Pharmacology (PHARMACOLOGY)

Publisher: Karger

Journal description

This journal communicates research in basic and clinical pharmacology and related fields. It covers biochemical pharmacology, molecular pharmacology, immunopharmacology, drug metabolism, pharmacogenetics, analytical toxicology, neuropsychopharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical pharmacology. In addition to original papers and short communications of investigative findings and pharmacological profiles the journal contains reviews, comments and perspective notes. ëPharmacologyí is an international forum to present and discuss current perspectives in drug research.

Current impact factor: 1.67

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 1.672
2013 Impact Factor 1.581
2012 Impact Factor 1.603
2011 Impact Factor 1.788
2010 Impact Factor 1.802
2009 Impact Factor 1.833
2008 Impact Factor 1.894
2007 Impact Factor 1.195
2006 Impact Factor 1.24
2005 Impact Factor 1.375
2004 Impact Factor 1.132
2003 Impact Factor 0.976
2002 Impact Factor 1.599
2001 Impact Factor 1.563
2000 Impact Factor 0.893
1999 Impact Factor 1.019
1998 Impact Factor 0.768
1997 Impact Factor 1.148
1996 Impact Factor 0.968
1995 Impact Factor 0.969
1994 Impact Factor 1.019
1993 Impact Factor 1.119
1992 Impact Factor 0.994

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 1.63
Cited half-life 8.60
Immediacy index 0.27
Eigenfactor 0.00
Article influence 0.43
Website Pharmacology website
Other titles Pharmacology (Online)
ISSN 0031-7012
OCLC 44918835
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details


  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • On author's server or institutional server
    • Server must be non-commercial
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Publisher copyright and source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
  • Classification
    ​ green

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate whether the renoprotective effects of fenofibrate are mediated via attenuation of endothelial dysfunction and modulating the mRNA expression of adenosine monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream kinase; LKB1 in rats with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg kg-1). Fenofibrate (100 mg kg-1, p.o) was given to diabetic rats daily for twelve weeks. Treatment with fenofibrate significantly improved the renal function as revealed by the significant reductions in the urinary albumin excretion, serum levels of creatinine and urea, in addition to the significant increase in creatinine clearance compared with diabetic control group. Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage was ameliorated by treatment with fenofibrate as indicated by the significantly increased levels of glutathione and catalase together with the significant decrease of lipid peroxidation. Administration of fenofibrate caused significant increases in renal NO production and mRNA expression of eNOS, AMPK and LKB1 reflecting improvement of endothelial function. Our results give further insights into the mechanisms underlying the protective role of fenofibrate in DN via modulation of AMPK, LKB1 and eNOS mRNA expression.
    Pharmacology 02/2015;
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    ABSTRACT: Prostaglandin (PG) E2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). E-type prostanoid (EP) receptor 4 is known to confer inhibitory signals to eosinophils and monocytes, amongst others. In this study, we investigated whether the responsiveness of eosinophils and monocytes to PGE2 and EP4 receptor activation is altered in AERD patients. While the expression of the EP4 receptor in eosinophils was unaltered in AERD patients, inhibition of eosinophil chemotaxis by PGE2 or the EP4 agonist CAY10598 was less pronounced in AERD patients as compared to healthy control subjects. In monocytes, we found no changes in basal or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated PGE2 synthesis, but the response to EP4 receptor activation with respect to inhibition of LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α release was reduced in AERD patients, especially in the presence of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid). Our data point towards a decreased sensitivity of inhibitory EP4 receptor that may play a role in AERD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 12/2014; 94(5-6):280-286. DOI:10.1159/000369827
