Scandinavian journal of dental research (Scand J Dent Res)

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Other titles Scandinavian journal of dental research
ISSN 0029-845X
OCLC 1713707
Material type Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Journal / Magazine / Newspaper, Internet Resource

Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rosin is a ubiquitous contact sensitizer which may be present in dental materials such as periodontal dressings, impression materials, cements, and cavity varnishes When a hypersensitive person is exposed to a sensitizer, allergic contact dermatitis/stomatitis may develop, most commonly after direct skin/mucosa contact with the sensitizer. However, widespread dermatitis may develop after systemic administration of the sensitizer, and this paper reports the case of a rosin-hypersensitive man who developed widespread eczematous dermatitis after dental treatment with a rosin-containing product.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):376-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01487.x
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    ABSTRACT: An open, randomized, controlled study with two parallel treatment groups was done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single application of a miconazole 55 mg/g denture lacquer applied once on the mucosal denture surface, as compared with those of a commercially available miconazole 2% gel applied four times daily for 2 wk, in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The efficacy variables were Candida cultures on the Oricult plates taken from the palatal mucosa and the denture surface, erythema of the palatal mucosa, and smears for leukocyte migration into the palatal epithelium taken on entering the study and on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 after commencement of therapy. On entering the study, all patients had positive cultures of yeast in the samples from the palatal mucosa. Within the first 3 days, all gel patients and 88% of the lacquer patients had fewer than 10 colonies. The gel was statistically significantly more efficient than the lacquer on days 7 and 14. In the samples from the denture surface, all patients had more than 100 yeast colonies at inclusion and, on day 3, approximately 80% in both treatment groups had fewer than 10 colonies. From day 7 onward, the gel was statistically significantly more efficient than the lacquer. The reddening of the palatal mucosa was not statistically significantly different in the treatment groups at any of the examinations, but smears for the determination of leukocyte migration indicated that the gel was statistically significantly more efficient than the lacquer on day 7.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):361-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01484.x
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive fluoride (F) in drinking water should be removed, but simple, inexpensive methods of fluoride removal are not readily available. This study examines the F(-)-binding capacity of clay and clayware, especially the effect of the firing temperature on the F(-)-binding process. A series of pots were made from ordinary potter's clay and fired at 500-1000 degrees C. Likewise, small clay bricks were fired and then crushed and sieved. NaF solutions containing 10 mg/l F- (10 ppm F-) were prepared. Suitable aliquots of the solutions were poured into clay pots or exposed to powdered clayware. Samples were taken at storage periods of 30 min to 20 days and analyzed for F- by ion-selective electrodes. The rate and capacity of F(-)-binding in the clayware varied with the firing temperature. Clay fired at approximately 600 degrees C was most effective. Temperatures over 700 degrees C caused a decline in F(-)-binding, and pottery fired at 900 degrees C and above seemed unable to remove F- from water. Pots fired at 500 degrees C or less cracked in water. The findings indicate that clayware, fired at an optimal temperature, may be of practical value for partial defluoridation of drinking water.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):329-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01479.x
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    ABSTRACT: Eight adult periodontitis (AP) patients were studied immunohistochemically to determine the presence of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-8 in the marginal gingival and gingival granulation tissue specimens obtained from periodontal flap surgery after scaling and root planing. Clinically healthy gingival tissue specimens obtained from impacted third-molar extraction operations served as controls. MMP-type-specific antisera were applied by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex staining method. Moderate immunoreactivity for neutrophil collagenase (MMP-8) was found both in the AP patients' marginal gingival connective tissue and in gingival granulation tissue specimens. Immunoreactivity for fibroblast-type collagenase (MMP-1) and stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) was detected only in the AP patients' gingival granulation tissue specimens. In the control specimens, no immunoreactivity for the MMPs could be detected. For the first time, this finding demonstrates immunohistochemically the presence of MMP-8 in human inflamed gingiva in situ, and further highlights the importance of MMP-8 in periodontal tissue destruction, evidently during the acute phase(s) of the disease. However, our results confirm and extend previous studies indicating that other types of MMPs from resident gingival cell sources also seem to participate in the chronic and destructive course of periodontal inflammation.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):342-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01481.x
