Neurology India (NEUROL INDIA )

Publisher: Neurological Society of India, Medknow Publications


Neurology India is a quarterly publication of the Neurological Society of India. Neurology India, the show window of the progress of Neurological Sciences in India, has successfully completed 50 years of publication in the year 2002. 'Neurology India', along with the Neurological Society of India, has grown stronger with the passing of every year.

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Publications in this journal

  • Neurology India 12/2014; 62(6):714-715.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(5):557-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Letters to Editor Neurology India | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 62 | Issue 5 557 Department of Neurology, St. John’s Medical College Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India E‑mail: References 1. Pareja JA, Antonaci F, Vincent M. The hemicrania continua diagnosis. Cephalalgia 2001;21:940‑6. 2. Peres MF, Silberstein SD, Nahmias S, Shechter AL, Youssef I, Rozen TD, et al. Hemicrania continua is not that rare. Neurology 2001;57:948‑51. 3. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 2013;33:629‑808. 4. Park KI, Chu K, Park JM, Kim M. Cluster‑like headache secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis. J Clin Neurol 2006;2:70‑3. Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: PMID: *** DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.144486 Received: 04-07-2014 Review completed: 17-07-2014 Accepted: 25-09-2014 Charles Bonnet syndrome in a case of cerebral venous thrombosis with fMRI‑EEG correlation Sir, Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is characterised by complex visual hallucinations with preserved insight in a patient with impaired vision or organic brain pathology. Occipital cortical and other cerebral resections, stroke, multiple sclerosis and temporal arteritis are the organic brain diseases associated with CBS. CBS in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is not yet documented in English literature. A 27‑year‑old labourer presented with 4 days history of headache, recurrent vomiting and gradual onset of painless bilateral vision loss. He complained of seeing transient images of vivid human figures like men in uniform, lady combing her hair, lady standing with a shawl, a crying baby, landscapes, buildings and also animals like cat. They lasted only for few seconds to minutes and occurred infrequently almost daily. Patient was aware these were non‑existent. They occurred more often in dim light and in evenings. The complex visual hallucinations (VH) disappeared on looking at them and when someone talked to him. There was no past history of psychiatric illness. He had no perception of light in left eye and visual acuity was 3/60 in the right eye. Fundus revealed florid papilledema with haemorrhage and macular exudates. Perimetry revealed enlarged blind spot with concentric constriction of visual fields. There were no other neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) brain showed hyper dense superior sagittal sinuses with empty delta sign. [Figure 1a and b]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed filling defect in superior sagittal sinus and right transverse sinus and loss of flow void in superior sagittal sinus in T2. MR‑venogram revealed thrombosis of superior sagittal sinus, right transverse and straight sinus and few cortical veins [Figure 2b]. Repeat imaging (10 days after onset) showed additional appearance of parenchymal bleed in right inferior frontal gyrus, left temporal region and multiple micro bleeds in susceptibility weighted images. [Figure 3a‑c]. Resting functional MR‑images (fMRI) were acquired using a 3T scanner (Skyra, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). For design specification and model of the fMRI the patient was asked to press the start response button at the onset of hallucination and press the end response button at the end of hallucination so as to record the Figure 1: (a and b) Hyper dense superior sagittal sinus in plain and empty delta sign on contrast scan respectively a b Figure 2: (a) FMRI showing activation of bilateral (more on dominant side) parietal and temporal regions and (b) MR Venography showing non visualisation of superior sagittal sinus and right transverse sinus a b [Downloaded free from on Wednesday, November 12, 2014, IP:] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal Letters to Editor 558 Neurology India | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 62 | Issue 5 onset and duration of hallucination. 