Pharmacology (PHARMACOLOGY )

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing


This journal communicates research in basic and clinical pharmacology and related fields. It covers biochemical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, immunopharmacology, drug metabolism, pharmacogenetics, analytical toxicology, neuropsychopharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology. In addition to original papers and short communications of investigative findings and pharmacological profiles the journal contains reviews, comments and perspective notes. ëPharmacologyí is an international forum to present and discuss current perspectives in drug research.

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    Pharmacology (Online)
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Blackwell Publishing

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Publications in this journal

  • Pharmacology 01/2012; 90(5-6):233-41.
  • Pharmacology 01/2010; 86:168.
  • Pharmacology 01/2008; 81:259-265.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of AIT-082, a hypoxanthine derivative, on tremor in mice were investigated. The mice received intragastric administration of AIT-082 for consecutive 60 days at doses of 150, 300 and 600 The results showed that AIT-082 not only effectively inhibited the tremor induced by arecoline or oxotremorine, but also alleviated the tremor intensity and significantly shortened the tremor durations. The inhibition of tremor was perhaps associated with the central cholinergic nerve depressant effects as well as the stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of nerve cells.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 80(1):21-6.
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    ABSTRACT: This study set out to investigate the antitumor effects of a treatment strategy combining the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 with cisplatin in vitro and in a human melanoma SCID mouse model. In vitro 518A2, Mel-JUSO or 607B cell lines were incubated with CCI-779, cisplatin and CCI-779 plus cisplatin. Based on these results, a 4-group, parallel, controlled experimental study design was initiated in vivo. SCID mice were injected with melanoma cells, and after the development of tumors the mice received daily injections of CCI-779 or solvent. On treatment days 2 and 6 cisplatin or mock solution were administered. In vitro a synergistic antitumor effect was observed for the treatment regimen of CCI-779 plus cisplatin. In SCID mice after 2 weeks of therapy with CCI-779 plus cisplatin 4 of 6 tumors of the 518A2 cell line were completely eradicated. In the two remaining 518A2 xenografts this treatment strategy reduced the tumor weight by 94 +/- 9% compared to solvent. CCI-779 plus cisplatin also exerted a significant antitumor effect in Mel-JUSO and 607B xenografts compared to mock-treated animals. We provide circumstantial evidence that the use of CCI-779 plus cisplatin might qualify as a promising strategy in the treatment of human melanoma.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(4):207-13.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of thiopental on Ca2+ currents and intracellular Ca2+ transient in single atrial cells from guinea pigs were studied by means of a whole-cell voltage-clamp method and Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye. Thiopental inhibited L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=2.8.10(-5) mol/l). Moreover, the mode of Ca2+ current inhibition by thiopental showed no use dependency. Electrical stimulation-induced intracellular Ca2+ transient was significantly suppressed by 10(-5) mol/l thiopental. However, the caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ releasing pathway from sarcoplasmic reticulum was not affected by thiopental. Our results indicate that thiopental inhibits L-type Ca2+ currents, but not release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that the negative inotropic action of thiopental is mainly due to inhibition of L-type Ca2+ channels in guinea pig atrial myocytes.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 80(1):33-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The ovariectomized (OVX) rat, as an established animal model of human osteoporosis, was adopted in the present experiment to study the protective effects of sodium daidzein sulfonate (SDS) on trabecular bone. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were sham-operated or ovariectomized. Five days later, the OVX rats were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups and treated for 90 days with vehicle, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or SDS. Compared with OVX rats, SDS administration (15 mg/kg) prevented OVX-induced decrease in lumbar vertebral and femoral bone mineral density (BMD), and significantly increased bone mechanical strength parameters, including ultimate stress and elastic modulus. In the OVX group, the structure of trabecular plate in the femoral head was absorbed and became progressively thinner or was removed completely, accompanied by enlargement of marrow cavities and amalgamation of two or more marrow cavities. Administration of SDS and E(2 )prevented the change of trabecular bone microarchitecture induced by OVX, increasing the trabecular bone area and trabecular thickness, while decreasing the trabecular separation. These results indicate that SDS administration prevents OVX-induced decrease in BMD and bone mechanical strength, and has a moderate protective effect on the microarchitecture of trabecular bone in aged Sprague-Dawley rats.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(3):129-36.
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    ABSTRACT: We have recently demonstrated that the combination of methadone and morphine enhances the ability of morphine to induce mu-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor endocytosis. As a result, rats receiving both drugs show reduced morphine tolerance and dependence. In the present study, we identify the biochemical basis for the protective effect of the drug combination. In rats treated with morphine alone, the inhibitory effect of DAMGO on forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly reduced in a brain-region-selective manner. Importantly, these reductions were prevented in animals receiving the drug combination. We found that these changes were not due to alterations in MOP receptor density, or MOP receptor-G protein coupling, as no significant change in these parameters was observed. Together these data demonstrate that neither changes in receptor number nor function are required for morphine tolerance and dependence. Rather, brain-region-selective changes in adenylyl cyclase signal transduction are critical, and both these biochemical changes and the behavioral effects are prevented by facilitating endocytosis of the MOP receptor.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(4):193-202.
