European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Impact Factor & Information

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

The European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology publishes original papers short communications and letters to the editors on all aspects of clinical pharmacology and drug therapy in humans. Data from animal experiments are accepted only in the context of parallel experiments in man reported in the same paper. The Journal also accepts review articles on special problems related to these areas and encourages debate on controversial issues.

Current impact factor: 2.97

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2016
2014 Impact Factor 2.966
2013 Impact Factor 2.697
2012 Impact Factor 2.741
2011 Impact Factor 2.845
2010 Impact Factor 3.032
2009 Impact Factor 2.743
2008 Impact Factor 2.497
2007 Impact Factor 2.177
2006 Impact Factor 2.029
2005 Impact Factor 2.298
2004 Impact Factor 2.083
2003 Impact Factor 1.972
2002 Impact Factor 1.955
2001 Impact Factor 1.922
2000 Impact Factor 1.729
1999 Impact Factor 1.771
1998 Impact Factor 1.42
1997 Impact Factor 1.219
1996 Impact Factor 1.308
1995 Impact Factor 1.233
1994 Impact Factor 1.038
1993 Impact Factor 1.006
1992 Impact Factor 1.204

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.96
Cited half-life 8.40
Immediacy index 0.51
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.81
Website European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology website
Other titles European journal of clinical pharmacology (Online), EJCP, Eur j clin pharmacol
ISSN 0031-6970
OCLC 41916239
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

  • Pre-print
    • Author can archive a pre-print version
  • Post-print
    • Author can archive a post-print version
  • Conditions
    • Author's pre-print on pre-print servers such as
    • Author's post-print on author's personal website immediately
    • Author's post-print on any open access repository after 12 months after publication
    • Publisher's version/PDF cannot be used
    • Published source must be acknowledged
    • Must link to publisher version
    • Set phrase to accompany link to published version (see policy)
    • Articles in some journals can be made Open Access on payment of additional charge
  • Classification

