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, hallucinations, suicidal thinking and suicidality, tremor, dizziness, drowsiness, neuropathies and seizures. The immune system can be involved, in particular, cases of Churg-Strauss syndrome have been published. Furthermore, it can induce hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and eosinophilic infiltration. In addition, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and uropoietic disorders have been observed. Some of these cases are characterized by severe prognosis (i.e. neurological deficit and fatal hepatotoxicity). Key Message: The use of montelukast can be burdened by several ADRs, of which physicians should be aware in their clinical practice. A better understanding of the mechanisms causing ADRs after using montelukast could help researchers and clinicians in defining a risk-reduction strategy aimed to lessen montelukast toxicity. More accurate epidemiological studies, in order to discover risk factors favouring montelukast-associated ADRs, are demanded. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 09/2014; 94(1-2):60-70.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The identification and application of stem cells to treat central nervous system disorders represent a dramatic evolution and expansion into the realms of neurorestoration and neuroregeneration. The aim of this study was to assess the possible ameliorative effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in comparison to gabapentin on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced epileptogenesis and its consequences. Methods: Thirty-two rats were divided into 4 equal groups; group I: saline-injected group, group II: PTZ group, which received 13 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of PTZ (30 mg/kg) 3 times/week, groups III and IV: groups received PTZ and were treated with i.p. gabapentin (200 mg/kg) 60 min before each PTZ injection (group III) or a single intravenous injection of 10(6) MSCs/rat at day 22 (group IV). Results: Treatment with either gabapentin or MSCs demonstrated a significant improvement in the PTZ-induced epileptogenesis and its severe consequences, i.e. oxidative stress damage, motor and cognitive impairments. Moreover, they enhanced the GABA neurotransmitter levels. Meanwhile, MSC administration to chronic epileptic rats afforded more ameliorative effects on PTZ-induced epileptogenesis and its severe consequences in comparison to gabapentin. Conclusion: These data indicate that MSCs were superior to gabapentin in ameliorating PTZ-induced epileptogenesis and verified the potential use of MSCs in seizure control, motor and cognitive impairments, oxidative stress, and the impairing GABA level in experimentally induced epilepsy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):41-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: To show whether intrathecal (i.t.) treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) produces a hypoglycemic effect in ICR, db/db and streptozotocin-treated mice. Methods: The blood glucose level (BGL) was measured after i.t. treatment with PTX, AB5 toxins and PTX subunits. Insulin or leptin levels were measured after PTX injection. The effect of PTX on the BGL was examined in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. Glucose transporter (GLUT) levels were determined by Western blotting. Results: PTX attenuated the elevated BGL in the D-glucose-fed model in a long-term manner. Heat-labile toxin (HLT), HLT subunit B or Shiga toxin, which belong to the AB5 toxins, administered i.t. did not affect the BGL. PTX A protomer (PTX-A) or PTX B oligomers (PTX-B) injected i.t. did not have an effect on the BGL as well. However, combined treatment with PTX-A and PTX-B subunits caused a hypoglycemic effect. The leptin level was gradually reduced by PTX for up to 6 days, without affecting the insulin level. PTX administered i.t. significantly decreased the BGL further in ADX mice. Moreover, GLUT-2 (hypothalamus and pituitary gland), GLUT-4 (muscle) and GLUT-3 (adrenal gland) expression levels were increased, whereas GLUT-1 (brain cortex, liver, muscle and spinal cord), GLUT-2 (liver) and GLUT-3 (brain cortex and pituitary gland) expression levels were decreased. Discussion: Our data suggest that PTX administered spinally produces a hypoglycemic effect in a long-term manner, and PTX-induced hypoglycemia appears to be mediated by the reduction in activity of the glucocorticoid system. Furthermore, PTX may modulate the insulin level during hypoglycemia. Among GLUTs, GLUT-4 in muscle, GLUT-2 in the liver, hypothalamus and pituitary gland as well as GLUT-1 in the adrenal gland may be responsible for PTX-induced hypoglycemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):29-40.