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    ABSTRACT: IgA concentrations in human plasma, and whole and parotid saliva were measured before and 3 months after a shift to a lactovegetarian diet in 20 volunteers (four men and 16 women mean age 44 yr, range 27-61). The major dietary trends observed were an increased intake of berries and other fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, and a decreased intake of fish, eggs, and meat; biscuits and buns; sweets; alcoholic beverages; coffee; and tea. The consumption of meat, fish, and eggs decreased to zero, showing that the participants had adopted a lacto-vegetarian diet. There was a decrease in fat, protein, sucrose, and alcohol intake and an increase in total carbohydrate and fiber intake. There was no significant change in energy, retinol equivalent, or zinc intake. Despite this change in diet, no significant changes were observed between the mixed diet period and the vegetarian diet period in IgA in plasma, 253 +/- 52 and 264 +/- 55; whole saliva, 2.5 +/- 0.4 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; or parotid saliva, 0.88 +/- 0.22 and 0.90 +/- 0.20 (mg/100 ml, mean values, 95% confidence interval). Moreover, the diet change did not alter the secretion rate in whole and parotid saliva, the secretion rate of IgA in whole and parotid saliva, or the protein content of whole saliva. However, the protein content of parotid saliva increased significantly. Thus, this major diet change was apparently not drastic enough or sustained long enough to cause a change in IgA levels.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):350-4. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01482.x
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    ABSTRACT: High concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and placental type plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-2) have previously been found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of adults and children. In the present study, intra-individual comparisons were made of the concentrations of t-PA, urokinase type plasminogen activator (u-PA), PAI-1, and PAI-2 in GCF from the same sites before and after periodontal treatment in eight healthy male volunteers aged 35-46 yr. The gingival state was assessed by exudate measurement, bleeding on standardized probing, and the gingival index of Löe & Silness 3 days before the start of the trial and on the day after completing a 21-day preventive program consisting of instruction and professional cleaning once a week. Eight sites per subject were selected for enzyme analyses, all showing improvement in gingival state during the period. Sampling of GCF at the start and at the end of the trial was done with small disks of Millipore-filter. t-PA and PAI-2 were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with low method errors. The mean concentrations of t-PA were 0.73 mg/l before treatment and 0.49 mg/l after treatment. The mean concentrations of u-PA were 84.4 micrograms/l before treatment and 101.6 micrograms/l after treatment. PAI-1 was found in three subjects at the detection level. The mean PAI-2 concentrations were 2.19 mg/l before and 1.13 mg/l after treatment. The mean molar ratio PAs/PAI-2 was 0.47 before and 0.48 after treatment. This insignificant change implies a maintained proteolytic balance and indicates that PAI-2 is an important inhibitor of tissue proteolysis.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):334-41. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01480.x
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to monitor pH in 2-day-old dental plaque after administration of a long-acting, lactose-containing nitroglycerin tablet (Suscard). The tablet was placed under the lip of the maxilla. This was done both in two older subjects suffering from heart problems and in 10 younger, healthy subjects. In the latter group, a sucrose-containing lozenge was used as a control. The influence of a 5-wk period of daily use of Suscard (in the two elderly subjects) and the effect of normal oral hygiene procedures (in the 10 younger subjects) on the pH response was also studied. Plaque pH was measured in situ up to 1 h, at five different approximal sites in the front region of the maxilla by the micro-touch method. The Suscard tablet resulted in a fall in plaque pH in both groups when teeth had not been brushed for 2 days. The lowest pH was recorded at the sites close to where the tablet had been placed. The most attenuated pH drop was found in the two older subjects, who showed a mean minimum pH of 5.7, as compared with 6.2 for the younger subjects. No further increase in the pH fall from Suscard was seen after the 5-wk period in the two patients with heart problems. In the 10 younger healthy subjects, the most pronounced pH decrease was registered after administration of the sucrose-containing lozenge. The pH drop for Suscard was not significant when normal oral hygiene procedures preceded the test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):324-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01478.x