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    ABSTRACT: Drug development, and especially that intended for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, still poses a challenge. We investigated both the use of bifunctional compounds designed for multiple targeting and enhanced CNS permeability, and of recombinant alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a natural pregnancy-associated immunomodulating protein for the treatment of CNS inflammation. Bifunctional compounds showed a novel pharmacokinetic profile due to the conjugation, yet retained, and even improved pharmacodynamics. AFP was well tolerated and decreased various aspects of neuroinflammation, including disease severity, axonal loss and damage, T-cell reactivity, and antigen presentation. Our results show that both strategies may serve as future drug modalities.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(1):42-9.
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    ABSTRACT: There are data that document the anti-inflammatory effect of enoxaparin (EP) and its possible antioxidant potential. This study was designed to search for the antioxidant mechanism(s) of EP directly on endothelial cells exposed to an oxidant stimulus. For this purpose cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to nontoxic concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of EP, and the adhesion of monocytes, the expression of cell adhesion molecules and transcription factors possibly involved in the process were tested. Adhesion assays, ELISA and Western blot analysis revealed that EP reduced monocyte adhesion, ICAM-1 and P-selectin expression, decreased the nuclear levels of c-Jun and p65 proteins, and diminished the phosphorylation of c-Jun protein, MAPK p38 and JNK. Together, the data demonstrate the antioxidant effect of EP and the involvement of ICAM-1, P-selectin, MAPK p38, JNK and the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the mechanism of action of this drug.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(3):154-62.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of hydroxyl radical in augmented angiotensin II (Ang II) responses in the thoracic aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To elucidate the role of hydroxyl radical, we used edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) as a tool for our study. The vascular responses to Ang II (10(-10) to 10(-6) mol/l), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP; 10(-6) to 10(-2) mol/l) and H(2)O(2) (10(-6) to 10(-2) mol/l) were constructed in aortic preparations obtained from control (WKY) and SHR in the absence and presence of edaravone. The vascular responses to Ang II, tBHP and H(2)O(2) were found to be enhanced in aortic preparations from SHR as compared to control WKY rats. Edaravone selectively attenuated the augmented responses to Ang II but not to tBHP and H(2)O(2) suggesting that the .OH radical is involved in the augmented responses to Ang II. The elevated blood pressure in SHR was restored to a near normal value after 2 weeks of edaravone (10 mg kg(-1) i.p., b.i.d.) treatment. From the results we infer that hydroxyl radical stress augments Ang II responses in the thoracic aorta of SHR and, by attenuating these enhanced vascular responses, edaravone could serve as an adjuvant antioxidant therapy for the vascular complications of hypertension.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(2):122-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Trans-resveratrol (RSVL; 3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural compound found in grapes, berries, peanuts and red wine exerts certain anticancer roles in different human cancer types. However, the exact molecular mechanism(s) behind such a role remains to be elucidated, thus the aim of this study. T47D human breast cancer cells were treated with RSVL and cell proliferation was measured by cell counting. Apoptosis was analyzed by Giemsa staining, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) fragmentation analysis and annexin V assay. Regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein, p70S6K, and pS6 ribosomal protein was measured by detecting their phosphorylated active forms using ECL-immunoblot analysis. The present results show that RSVL-induced growth inhibition in T47D cells is caused by apoptosis as demonstrated by morphological changes and PARP fragmentation. RSVL-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of the p53 in a dose- and a time-dependent manner. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002 abolished the effect of RSVL on p53 activation. Interestingly, RSVL inhibits the expression of p70S6K and the phosphorylation of pS6RP. These findings demonstrate that RSVL affects multiple intracellular signaling transduction pathways such as p53 activation/protein translation inhibition/apoptosis, and strongly support a contemplated use of this natural compound as a preventive and/or an adjuvant therapeutic drug for breast cancer. The data indicate that these proteins may be used as predictive biomarkers to evaluate the treatment efficacy of RSVL in clinical trials.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 80(2-3):134-43.
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    ABSTRACT: Superfluous reactive nitrogen and oxygen species generation is implicated in the damage of tissues at sites of inflammation where activated neutrophils and macrophages are involved. This study was conducted to investigate whether the beneficial effects of carvedilol involve modulation of respiratory burst, degranulation-myeloperoxidase release and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Spectrophotometry and chemiluminescence were used to evaluate the effect of carvedilol on opsonized zymosan (0.5 mg/ml)- or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine (fMLP, 0.1 micromol/l)-stimulated superoxide generation and myeloperoxidase release in human neutrophils. Western blot analysis was used for iNOS expression and Griess reagent for nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages (lipopolysaccharide (0.1 microg/ml) stimulated). Carvedilol (10 and 100 micromol/l) significantly decreased opsonized zymosan- and fMPL-stimulated superoxide generation and myeloperoxidase release. Carvedilol (100 micromol/l) enhanced the effect of wortmannin (50 nmol/l), a specific inhibitor of 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and decreased iNOS expression and nitric oxide production. Carvedilol appears to have a non-specific effect on membranes and to interfere with the phospholipase D signaling pathway, with subsequent inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation and myeloperoxidase release, without affecting iNOS expression.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(2):86-92.