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    ABSTRACT: The compound MH-78 ((+/-)-1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-3-{4-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-piperazin-1-yl}propan-2-ol dihydrochloride) contains structural elements that are typical for α1- and β-blockers. This study aimed to investigate the hypotensive activity as well as the in vitro and in vivo cardiovascular effects of a novel α1- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist (MH-78) and compare it with carvedilol and urapidil. The procedures were performed on aortic rings of normotensive anesthetized rats. MH-78 decreased the blood pressure and heart rate after intravenous and oral administration. MH-78 possesses both α1- and β-adrenoceptor blocking activity, which was confirmed in the in vivo study. In biofunctional assays, MH-78 displayed vasorelaxant activity due to α1-adrenoceptor antagonism and calcium channel blocking properties. Moreover, in endothelium-intact aortic rings, pretreatment with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the MH-78-induced vasorelaxation to a level that is characteristic for MH-78 affinity to α1-adrenoceptors. Our results demonstrated that MH-78 possesses α1- and β-adrenoceptor blocking properties and induces potent hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects. Moreover, it relaxes vascular smooth muscle not only due to α1-adrenoceptor blocking activity, but also via the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide/soluble guanylyl cyclase/cyclic guanosine monophosphate signalling pathway. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 12/2014; 94(5-6):287-295. DOI:10.1159/000369628
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent studies have suggested that some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) affect the postoperative analgesic efficacy of opioids and their side effects. In this study, we assessed the association between SNPs in the OPRM1 gene and intraoperative remifentanil consumption as well as perioperative side effects during gynecological hysteroscopic surgery in women from Northern China. Methods: We analyzed 178 women undergoing gynecological hysteroscopic surgery. SNP genotyping was performed using the SNaPshot method. The state anxiety index (SAI) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of all patients were assessed preoperatively. Monitored anesthesia care was maintained by the intravenous infusion of remifentanil. Intraoperative remifentanil usage and perioperative side effects were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. Results: Patients carrying one or two copies of the minor allele (G allele) of rs558025 required significantly more intraoperative remifentanil than patients without the minor allele (p = 0.001, corrected p = 0.006). There were no significant associations between the six SNPs and various clinical characteristics. No significant associations between the six SNPs and PPT or SAI were found in our study. Conclusions: SNP rs558025 in the OPRM1 gene was associated with intraoperative remifentanil consumption during gynecological hysteroscopic surgery in our subjects.
    Pharmacology 12/2014; 94(5-6):273-279. DOI:10.1159/000368082
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anticatabolic properties and to be protective in animal models of OA. This study was aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone on AGE-induced chondrocyte damage. Methods: Cultured chondrocytes were stimulated with AGEs in the presence or absence of an antibody against the receptor for AGEs (anti-RAGE), an inhibitor of NF-κB (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and pioglitazone. The RNA expression levels of TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 and PPARγ were detected by RT-PCR. The expression of nuclear p65 was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: Upregulation of TNF-α and MMP-13 as well as downregulation of PPARγ were induced by AGEs in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect was induced by 100 μg/ml AGEs. This effect can be inhibited by anti-RAGE. Pioglitazone dose-dependently inhibited the expression of TNF-α and MMP-13 induced by AGEs, which was combined with the inhibition of nuclear p65 expression. Conclusion: The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone modulates TNF-α and MMP-13 expression in cultured rabbit chondrocytes via NF-κB signaling. It indicates that pioglitazone may have therapeutic potential in OA.