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    ABSTRACT: The present comparative study was undertaken to determine which of the bacteria, lactobacilli (lbc) and mutans streptococci (ms), in saliva better explains the variation of caries in 2728 South African 4-5-yr-old children. Caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. For lbc, the Dentocult system was used. The number of ms in stimulated saliva was counted on MSB agar plates. For correction of confounding factors, data on the frequency of intake of sweets were derived from extensive interviews. Oral hygiene was determined according to the simplified debris index of Greene & Vermillion. Simple correlation analyses between dmfs and bacterial counts were done for the total material and for three caries intervals by calculating Spearman's and Pearson's coefficients of correlation. Multivariate regression analyses were done on all intervals to correct for the confounding effects of regular intake of sweets, presence of salivary ms or lbc, and oral hygiene. Of the children, 68% had detectable lbc in the saliva, and 74% had ms. Except for children with more than 6 dmfs, the explanatory values, i.e., percentage of variation in dmfs explained, were higher for the lbc than for ms. Before correction, the values for the total material were 15 vs 6%; for children with caries, 7 vs 5%; for those with 1-6 dmfs, 5 vs 0.4%; and for those with more than 6 dmfs, 0.3 vs 2%. All r-values were reduced after correction, indicating that the confounders explain some of the correlation between dmfs and bacterial count.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):319-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01477.x
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    ABSTRACT: The relation of number of teeth to maximal clenching force was tested in 10 healthy female dental students. The maximal force in the interincisal position was tested by spreading the load with individual acrylic splints over a varying number of teeth in the anterior region. In the maxilla, one splint covered teeth 13-23; another covered tooth 11. In the mandible, one splint covered teeth 33-43 in all experiments. The maximal force in the incisal position was measured 10 times, five times with each splint. The maxillary splints were changed in random order. The tactile sensibility of tooth 11 and its antagonists was tested before and immediately after interincisal force measurements. A highly significant difference between maximal forces was seen in comparing biting between a single tooth and multiple teeth. In addition, bite force also showed a significant increase in both single tooth and multiple teeth successive biting trials during the experiments. Tactile sensibility between d 11 and its antagonist was not altered by the maximal bite force trials.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):372-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the staining of enamel in relation to fixation of luxated teeth. Color changes induced by chlorhexidine, red wine, tea, and coffee were detected with a Minolta Chroma Meter (CR-121) after extracted teeth were treated to simulate construction of dental splinting. L*a*b* color readings were made before and after 7 days of incubation in the above-mentioned media in teeth treated 1) by acid-etching, 2) by acid-etching followed by resin, 3) by resin and composite, 4) by Triad Gel, and 5) by Protemp. L* is an indicator of black (0) and white (100). The a* values relate to the red (+100)-green (-100) color axes, and the b* values to the yellow (+100) and blue (-100) axes. Untreated teeth served as controls. One-way analysis of variance of mean L* values revealed no statistically significant differences in treatment. Discoloration was observed in all teeth, including the control ones. However, Protemp yielded the largest changes in mean L* values. Analysis of variance of mean L* values revealed statistically significant differences between incubation liquids because no increase in staining of enamel was noted after 7 days' incubation in chlorhexidine. Red wine increased the mean L* values more than coffee or tea. Changes in a*b* readings were toward red (+a*) after incubation in red wine, except in the case of teeth treated with resin. The color of all such teeth changed more toward yellow (+b*), because the resin used was yellow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):313-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of dental injuries, temporomandibular disorders (TMD), and dental caries in a group of champion wrestlers. Twenty-six male wrestlers, with a mean age of 23 yr, and an age-matched control group participated in the study. A questionnaire was used with questions on trauma, frequency of headache, intensity of practicing sports, use of sugar-containing "sports drinks", use of mouth guards, and previous TMD problems. Four bitewing radiographs were taken in all subjects. In addition, three intraoral apical radiographs of maxillary and mandibular frontal regions were taken in the wrestlers. The number of existing teeth, dental caries, amount and type of restorations, and dental injuries were recorded. Examination of the stomatognathic system comprised bilateral palpation of the masseter and temporal muscles and temporomandibular joints, and evaluation of the mandibular movements. None of the subjects had drunk sports drinks or worn mouth protectors regularly. The wrestlers had more frequent and severe dental injuries localized to the frontal region of the maxilla than the controls. No statistical differences were found in the prevalence of caries or TMD between the groups.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 01/1995; 102(6):367-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01485.x