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    ABSTRACT: The pharmacological properties of mitemcinal (GM-611), the first acid-resistant non-peptide motilin agonist, were investigated in the smooth muscle of the rabbit small intestine and compared with porcine motilin (pMTL), erythromycin A (EMA) and its derivatives (EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229). Mitemcinal, pMTL, EMA, EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229 produced concentration-dependent contractions with approximately the same maximum contractions in the isolated rabbit duodenum longitudinal strips. The contractile response to mitemcinal or pMTL was competitively inhibited by a selective motilin antagonist, GM-109. The pA(2) values for GM-109 as an antagonist of mitemcinal and pMTL showed approximately the same values. However, the concentration-dependent contractile responses to mitemcinal or pMTL were not affected by pretreatment with atropine, tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, naloxone or tropisetron. The removal of calcium ions from the medium and pretreatment with verapamil greatly suppressed the contractions induced by mitemcinal and pMTL. The contractile response to mitemcinal was not affected by preincubation in acidic solutions, while those of EM-523, EM-574 and ABT-229 were strongly diminished in the same condition. Mitemcinal as well as other motilin agonists displaced (125)I-pMTL bound to a homogenate of the rabbit duodenum muscle tissue. The displacement curves of all these compounds were parallel. These results indicate that mitemcinal is a selective and full motilin receptor agonist in the smooth muscle of the rabbit small intestine and that this agent has an excellent acid-resistant property.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(3):137-48.
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of antipsychotic drugs sulpiride and clozapine on morphine state-dependent memory of passive avoidance task were examined in mice. Post-training administration of morphine (5 mg/kg) led to state-dependent learning with impaired memory retrieval on the test day which was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of the opioid (5 mg/kg). In animals where memory was impaired by post-training morphine, the administration of either sulpiride or clozapine before pre-test morphine reduced the improvement of memory produced by the opioid. Co-administration of sulpiride with clozapine did not potentiate their antagonistic response. In conclusion, the inhibition of improvement of memory retrieval by morphine treatment on the test day by the two dopamine receptor antagonists seems to be induced through two different receptor mechanisms.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(3):149-53.
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. The PPAR subfamily consists of three members: PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARbeta/delta. Fibrates are acting via PPARalpha, and they are used as lipid-lowering agents. PPARgamma agonists reduce insulin resistance and have been used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As the knowledge of the pleiotropic effects of these agents advances, further potential indications are being revealed, including a novel role in the management of cardiovascular disorders (CVD). PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists are currently under development and hold considerable promise in the management of type 2 diabetes and provide an effective therapeutic option for treating the multifactorial components of CVD. Several experimental and clinical evidences elucidated the beneficial effects of PPAR ligands in prevention and treatment of various CVD. However, PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists have been shown to be proinflammatory and proatherogenic in a few studies. Further, PPARgamma ligands have been noted to be involved in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. These controversial results obtained from a few studies created further complication in understanding the role of PPARs. The function of PPARdelta and its potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target are currently under investigation. The present review focuses on the merits and limitations of PPAR agonists with regard to their use in CVD.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 80(1):1-10.
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    ABSTRACT: Fluoxetine (FLX) has been widely prescribed for depression during pregnancy and/or lactation. Since serotonin is a neurotrophic factor, the use of FLX by mothers could disrupt brain development resulting in behavioral alterations in their progeny. This study evaluated the effects of developmental FLX exposure on anxiety, depression, aggressivity and pain sensitivity of male and female mice pups. Swiss dams were treated daily, by gavage, with 7.5 mg/kg of FLX during pregnancy and lactation. Pups were submitted to open-field, forced swimming, elevated plus-maze, intruder-resident and hot plate tests at adolescence and adulthood. In male pups, exposure to FLX decreased ambulation at postnatal day (PND) 40 and tended (p=0.07) to increase the latency to the first attack in the intruder-resident test at PND 70, suggesting decreased impulsivity. In female pups, FLX exposure increased immobility time in the forced swimming test at both PND 30 and 70, which is interpreted as depressive-like behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that maternal exposure to FLX during pregnancy and lactation results in enduring behavioral alterations in male and female pups throughout life.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 80(1):49-56.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease. Central administration of colchicine, a microtubule-disrupting agent, causes loss of cholinergic neurons and cognitive dysfunction that is associated with excessive free radical generation. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of trans-resveratrol in the prevention of colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of colchicine (15 microg/5 microl) induced impaired cognitive functions in both the Morris water maze task and the elevated plus-maze task. Chronic treatment with resveratrol (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine injection, significantly improved the colchicine-induced cognitive impairment. Intracerebroventricular colchicine injection resulted in free radical generation characterized by alterations in oxidative stress markers with a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) activity in the rat brains. It also showed a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity. Besides improving cognitive dysfunction, chronic administration of resveratrol significantly reduced the elevated MDA and nitrite levels and restored the depleted GSH and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study indicated that trans-resveratrol has a neuroprotective role against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative stress.
    Pharmacology 02/2007; 79(1):17-26.

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