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    ABSTRACT: The compound 4-tert-butyl-2,6-bis(thiomorpholin-4-ylmethyl)phenol (TBTIF) has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess its value as a new therapeutic agent, we performed a comparative analysis of the effect of TBTIF versus captopril on the circulating levels of angiotensin (Ang) peptides and bradykinin as well as ACE and ACE2 expression after myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (1) sham-operated rats; (2) rats subjected to 48 h of coronary artery ligation; (3) rats administered captopril (1 mg/kg, i.m.), and (4) a similar group of rats given TBTIF (1 mg/kg, i.m.). Both drugs were administered 30 min before coronary artery ligation and again 24 h later. Acute myocardial infarction lowered both systolic and left ventricular systolic blood pressures compared to the sham group and increased plasma levels of Ang I, Ang II, Ang(1-7) and Ang(1-12). Administration of either captopril or TBTIF reversed the increases in plasma angiotensins. Interestingly, the levels of plasma Ang(1-7) achieved by administration of TBTIF reached values higher than those recorded with captopril. Both agents reversed the decreases in plasma concentrations of bradykinin; in addition, TBTIF upregulated ACE expression, while both agents suppressed the ACE2 upregulation induced by myocardial infarction. These results demonstrate a beneficial effect of the novel compound TBTIF in suppressing the acute surge in the circulating renin-angiotensin system activity induced by myocardial infarction. The greater effects of this compound in augmenting plasma Ang(1-7) concentrations may be highly significant as drugs which augment the concentration of this heptapeptide will exert cardioprotective actions in part by suppressing the hypertrophic and profibrotic actions of Ang II. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):21-28.
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchial asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodelling. Astragaloside IV (3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, AST), the primary pure saponin isolated from the root of Astragalus membranaceus, is an effective compound with distinct pharmacological effects including anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and antifibrosis. However, the effect of AST on asthma remains unclear. In the present study, in the murine model of asthma, the airway hyperresponsiveness was relieved after treatment with AST, accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory cells. In addition, the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 decreased, while the IFN-γ level increased, in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The compound also significantly inhibited the synthesis of GATA-3-encoding mRNA and protein in addition to increasing the synthesis of T-bet-encoding mRNA and protein in both lung tissues and CD4+ T cells. Our findings indicate that AST treatment inhibits ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation by modulating the key master switches GATA-3 and T-bet, which results in committing T helper cells to a Th1 phenotype. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):51-59.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The activation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) has the beneficial effect of reducing neuroinflammatory response in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is suggested to trigger the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) pathway; agonists of both receptors improve AD. Recently, the plant metabolite β-caryophyllene was shown to selectively bind to CB2 receptor and act as a full agonist. Methods: In this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect of β-caryophyllene in a transgenic APP/PS1 AD model and analyzed whether this effect was mediated by CB2 and PPARγ. Results: β-Caryophyllene, given orally, prevented cognitive impairment in APP/PS1 mice, and this positive cognitive effect was associated with reduced β-amyloid burden in both the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. Moreover, β-caryophyllene reduced astrogliosis and microglial activation as well as the levels of COX-2 protein and the mRNA levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the cerebral cortex. The use of the CB2 antagonist AM630 or the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 significantly reversed the protective effects of β-caryophyllene on APP/PS1 mice. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory effect of the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene involves CB2 receptor activation and the PPARγ pathway and suggest β-caryophyllene as an attractive molecule for the development of new drugs with therapeutic potential for the treatment of AD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):1-12.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aim: It has been demonstrated that dexamethasone-induced hypertension can be prevented by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. The effect of dexamethasone on NADPH oxidase, however, is unknown. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of dexamethasone on the gene expression of Nox1, the major NADPH oxidase isoform in vascular smooth muscle cells. Results: Oral treatment of Wistar-Kyoto rats with dexamethasone (0.03 mg/kg/day) for 12 days led to an upregulation of Nox1 mRNA expression in the aorta. In cultured A7r5 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, dexamethasone increased Nox1 mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The upregulation of Nox1 mRNA expression was completely prevented by the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone. The effect of dexamethasone on Nox1 expression was likely to be indirect as it could be largely blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis. Dexamethasone increased Nox1 mRNA stability as well as Nox1 transcription. The dexamethasone-induced Nox1 expression was completely prevented by scriptaid, a pan-inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC), indicating a crucial role for HDAC enzymes. In total, A7r5 cells expressed 8 HDAC isoforms, with HDAC1, 5, 6 and 7 being the most abundant ones. Knockdown of these 4 individual HDAC enzymes did not prevent the effect of dexamethasone on Nox1 expression, although HDAC5 knockdown markedly reduced basal Nox1 expression. Conclusion: Dexamethasone upregulates Nox1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. This effect involves the glucocorticoid receptor and HDAC enzymes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 94(1-2):13-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Myocardial infarction is accompanied by inflammatory responses that lead to the recruitment of leukocytes and subsequent myocardial damage and healing. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CC chemokine ligand 2) and its receptor CC chemokine receptor 2 play a central role in the inflammatory response and myocardial injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Methods: Male adult C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized, and the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 30 min. After reperfusion for 3 days, the ischemia and infarct sizes were determined. Results: The treatment of C57BL/6 mice with anti-MCP-1 reduced the infarct size and lessened myocardial inflammation. Furthermore, anti-MCP-1 prevented I/R-induced caspase-3/7 and -8 activities and reduced apoptosis. The treatment of operated mice with anti-MCP-1 shortly before the induction of myocardial ischemia resulted in a reversal of the infarction and improvements in histologic parameters. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate a pathogenic role for MCP-1 in animal models of I/R and support the consideration of MCP-1 as a therapeutic target in myocardial ischemia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 93(5-6):296-302.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Paeonol (2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone) is thought to possess a broad range of clinically curative effects that are likely mediated by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Aims: To elucidate the efficacy of paeonol's anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and the underlying mechanism of paeonol in advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) stimulation of THP-1 macrophages. Materials and Methods: After incubating cells with AOPP plus paeonol, nitric oxide (NO) production and the levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), CD36, scavenger receptor (SR)-A, and SR-B1 were calculated. Moreover, THP-1 macrophages were preincubated with paeonol, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitors [apocynin, diphenylene iodonium (DPI)], and the specific inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) prior to incubation with AOPP, and the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were determined. Results: Paeonol increased NO production and the mRNA level of iNOS, whereas it decreased ROS production. ROS production was also effectively attenuated by apocynin, DPI, NAC, and PDTC. Furthermore, these inhibitors and paeonol could downregulate the mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1). Paeonol significantly reduced the expression levels of RAGE and CD36 but increased the expression levels of SR-A and SR-B1. Conclusions: These results indicate that paeonol can decrease proinflammatory cytokines in THP-1 macrophages, likely through RAGE-, CD36-, SR-A-, and SR-B1-mediated signals involving NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation. This suggests that paeonol can be used as a therapeutic agent for diseases contributing to oxidative stress injury. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 93(5-6):286-295.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Methamphetamine abuse may produce cognitive impairment. Baicalein, a bioactive flavonoid, has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. This study examined the effects of baicalein pretreatment on memory performance in the passive avoidance test after either one dose or an acute binge of methamphetamine in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. Methods: Methamphetamine was administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either one dose (3 mg/kg) or an acute binge (3 mg/kg, 4 i.p. injections at 2-hour intervals). The effects of baicalein pretreatment (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on methamphetamine-induced changes of locomotor activity and memory performance were compared with those of eticlopride, a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. The effects of baicalein on acute binge methamphetamine-induced oxidative stress (malondialdehyde- and nitrotyrosine-modified protein production) in the mouse hippocampus were also examined. Results: One-dose methamphetamine treatment (i.p., 30 min before or immediately after the training trial) induced hyperlocomotion and amnesia in mice, which were blocked by eticlopride but not by baicalein pretreatment. The memory performance in mice was impaired 5 days after acute binge methamphetamine, which was significantly attenuated by baicalein but not by eticlopride pretreatment. Baicalein pretreatment also attenuated acute binge methamphetamine-induced oxidative stress in the mouse hippocampus. Conclusions: Baicalein exhibits antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in attenuating acute binge methamphetamine-induced memory deficits and oxidative hippocampal damage. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 93(5-6):278-285.