3 sets of visual hallucination in fMRI scan of 9 minutes were recorded. Analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8; Welcome Department of Cognitive Neurology, London). EEG data were recorded using a 32‑channel MR compatible EEG system (Brain Products, Gilching, Germany). Functional MRI acquired during hallucination revealed activation of bilateral parietal and temporal cortex. [Figure 2a]. Electroencephalography during rest and visual hallucinations was normal. He also had prothrombotic risk factors like alcoholism, low B12 levels, hyper homocysteinemia and polycythaemia. Patient was started on low dose subcutaneous heparin 5000 U 6 hourly for 7 days overlapped later with acenocoumarol. Visual acuity was monitored regularly and repeat MR‑venogram after 2 weeks showed resolution of parenchymal bleed. His follow up perimeter revealed improvement in the visual field. Acuity gradually improved over next 2 weeks to 6/12 in right eye and 6/24 in left eye. As his vision started improving, his hallucinations disappeared over the next 2 weeks period. CVT presents with a wide spectrum of neurologic features.[1] Acute vision loss with papilledema was described in a patient with severe occipital lobe oedema secondary to venous congestion, pseudo tumour cerebri and cortical venous thrombosis.[2] Intracranial venous sinus thrombosis leading to intracranial hypertension is uncommon.[3] Severe visual loss due to CVT rarely occurs (2% to 4%). On studying 624 cases, Ferro et al.[4] found that persistent visual loss (visual field defects in 6 patients and decreased visual acuity in 21 patients) was more frequent in patients diagnosed as CVT with raised ICT with a delay of more than 4 days from onset of symptoms. Purvin et al.[1] described reduced visual Figure 3: (a) T1 Sagittal view showing frontal sub acute bleed with loss of flow void in right transverse sinus. (b and c) susceptibility weighted images showing right frontal, left temporal bleeds and micro bleeds with spared parietal lobe c a b acuity in ten patients of cerebral venous thrombosis with raised ICT. Several pathologic conditions like focal epilepsy, migraine, diffuse lewy body disease, brainstem or thalamic lesions can cause complex hallucinations. Mechanisms hypothesised are epileptic hallucinations due to irritative process on the cortical centres, visual pathway lesions causing defective visual input and defective visual processing and brainstem lesions affecting various neurotransmitters.[5] Central to the genesis of complex visual forms in man is the visual association (extra striate) cortex.[5,6] Manford et al.[5] described two cases of visual hallucinations in abnormal visual field in posterior cerebral infarct involving the occipital cortex. He proposed the “deafferentation” theory and “perceptual release” theory. Ffytch et al.[7] and Santhouse et al.[8] linked certain regions of fMRI signal activation to specific hallucinatory experiences. There was no occipital cortex lesion in our patient and epileptic activity was ruled out by EEG. Vision loss was due to raised ICT with Cerebral venous thrombosis. Hence we hypothesise, that the VH and CBS seen in our patient was probably due to venous congestion and sensory deprivation of visual cortex with subsequent cortical release of extrastriate cortex as evident by FMRI –EEG studies. Management of CBS is supportive and few drugs like sodium valproate, gabapentin, olanzapine and carbamazepine can alleviate symptoms. The CBS in our patient resolved with management of CVT. R. Subasree, Girish B. Kulkarni, Veerendra Kumar M., Rose Dawn Bharath1, Sandhya M1., Ravi Yadav, Sailesh Modi, Nitish Kumar, Rajanikant Panda1 Departments of Neurology, and 1Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India E‑mail: References 1. Purvin VA, Trobe JD, Kosmorsky G. Neuro‑ophthalmic features of cerebral venous obstruction. Arch Neurol 1995;52:880‑5. 2. Ko YC, Chen WT, Lin PK, Hsu WM, Liu JH. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting as acute visual loss. Br J Ophthalmol 2001;85:1140‑1. 3. Couban S, Maxner CE. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis presenting as idiopathic intracranial hypertension. CMAJ 1991;145:657‑9. 4. Ferro JM, Canhão P, Stam J, Bousser MG, Barinagarrementeria F, Massaro A, et al. ISCVT Investigators. Delay in the diagnosis of cerebral vein and dural sinus thrombosis: Influence on outcome. Stroke 2009;40:3133‑8. 5. Manford M, Andermann F. Complex visual hallucinations. Clinical and neurobiological insights. Brain 1998;121 (Pt 10):1819‑40. [Downloaded free from on Wednesday, November 12, 2014, IP:] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal Letters to Editor Neurology India | Sep-Oct 2014 | Vol 62 | Issue 5 559 Access this article online Quick Response Code: Website: PMID: *** DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.144489 Received: 07-08-2014 Review completed: 08-08-2014 Accepted: 28-09-2014 6. Burke W. The neural basis of Charles Bonnet hallucinations: A hypothesis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002;73:535‑41. 