    Pharmacology 12/2014; 94(5-6):265-272. DOI:10.1159/000369074
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: Chemerin is a novel adipokine that is closely associated with cardiovascular diseases and glucose homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the effects of chemerin on insulin resistance in rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes were treated with high concentrations of glucose and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and chemerin and chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) were measured by Western blot analysis. Then, the cardiomyocytes were treated with chemerin and insulin. Glucose uptake was evaluated using a fluorescence microplate reader. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate the phosphorylation of Akt, insulin receptor substrate-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Results: Chemerin and CMKLR1 were found to be expressed in rat cardiomyocytes. Pretreatment with chemerin caused decreases in glucose uptake and phosphorylation of Akt in insulin-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, chemerin activated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 in insulin-stimulated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of ERK partially rescued chemerin-induced insulin resistance. Conclusion: Chemerin is a novel adipokine that induces insulin resistance in rat cardiomyocytes in part through the ERK1/2 pathway.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):259-264. DOI:10.1159/000369171
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    ABSTRACT: Bronchodilators are the cornerstone of the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In particular, the most commonly used drugs are inhaled long-acting agents, including long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs) and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs). The combination of a LABA with a LAMA, i.e. of molecules characterized by different mechanisms of action, results in a synergistic enhancement of their clinical and functional effects. Therefore, this combined treatment can be implemented in a number of cases in which disease control is not adequately achieved by a single active agent such as a LABA or a LAMA. Several LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations, mainly made up of newly developed compounds, are currently in advanced phases of experimental evaluation. Within such a context, the aim of this review is to outline the pharmacological basis of dual bronchodilation as well as to discuss the results of the main trials carried out using the drug combination consisting of indacaterol and glycopyrronium, a LABA and a LAMA recently introduced in the treatment of COPD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):249-258. DOI:10.1159/000368986
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    ABSTRACT: Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) is a plasma membrane transporter involved in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. NCX1 is critical for Ca(2+) regulation in cardiac muscle, vascular smooth muscle and nerve fibers. However, little is known about the physiological role of NCX1 in gastrointestinal motility. To determine the role of NCX1 in gastrointestinal tissues, we examined electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced responses in the longitudinal smooth muscle of the distal colon in smooth muscle-specific NCX1 transgenic mice (Tg). Tg show that NCX1 protein was overexpressed in the distal colon at a level twofold greater than that of endogenous NCX1. We found that the amplitudes of EFS-induced relaxation that persisted during EFS were greater in Tg than in wild-type mice (WT). Under the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic condition, the EFS-induced relaxation in Tg was also greater than that in WT. Inhibition of NO synthase, CO synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), and protein kinase G (PKG) all attenuated the enhanced relaxation in Tg, demonstrating the importance of NCX1 in NO/sGC/PKG signaling. The action of NOR-1, an NO donor, induced enhanced relaxation in Tg compared with that in WT. Unlike NOR-1, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced a similar relaxation in Tg compared with that in WT. In this study, we demonstrate that NCX1 plays an important role in smooth muscle motility in the mouse distal colon. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):230-238. DOI:10.1159/000363246
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease and probiotics have been suggested as tools to manage elevated cholesterol levels. Methods: The present study investigated the ability of the biotherapeutic agent Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb-Biocodex) to reduce the hypercholesterolemia induced by a 0.1% cholesterol-enriched diet in the hamster. Results: In a first experiment, chronic oral treatment with S. boulardii at 12 × 10(10) CFU/kg (3 g/kg) twice a day was started from the beginning of the cholesterol diet and continued for 14 days ('preventive protocol'). In the second experiment, S. boulardii was given 14 days after the beginning of the cholesterol diet when hypercholesterolemia had developed and continued for an additional 14 days ('curative protocol'). In the preventive protocol, administration of the yeast significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia (14%) induced by the cholesterol-enriched diet compared to the group receiving only the cholesterol diet. In the curative protocol, S. boulardii significantly reduced hypercholesterolemia (12%) induced by the cholesterol-enriched diet, too. Moreover, the yeast significantly decreased the serum triglyceride increase by 39%. Conclusion: S. boulardii possesses anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in the hamster worthy of further evaluation in clinical studies.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):239-244. DOI:10.1159/000365009