Publications in this journal

  • European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1984-y
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Difficulty swallowing oral medicines may arise due to swallowing disorders or due to patient self-reported difficulty in the absence of objective evidence of swallowing dysfunction. Medication use increases with age; therefore, difficulty swallowing medication may complicate medicine administration to older patients. Modifying oral medicines can impact on the safety, quality and efficacy of the medication. The objective of this systematic review is to critically appraise the evidence regarding the prevalence of difficulty swallowing oral medicines and the modification of oral medicines to overcome swallowing difficulties in the older cohort. Methods: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and ProQuest databases was conducted from database inception to November 2014. Studies investigating the prevalence of difficulty swallowing oral medicines or the modification of oral medicines were eligible for inclusion. A narrative analysis of the results was conducted. Results: Five studies met the inclusion criteria. The results suggest that approximately 14 % of community-dwelling older patients experience difficulty swallowing medicines. Between one quarter and one third of occasions of medicine administration to older patients involve the modification of oral medicines. Conclusions: Difficulty swallowing oral medicines and the modification of medicines are reported as being common issues in the older cohort. However, evidence to support such contentions is limited. Future research should investigate the prevalence of medicine modification for older patients in all settings and identify what medicines are modified. This will allow targeting of interventions to optimise medicine administration to older patients.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1979-8
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antipsychotics can aid in therapy optimization, explaining adverse effects or non-response. One reason for therapeutic failure or adverse effects is caused by genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on steady-state serum concentrations of antipsychotics metabolized by CYP2D6, taking into account the co-medication with CYP2D6 inhibitors. Methods: Serum and EDTA samples were collected from 82 psychiatric patients. After a liquid-liquid extraction, serum samples were analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for quantification of the antipsychotics. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed using the Luminex xTAG® CYP2D6 Kit v3 (Luminex Corporation). Patients were divided into five phenotype subgroups by calculation of the activity score (AS): poor metabolizers (PM; AS 0), intermediate metabolizers (IM; AS 0.5-1), extensive metabolizers with slow activity (EM-s; AS 1-1.5), extensive metabolizers with fast activity (EM-f; AS 2), and ultra-rapid metabolizers (UM; AS >2). The influence of the phenotypes on the concentration-to-dose and metabolite-to-parent ratios was evaluated. Results: Overall, 6.1 % UM (n = 5), 25.6 % EM-f (n = 21), 46.3 % EM-s (n = 38), 1.2 % EM-s/EM-f (n = 1), 6.1 % IM (n = 5), and 14.6 % PM (n = 12) were found, taking co-administration of strong and moderate CYP2D6 inhibitors into account (phenoconversion). It was demonstrated that CYP2D6 polymorphisms affect the serum concentrations of aripiprazole (n = 18), haloperidol (n = 11), risperidone (n = 20), and zuclopenthixol (n = 6), while no influence was seen on the paliperidone serum concentrations (n = 31). Conclusions: Even with a small number of patients per antipsychotic, the importance of CYP2D6 genotyping was still clearly stated. This study illustrates the high potential of combining TDM and CYP2D6 genotyping in clinical practice.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1965-1
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Four times daily dosing (qid) with a proton pump inhibitor can cause rapid increase in intragastric pH. We investigated the efficacy of the front-loading with rabeprazole 10 mg qid on a subsequent regimen with rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily (bid) for 7 days in extensive metabolizers (EMs) of CYP2C19. Methods: Five EMs received three different 1-week regimens in a crossover manner as follows: (1) rabeprazole 10 mg bid for 7 days; (2) a front-loading regimen of rabeprazole (rabeprazole 10 mg qid on day 0 and bid on days 1 to 7); and (3) rabeprazole 10 mg qid for 7 days. Five intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and four poor metabolizers (PMs) received rabeprazole 10 mg bid regimen only. Twenty-four-hour intragastric pH-monitorings were performed on days 1, 4, and 7. Area under the intragastric pH-time curves (AUCs) from days 1 to 7 was calculated using 24-h median intragastric pHs on days 1, 4, and 7. Results: Twenty-four-hour intragastric pHs in the front-loading group on days 1, 4, and 7 were 5.1, 4.9, and 5.1, respectively. The median AUC with front-loading in EMs (34.4, pH·day) was significantly higher than that in EMs with rabeprazole 10 mg bid (30.74, p = 0.043). No statistically significant differences in median AUCs were noted among front-loading in EMs, rabeprazole 10 mg qid in EMs (37.2), rabeprazole 10 mg bid in IMs (37.3), and PMs (39.4). Conclusions: The one-day front-loading regimen of rabeprazole 10 mg qid provided sufficient acid inhibition for 7 days, even in CYP2C19 EMs.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1941-9