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    ABSTRACT: The prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the brain is crucial for memory. Norepinephrine elicits an important influence on mPFC functions. The stimulation of β-adrenoceptors (β-ARs) may play a critical role in the consolidation of long-term memory. The present study examines the possible role of β1-ARs located in the mPFC on morphine-induced amnesia in rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulas in the mPFC, trained in a step-through-type passive avoidance task and tested 24 h after training to measure step-through latency. Our present results indicated that posttraining intraperitoneal administration of morphine (2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced the step-through latency. Different doses of xamoterol (0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/rat) have shown no significant change in the step-through latency, but posttraining intra-mPFC microinjection of atenolol (0.2 and 0.4 µg/rat) had an amnesic effect. Moreover, atenolol-caused amnesia was reversed by an ineffective dose of xamoterol (0.1 µg/rat). On the other hand, coadministration of an ineffective dose of atenolol (0.1 µg/rat) with an ineffective dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) induced an amnesic effect. Meanwhile, xamoterol had no effect on morphine-induced amnesia. These results suggest that β1-ARs of the prelimbic region in the mPFC may play an important role in morphine-induced amnesia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 08/2014; 93(5-6):272-277.
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: The present study investigates the effects of pregabalin (PGB), acetaminophen (ACET) and tenoxicam (TNX) administration in somatic and visceral nociception, using the tail flick test and the writhing test in mice. Methods: In the tail flick test, the substances were administered orally and the latency time response was recorded 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after administration. In the writhing test, pain responses were scored every 5 min during a 30-min period after intraperitoneal injection of diluted acetic acid. Results: Our study demonstrated that oral administration of the combination PGB-ACET resulted in a stronger increase of latency reaction - statistically significant after 15 min compared to TNX and after 30 min compared to PGB in tail flick test. In the writhing test, the combination PGB-ACET, but also PGB-TNX, resulted in a stronger decrease of writhe numbers - statistically significant compared to the effects of the separate administration of each substance. This decrease was more intense in animals treated with the combination PGB-ACET than with PGB-TNX. Conclusion: These results suggest an antinociceptive activity which may be a consequence of the synergic action of the substances. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 07/2014; 93(5-6):253-259.
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    ABSTRACT: The duration of action of melatonin may be important for improvements in sleep efficiency in insomniacs. Ramelteon, a selective melatonin agonist, is primarily metabolized to the active metabolite M-II, which has a longer half-life and greater systemic exposure than ramelteon. Hence, M-II may contribute significantly to the hypnotic benefits of ramelteon. We assessed the ramelteon-like activity of M-II in vitro and in vivo using cats. Binding and functional studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human melatonin receptors (MT1 or MT2) revealed that M-II binds melatonin receptors with lower affinity (Ki: 114 and 566 pmol/l for MT1 and MT2, respectively) and has lower potency (IC50: 208 and 1,470 pmol/l for MT1 and MT2, respectively) compared with ramelteon. However, higher M-II doses significantly improved sleep in cats. Thus, M-II may contribute to the clinical efficacy of ramelteon. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 06/2014; 93(3-4):197-201.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the hemodynamics after combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) between decubitus and sitting positions in aged patients undergoing total hip replacement. Methods: A total of 80 aged patients who underwent CSEA for elective total hip replacement were randomly divided into a decubitus position group (group D) and a sitting position group (group S; each group with 40 patients). In group D, 10 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine were given into the subarachnoid space in decubitus position. In group S, 10 mg of 0.5% bupivacaine were given into the subarachnoid space in the sitting position, which was maintained for 1 min, after which the patients were in decubitus position. In both groups, the sensory block levels and changes in hemodynamics were assessed. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in group S than in group D at each time point within 30 min after anesthesia. There were no significant differences in heart rate between the two groups at each time point. There was also no significant difference in the level of sensory block between the two groups 20 min after the administration of CSEA. Conclusion: For aged patients undergoing total hip replacement, CSEA is safer and more effective in the sitting position than in decubitus position. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 05/2014; 93(3-4):193-196.