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of a single dose of ponesimod, an oral and selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) modulator, in Japanese and Caucasian healthy subjects and explore the effects of sex on PK. Subjects received a single 40-mg dose of ponesimod in a single-centre, open-label, parallel-group study design. Ten Japanese and 10 Caucasian healthy subjects (age: 22-45 years, 1:1 sex ratio) participated in the study and were matched for body weight (±10%). Ponesimod concentration in plasma was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and PK parameters were obtained by non-compartmental analysis. Total lymphocyte count served as PD marker. Adverse events (AEs), laboratory values, electrocardiography (12-lead ECG), and vital signs were assessed for safety and tolerability. Administration of ponesimod resulted in similar PK parameters between the two ethnic groups, with a 16% higher exposure [AUC0-∞ of 7,368 ng ∙ h/ml (95% CI: 6,059-8,962) vs. 6,353 ng ∙ h/ml (4,950-8,154)] and a 17% longer terminal elimination half-life [32.9 h (30.1-36.0) vs. 28.1 h (23.4-33.6)] in Japanese compared to Caucasian subjects. Exposure was slightly higher in female subjects [7,488 ng ∙ h/ml (5,983-9,371)] than in male subjects [6,252 ng ∙ h/ml (5,031-7,771)]. The maximum mean lymphocyte count decrease from baseline, observed 6 h after receiving the dose in both groups, was similar in Japanese subjects (61.8%) and Caucasians (62.5%). The maximum mean heart rate (ECG) reduction from baseline was similar, with a difference of 4.2 bpm between Caucasian and Japanese subjects, observed 2.5 h after receiving the dose in both ethnic groups. There were no clinically relevant changes in other safety variables. No serious AEs were reported during the study. This study showed that the PK and PD profile of ponesimod was similar in Japanese and Caucasian subjects. No unexpected safety findings were reported. No dose adjustment is deemed necessary for Japanese subjects compared to Caucasians. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):223-229. DOI:10.1159/000368837
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ezetimibe is a potent inhibitor of Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 and has been approved for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Our preliminary study showed that ezetimibe promotes cholesterol efflux from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Our aim was to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the ezetimibe actions. Methods and results: Rat VSMCs were converted to foam cells by incubation with cholesterol:methyl-β-cyclodextrin. The intracellular free cholesterol, total cholesterol, and the ratio of cholesteryl ester to total cholesterol were decreased after the incubation of VSMCs with different concentrations of ezetimibe (3, 10, 30, and 30 μmol/l) or treated with 30 μmol/l of ezetimibe for different time periods (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Our results also showed that the expression of caveolin-1, liver X receptor α, and ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 was enhanced, but the expression of nSREBP-1c was decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. RNA interference was used to determine the roles of caveolin-1 and SREBP-1 in the lipid-lowering effect of ezetimibe. The results showed that caveolin-1 was involved in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol content, and the expression of caveolin-1 was repressed by SREBP-1. Conclusion: The present study indicates that ezetimibe protects VSMCs from cholesterol accumulation by regulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):214-222. DOI:10.1159/000368803
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Morphine is co-administered with adjuvant drugs to treat pain, nausea, vomiting, dyspnoea and delirium in cancer patients. Aim of the Study: To investigate analgesic effects of morphine when co-administered with adjuvant drugs. Material and Methods: Two-month-old male Wistar rats received single morphine doses alone (0.45 and 0.9 mg/kg) or with midazolam (0.3 mg/kg), haloperidol (0.15 and 0.45 mg/kg), levomepromazine (0.35 mg/kg), metoclopramide (1.0 mg/kg), and hyoscine butylbromide (1.7 mg/kg) as single subcutaneous injections. Analgesia was measured by the tail-flick test after 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90 min of drug administration. In the case of significant analgesia enhancement, analgesic and sedative effects were explored in 3-, 5-, 6-, 8-, and 11-month-old rats. Results: Significant morphine (0.9 mg/kg) analgesia enhancement was observed 60 min after haloperidol (0.15 and 0.45 mg/kg) and hyoscine butylbromide co-administration. The addition of haloperidol to morphine significantly increased analgesia in 6-, 8- and 11-month-old rats while in the case of hyoscine butylbromide co-administration this effect was observed only in 11-month-old rats. Conclusions: Haloperidol and hyoscine butylbromide enhanced morphine analgesia. Future studies may explore the repeated administration of these drug combinations in rats and humans. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):207-213. DOI:10.1159/000365220