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    ABSTRACT: Several authors have proposed that hypocalcemia can interfere with amelogenesis, resulting in enamel aberrations. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to study the effects of a diet-induced hypocalcemic state in young rats on enamel formation of the maxillary incisors. The experimental rats were fed a special diet, free from vitamin D and very low in calcium. The control rats were fed a normal diet. The experimental period was 3 wk. After termination, the blood analysis showed that the experimental rats had developed hypocalcemia with very low values of both total and ionized blood calcium. The experimental rats were smaller than their controls after 3 wk, with smaller skulls and teeth. At the light microscope level, the enamel and the ameloblasts did not seem to be affected, except in one rat, the smallest, which showed enamel hypoplasias in both maxillary incisors and a delayed increase of the mineral content during the maturation stage process. It is concluded that the hypocalcemic state induced did not greatly affect enamel formation. However, occasional enamel aberrations may occur.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):249-53. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01464.x
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    ABSTRACT: With the rat molar as a model, evidence is presented that dentin mineralization influences formation of acellular cementum. Formation of acellular cementum did not occur on the surface of experimentally induced unmineralized dentin. Instead, an atypical hyperplastic cementum was formed. The disturbance in acellular cementum formation was permanent.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):260-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01466.x
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis and treatment of dental and medical factors that can cause burning mouth were performed in 25 consecutive patients according to a treatment protocol. The effect of the dental and medical treatment on the burning mouth was evaluated. The sick leave profile was presented. Apart from burning mouth symptoms, the patients reported several oral and general symptoms, such as gustatory changes, xerostomia, back and joint muscle pain, headache, and dizziness. The most common dental diagnoses were temporomandibular joint, masticatory, and tongue muscle dysfunction and lesions in the oral mucosa. The most common medical diagnoses were low serum iron and hypersensitive reaction to mercury. None of the patients tested exceeded the limit of 100 nmol Hg/l urine. Replacement of amalgam fillings was the most common dental therapy, followed by treatment of dysfunction in the masticatory system. Iron replacement was the most frequent medical treatment. The patients had over 50% more days per year sick leave than an age- and sex-matched normal population. A follow-up found that the burning mouth had disappeared in 32% of the patients. This study confirms the opinion that burning mouth is multicausal. Hypersensitive reaction to mercury was more frequent than expected, but replacement of amalgam fillings relieved burning mouth in only two of five such patients, and one of these two patients had hypersensitive reactions to both mercury and gold. One reason that so many patients continued to have burning mouth might have been neglect of dental, medical, or both diagnoses. Another reason might be that assessment of the psychologic status of the patients and psychologic treatment when indicated were not done.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):299-305. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01473.x
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    ABSTRACT: Previous experiments have shown that the nature of the detergents used in aqueous triclosan-containing mouthrinses affects the plaque-inhibiting effect of these mouthrinses, probably because of the properties of the micelles formed. It has also been shown that triclosan has a marked plaque-inhibiting effect when dissolved in pure propylene glycol. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical effect of triclosan dissolved in oils and in the pure solvents glycerol (GLY) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). A test panel of 12 volunteers rinsed with the allocated mouthrinses for 4 days in a double-blind, crossover study. Three different oils were tested: olive oil, soy oil, and sunflower seed oil, as well as PEG and GLY. Triclosan was used in a 0.3% concentration to facilitate comparison with previous studies. However, only 0.15% triclosan was added to the GLY-containing rinse (maximum soluble concentration). In addition, soy oil without triclosan was tried. The mean plaque score for water was 1.42 +/- 0.19; for olive oil, 1.08 +/- 0.34; for soy oil with triclosan, 0.95 +/- 0.35; for pure soy oil, 0.94 +/- 0.09; for sunflower seed oil, 1.19 +/- 0.19; for PEG, 1.04 +/- 0.22; and for GLY, 1.12 +/- 0.28. The results indicate that triclosan dissolved in oils loses its clinical effect. However, oils in themselves exhibit significant plaque inhibition. In vitro tests showed no antibacterial activity of triclosan dissolved in oils. Toothpastes and mouthrinses contain flavoring oils and occasionally also GLY and PEG. Such substances may well interfere with the clinical effect of triclosan in these products.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):306-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01474.x
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe oral hygiene factors in infants and toddlers living in Sweden with special reference to caries prevalence at 2 and 3 yr of age and to immigrant status. The study was designed as a prospective, longitudinal study starting with 671 children aged 1 yr. At 3 yr, all the children were invited to a further examination. A total of 298 children, randomly selected from the original group, were also examined at 2 yr. The accompanying parent was interviewed about the child's oral health habits. Children who were free of caries at 3 yr had had their teeth brushed more frequently at 1 and 2 yr of age, had used fluoride (F)-toothpaste more often at 2 yr of age, and had a lower prevalence of visible plaque at 1 and 2 yr of age than children with caries. Immigrant children had had their teeth brushed less frequently, had used less F-toothpaste, and had a higher prevalence of visible plaque at 1 yr of age than nonimmigrant children. Early establishment of good oral hygiene habits and regular use of F-toothpaste seem to be important for achieving good oral health in pre-schoolchildren.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):269-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01467.x
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    ABSTRACT: It is known that xylitol inhibits sorbitol metabolism in some bacteria in vitro. The effect of xylitol/sorbitol-containing chewing gum on sorbitol adaptation of dental plaque was therefore examined. Ten subjects used this chewing gum for 12 wk, and plaque was collected before (control plaque) and after (test plaque) the exposure to sorbitol/xylitol. The metabolism of sorbitol by the plaque was examined with 14C-labeled sorbitol, and the radioactive metabolites were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A considerable individual variation in acid formation was found. The mean values of total acids in the test plaque increased, as compared with the control plaque. An adaptation of dental plaque to sorbitol thus occurred in spite of the presence of xylitol in the chewing gum. The concentration of acetic acid predominated over other acids in both the control and test plaques. The proportions of acids expressed in percentage of total acids differed only slightly. Thus, long-term use of xylitol/sorbitol-containing chewing gum did not eliminate the adaptation of dental plaque to sorbitol.
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):281-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01469.x
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    ABSTRACT: The trial included 24 children (aged 2-7 yr) referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia, since conventional behavioral management methods had failed to achieve treatment acceptance. As an alternative, they received, on two separate occasions with "identical" dental treatment, conscious sedation by rectal administration of either midazolam (0.3 mg/kg body weight (bwt)) or midazolam (0.3 mg/kg bwt) plus ketamine (1.0 mg/kg bwt). This allowed a double-blind, crossover design. The aims were to assess conscious sedation, combined with local anesthesia, as an alternative to general anesthesia, and further to evaluate the effects obtained by addition of a low dose of ketamine to rectally administered midazolam. The feasibility of dental treatment was rated as excellent or good for 16 of the 24 children when premedicated with midazolam, and for 18 of the 24 children when ketamine was added to midazolam. At least some treatment could be given to all children. Verbal contact was maintained with all children throughout both treatment sessions. The children were significantly less anxious when they arrived for the second session. Amnesia and drowsiness were significantly increased when ketamine was added to midazolam. The combination also tended to be more efficient in relief of anxiety and prevention of pain, but there were large variations in the children's responses to the drugs. Midazolam significantly reduced the blood oxygen level, but not with ketamine added. For most children, both regimens proved to be appropriate as alternatives to general anesthesia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Scandinavian journal of dental research 11/1994; 102(5):274-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0722.1994.tb01468.x