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Angiogenesis is usually driven by inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinases MMP-3 and MMP-9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 are implicated in vascular remodeling. TIMP-2 exhibits antiangiogenic properties. Statins show benefits that are additional to lipid lowering including pro- and antiangiogenic properties. Atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries have been well studied, but less is known about the fine terminal branches of the myocardial vasculature. Methods: To examine this, we studied rosuvastatin (RSV) treatment in ApoE knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high cholesterol (HC) diet. Hearts from ApoE(-/-) mice on a normal diet, HC diet and HC diet with RSV were harvested to determine MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) mRNA. Results: RSV inhibited TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression and enhanced myocardial VEGF-A and ER-α expression, independently of plasma lipid level changes, but had no effect on MMP-3 and MMP-9 expression. Conclusions: These modulations of TIMPs, VEGF and ER-α expression induced by RSV may act as local stimulating factors for arteriolar growth in the myocardium. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 05/2014; 93(3-4):178-184.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the anticonvulsant effect of 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-MeTHIQ) in combination with clobazam (CLB) in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure (MES) model. Methods: The anticonvulsant interaction profile between 1-MeTHIQ and CLB in the mouse MES model was determined using an isobolographic analysis for parallel dose-response relationship curves. Results: Electroconvulsions were produced in albino Swiss mice by a current (sine wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2-second stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes by a Hugo Sachs generator. There was an additive effect of the combination of 1-MeTHIQ with CLB (at the fixed ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) in the mouse MES-induced tonic seizure model. Conclusions: The additive interaction of the combination of 1-MeTHIQ with CLB (at fixed-ratios of 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1) in the mouse MES model seems to be pharmacodynamic in nature and worth of considering in further clinical practice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 05/2014; 93(3-4):172-177.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) contributes to the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. However, the expression of HO-1 in fibroblasts under fibrotic conditions has not been studied. Methods: This study was conducted to investigate the expression of HO-1 in lung fibroblasts from mice and humans under fibrotic conditions by Western blot. Results: We found that the expression of HO-1 was significantly decreased in lung fibroblasts isolated from bleomycin-challenged mice in comparison with control mice. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) inhibited HO-1 expression and induced differentiation in human lung fibroblasts. Pretreatment with nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation inhibitor or knockdown of the NF-κB p65 subunit attenuated TGF-β-induced inhibition of HO-1 expression and differentiation in human lung fibroblasts. Similarly, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) induced TGF-β expression and decreased HO-1 expression in human lung fibroblasts. Interestingly, pretreatment with neutralized anti-TGF-β antibody attenuated LPA effects in human lung fibroblasts. Conclusion: These data suggested that TGF-β inhibited HO-1 expression in human lung fibroblasts through activation of NF-κB. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 01/2014; 93(3-4):185-92.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose: The normal liver sinusoidal endothelium is thin and punctuated with fenestrations 50-200 nm in diameter that filter endobiotics and xenobiotics. Defenestration of the liver sinusoidal endothelium in old age and after pre-treatment with poloxamer-407 (P407) has been shown to prevent the transfer of small chylomicrons across the liver sinusoidal endothelium. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of liver sinusoidal endothelium fenestrations on the hepatic uptake of the highly protein-bound drug diazepam. We hypothesized that defenestration will reduce the hepatic extraction of drugs which are highly bound to albumin. Methodology: The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) model and multiple indicator dilution technique were used to investigate the effect of fenestrations in the liver sinusoidal endothelium on the hepatic disposition of diazepam in old and young rats, and in young rats treated with P407 or vehicle. A bolus dose of (14)C-diazpeam and non-extracted tracers ((3)H-sucrose and Evans blue) was injected into the portal vein. The single-pass recovery of diazepam and markers and the apparent volume of distribution were determined. Results: Scanning electron microscopy confirmed reduced porosity of the liver sinusoidal endothelial cells in P407-treated rats and old rats compared to young and control rats. The fractional recovery of diazepam was significantly increased in P407-treated rats compared to controls (0.20 ± 0.16, n = 12, P407; 0.08 ± 0.05, n = 8, controls; p = 0.0029), and in old rats compared to young rats (0.15 ± 0.03, n = 11, old; 0.10 ± 0.02, n = 11, young; p = 0.0004) following a single pass. Conclusion: Defenestration due to age-related pseudocapillarization and treatment with P407 resulted in reduced hepatic extraction of diazepam after a single pass through the IPRL. These results highlight the importance of the liver sinusoidal endothelium in the ultrafiltration of highly protein-bound drugs, and may also provide an additional mechanism for reduced hepatic clearance of diazepam in conditions associated with defenestration.
    Pharmacology 01/2012; 90(5-6):233-41.
  • Pharmacology 01/2010; 86:168.

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