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the efficacy, safety, and clinical benefit of prolonged-release trazodone (Trittico) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: In this study, 363 Chinese patients with MDD were randomized 1:1 to receive either prolonged-release trazodone (150-450 mg) or placebo treatment for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy measurement was the change of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) total score from baseline to the end of the study. The secondary efficacy measurements were the response and remission rates, the Clinical Global Impression - Improvement of Illness (CGI-I) score at the end of the study, and the change of the HAMD-14 total score and quality of sleep [evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale] during the study period. Results: The mean maximum daily dose was 273.11 mg for the trazodone group and 290.92 mg for the placebo group. At the end of the study, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the HAMD-17 change score (trazodone vs. placebo: -11.07 vs. -8.29, p < 0.001). Trazodone showed advantages at 1 week of treatment, and the effect lasted until the end of the study (week 6). The response and remission rates of the trazodone group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group (response rate: 59.6 vs. 37.2%, p < 0.001; remission rate: 35.5 vs. 22.2%, p = 0.005). The majority of the adverse reactions of trazodone were mild to moderate, and the most frequent adverse reactions (≥5%) were dizziness, dry mouth, somnolence, and nausea. Conclusions: Prolonged-release trazodone was more effective than placebo in MDD and was well tolerated.
    Pharmacology 11/2014; 94(5-6):199-206. DOI:10.1159/000368559
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aim: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) plays a role in the regeneration and protection of the kidney, but little information is available concerning the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic treatment with HGF. In this study, HGF was administered after the onset of renal injury, and pharmacokinetic analysis was performed simultaneously with an efficacious dose. Methods: For the study of pharmacodynamics, recombinant human HGF was intravenously administered to rats with glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In the pharmacokinetic study, rats subjected to glycerol injection or renal ischemia-reperfusion were used as models of AKI, and rats subjected to 5/6 nephrectomy were used as models of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results: After intravenous administration of HGF at doses of 0.5-2.0 mg/kg, the elevation of blood urea nitrogen was suppressed, indicating that HGF had a pharmacodynamic effect. However, no significant difference was seen in the pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance, distribution volume and half-life between the normal, AKI and CKD groups. Conclusion: The intravenous administration of HGF after the onset of renal dysfunction exerted a pharmacological effect on AKI, and renal injury did not affect the clearance of plasma HGF. This unaffected profile may serve as a base for the safety of HGF during therapeutic administration.
    Pharmacology 10/2014; 94(3-4):190-197. DOI:10.1159/000363412
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    ABSTRACT: Background/aims: The in vivo metabolic profile of a benzopyridooxathiazepine (BPT) derivative, a potent tubulin polymerization inhibitor with a promising in vitro activity, was investigated. Methods: The quantification of the BPT derivative and the identification of metabolites in the plasma of Wistar rats after i.p. and oral administration of 10 mg/kg were performed by the HPLC-mass spectrometry method. Results: Following a single i.p. dose of the BPT derivative, the plasma concentrations showed a biexponential decay (with a rapid decline) followed by a slow decay with a terminal half-life of 77.90 min. The area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) was 18.90 µg/ml·min. After oral administration, the plasmatic concentrations reached a peak of 0.06 μg/ml at 35 min and then decayed with a half-life of 108 min. The AUC0-∞ was 10.25 µg/ml·min, representing 54.2% of the relative bioavailability. The compound was well distributed in the body, and its elimination seemed to be fast, regardless of the administration route. The major metabolic pathways were demethylation and hydroxylation reactions, both followed by conjugation with glucuronic acid. Conclusion: In rats, the BPT derivative is well distributed and undergoes extensive metabolism, leading to several metabolites. With promising in vitro activity and very good oral bioavailability, this compound seems to be an attractive candidate for further development as an anticancer agent.
    Pharmacology 10/2014; 94(3-4):170-178. DOI:10.1159/000368084