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the prevalence and quality of medication schedules of elderly ambulatory patients and assessed factors associated with the availability of a medication schedule. In particular, we evaluated whether sending out a blank medication schedule template would increase the chances to use such a document. Data originate from the ESTHER study, a cohort study conducted in Saarland, Germany, in which trained study physicians performed home visits. They scanned all medication schedules, recorded the participants' medication, and performed thorough geriatric assessments. As part of the intervention, a blank medication schedule template along with a brochure was mailed to half of the participants (intervention group) 4 weeks prior to the home visits. In total, 553 of 2470 participants (22.4 %) had a medication schedule. Almost two thirds of the schedules were issued by health care professionals (n = 353, 63.8 %). These schedules offered a higher quality, although important information such as over-the-counter (OTC) medication was regularly missing. Self-reported adherence was higher in participants who used self-issued medication schedules; however, self-reported medication adherence in patients with any medication schedule was poorer compared to those patients not using a schedule. Factors associated with the availability of a medication schedule were male sex, a higher number of medicines to take, and a more complex drug regimen. The intervention did not increase the number of patients having a medication schedule. Only a minority of elderly ambulatory patients had a medication schedule at home. Sending out a brochure along with a blank medication schedule template did not increase the prevalence of medication schedules.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2015; 71(9). DOI:10.1007/s00228-015-1888-x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Overdose with baclofen, a derivative of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, may lead to severe respiratory and central nervous system depression and can be life-threatening. Prolonged half-lives of baclofen, of up to 34 h, have been reported in patients after overdose. Hemodialysis has proven to be a successful approach to improve clearance of baclofen, but the value of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is unclear. We applied CVVH in a patient with acute baclofen overdose. Methods: Pharmacokinetic measurements of baclofen in serum and hemofiltrate were made at six time points after hospital admission. Baclofen concentration-time data were analyzed using non-compartmental methods, and the relative contribution of clearance by hemofiltration to total baclofen clearance was calculated. Results: Baclofen concentrations in serum varied between 1.81 and 0.05 mg/L. Concentrations of baclofen in hemofiltrate were within the same range (between 0.74 and 0.05 mg/L), and the elimination half-life during hemofiltration was estimated at 4.8 h. Total clearance and clearance via hemofiltration were estimated at 6.6 and 2.4 L/h, indicating that clearance could be increased by approximately 57 % by applying hemofiltration. Conclusions: The presented case demonstrates the usefulness of CVVH in the treatment of baclofen overdose and indicates that CVVH can be used as an alternative to hemodialysis in patients with overdose of baclofen.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(3). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1802-y
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Tramadol is widely used for acute, chronic, and neuropathic pain. Its primary active metabolite is O-desmethyltramadol (M1), which is mainly accountable for the μ-opioid receptor-related analgesic effect. Tramadol is metabolized to M1 mainly by cytochrome P450 (CYP)2D6 enzyme and to other metabolites by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. We investigated the possible interaction of tramadol with the antifungal agents terbinafine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) and itraconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor). Methods We used a randomized placebo-controlled crossover study design with 12 healthy subjects, of which 8 were extensive and 4 were ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolizers. On the pretreatment day 4 with terbinafine (250 mg once daily), itraconazole (200 mg once daily) or placebo, subjects were given tramadol 50 mg orally. Plasma concentrations of tramadol and M1 were determined over 48 h and some pharmacodynamic effects over 12 h. Pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using standard non-compartmental methods. Results Terbinafine increased the area under plasma concentration–time curve (AUC0-∞) of tramadol by 115 % and decreased the AUC0-∞ of M1 by 64 % (P
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(3). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1799-2
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of sublingual asenapine. Healthy male volunteers (n = 26, age 19-53 years) randomly received a single sublingual dose of asenapine 5 mg after ≥10 h fasting (Treatment A, reference), after a high-fat meal (Treatment B) and after ≥10 h fasting with a high-fat meal at 4 h post-dose (Treatment C). Blood samples were drawn over 72 h to measure asenapine plasma concentrations. Effects of food intake on asenapine pharmacokinetics were assessed using bioequivalence criteria and evaluated using a compartmental modelling analysis. Compared with the reference, mean asenapine exposure (AUC0-last and AUC0-∞) was approximately 20 % lower after intake of a high-fat meal prior to dosing, whereas Cmax decreased by only about 10 %. When a high-fat meal was taken 4 h post-dose in the fasting state, asenapine concentrations were similar to the reference during the first 4 h post-dose. After the meal intake, asenapine concentrations decreased quickly for several hours. Compartmental modelling indicated that a transient 2.5-fold increase in asenapine clearance after eating could explain the asenapine concentration-time profiles for both food regimens. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the effect of food upon the sublingual administration of a drug. A high-fat meal taken before or 4 h post-dose of sublingual asenapine indirectly caused a transient increase in liver blood flow that resulted in a temporal increase in asenapine clearance. As the effects on asenapine exposure were small and not clinically relevant, no additional restrictions are required for the timing of food intake in relation to asenapine dosing.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(1):65-74. DOI:10.1007/s00228-013-1587-4
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: N(1)-methylnicotinamide (NMN) was proposed as an in vivo probe for drug interactions involving renal cation transporters, which, for example, transport the oral antidiabetic drug metformin, based on a study with the inhibitor pyrimethamine. The role of NMN for predicting other interactions with involvement of renal cation transporters (organic cation transporter 2, OCT2; multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins 1 and 2-K, MATE1 and MATE2-K) is unclear. We determined inhibition of metformin or NMN transport by trimethoprim using cell lines expressing OCT2, MATE1, or MATE2-K. Moreover, a randomized, open-label, two-phase crossover study was performed in 12 healthy volunteers. In each phase, 850 mg metformin hydrochloride was administered p.o. in the evening of day 4 and in the morning of day 5. In phase B, 200 mg trimethoprim was administered additionally p.o. twice daily for 5 days. Metformin pharmacokinetics and effects (measured by OGTT) and NMN pharmacokinetics were determined. Trimethoprim inhibited metformin transport with K i values of 27.2, 6.3, and 28.9 μM and NMN transport with IC50 values of 133.9, 29.1, and 0.61 μM for OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K, respectively. In the clinical study, trimethoprim increased metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) by 29.5 % and decreased metformin and NMN renal clearances by 26.4 and 19.9 %, respectively (p ≤ 0.01). Moreover, decreases of NMN and metformin renal clearances due to trimethoprim correlated significantly (r S = 0.727, p = 0.010). These data on the metformin-trimethoprim interaction support the potential utility of N(1)-methylnicotinamide as an endogenous probe for renal drug-drug interactions with involvement of renal cation transporters.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 01/2015; 71(1):85-94. DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1770-2
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of clinical characteristics and management on the mid- to long-term follow-up prognosis of unselected over-80-year-old patients hospitalized for a first heart failure (HF) episode in a real-life setting. Despite the increasing proportion of HF patients over 80 years of age, the latter remain a poorly studied population. Analysis was based on the EGB ("Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires") database. A cohort comprising 1825 adult patients with a first admission for HF between 2009 and 2011 was created and followed until June 2013 for survival analysis. Over-80-year-old patients represented 53 % of this cohort, with a median follow-up of 18.6 (3.3-29.5) months. Only 5 % of patients over 80 years received an optimal treatment at discharge [combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB), beta-blockers (BB), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA)]. During the follow-up period, only BB prescription levels (p = 0.02) increased. In over-80-year-olds, in-hospital mortality was 12 % (range, 10-14) and survival was 62.8 % (59.6-65.7) and 48.7 % (45.4-51.9) at 12 and 24 months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, dyslipidemia [0.74 (0.58-0.94), p = 0.02], vitamin K antagonists [0.55 (0.44-0.69), p < 0.001], ACEi/ARB + BB + MRA [0.56 (0.32-0.96), p = 0.04], and ACEi/ARB + BB [0.57 (0.45-0.72), p < 0.001] were associated with improved survival, conversely to cardiogenic shock [3.37 (1.90-5.98), p < 0.001], denutrition [1.61 (1.24-2.09), p < 0.001], and age over 90 [1.35 (1.09-1.67), p = 0.01]. These real-life HF data provide insight into prognostic factors and demonstrate that over-80-year-old HF patients displaying several comorbidities are poorly managed, despite the confirmed clinical benefit of HF drugs.
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2014; 71(2). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1794-7
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective The objective of this study was to determine the influence of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX genetic polymorphisms on mean daily dose of acenocoumarol in South Indian patients and to develop a new pharmacogenetic algorithm based on clinical and genetic factors. Methods Patients receiving acenocoumarol maintenance therapy (n = 230) were included in the study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2, and GGCX were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results The mean daily acenocoumarol maintenance dose was found to be 3.7 ± 2.3 (SD) mg/day. The CYP2C9 *1*2, CYP2C9 *1*3, and CYP2C9 *2*3 variant genotypes significantly reduced the dose by 56.7 % (2.0 mg), 67.6 % (1.6 mg), and 70.3 % (1.5 mg) than wild-type carriers 4.1 mg, p
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 12/2014; 71(2). DOI:10.1007/s00228-014-1791-x