7. Ffytche DH, Howard RJ, Brammer MJ, David A, Woodruff P, Williams S. The anatomy of conscious vision: An fMRI study of visual hallucinations. Nat Neurosci 1998;1:738‑42. 8. Santhouse AM, Howard RJ, ffytche DH. Visual hallucinatory syndromes and the anatomy of the visual brain. Brain 2000;123 (Pt 10):2055‑64. Levetiracetam for tardive dystonia: A case report Sir, Tardive syndrome (TS) is a group of hyperkinetic or hypokinetic movement disorders and sensory symptoms sharing the same pathophysiological basis. This neurological disorder most frequently occurs as the result of long‑term or high‑dose use of antipsychotic drugs. The etiological theories and treatment strategies have been elucidated recently.[1,2] Of late, levetiracetam is gaining importance as a novel therapeutic agent for TS.[3‑8] This report presents a case of trifluoperazine‑induced tardive dystonia who partially responded to adjunctive treatment with levetiracetam. A 46‑year‑old lady presented to the psychiatry outpatient services with abnormal, spontaneous, repetitive, nonrhythmic, and dystonic movements involving the cranial and cervical region. Patient had blepharospasm, grimacing, puckering, pouting and clenching, and neck muscle dystonia. The movements decreased on resting her head to a hard surface, increased with anxiety and disappeared in sleep. She had been prescribed escitalopram 20 mg with clonazepam 1 mg for panic disorder by a private practitioner, along with trifluoperazine 10 mg possibly for agitation. There was no history of any other psychiatric/medical/surgical illness in the past. On examination, her vitals were stable. Other than the abnormal movements, she had no other neurological findings. Her Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale (AIMS) score was 22. As her symptoms started after neuroleptic exposure, a diagnosis of tardive dystonia with panic disorder was considered. Blood biochemistry, complete blood picture, ECG, EEG, and brain imaging were essentially normal. Mental state examination revealed anxiety/depressive features with speech difficulty. She was followed‑up in outpatient department for the next 1 year, during which she was tried on multitude of drugs—tetrabenazine (100 mg), trihexyphenidyl (8 mg), clonazepam (2 mg), valproate (1,000 mg), pregabalin (600 mg), tizanidine (0.6 mg), baclofen (60 mg), and clozapine (75 mg) for adequate duration at tolerable doses in various combinations. She showed minimal improvement with clozapine (AIMS score ‑ 21), but dose could not be titrated above 75 mg due to tachycardia and new onset ‘t‑wave’ inversion because of which it was subsequently discontinued. While she was on tetrabenazine (100 mg) and clonazepam (1.5 mg), she was prescribed levetiracetam, dose of which was gradually increased to 1,000 mg in divided doses. Her AIMS score decreased to 14 following 1 month of prescription. She had never experienced such significant improvement. Mirtazapine (15 mg) was also added for her anxiety and depressive symptoms. In previously reported cases, levetiracetam was administered as monotherapy.[3‑8] Our patient was already on tetrabenazine and clonazepam, but showed improvement only after the addition of levetiracetam. It can be argued that probably the improvement could be a late therapeutic effect of the other drugs, but considering they were tried at adequate (tolerable) dosages for adequate time it seems less likely. Levetiracetam acts on synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2); thereby inhibiting the release of various neurotransmitters and modulating glutamatergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic systems.[7,9,10] Levetiracetam seems to be effective with respect to all the proposed pathophysiological theories of TS.[1] And as such, it has been found to be useful in almost all kinds of hyperkinetic disorders.[9] Acknowledgements Dr. Alaknanda Pandey, Dr. Faisal Siddiqui and Dr. Desiree Saimbi. Ajish Mangot, Satyakant Trivedi, Ravindra Kurrey, Vaibhav Dubey Department of Psychiatry, People’s College of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bhanpur, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India E‑mail: References 1. Waln O, Jankovic J. An update on tardive dyskinesia: From phenomenology to treatment. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2013;3. [Downloaded free from on Wednesday, November 12, 2014, IP:] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(5):557-558.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):708-9.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):697-9.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):699-700.
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    ABSTRACT: The site of origin of primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) is quite varied and has significant influence on the prognosis. We report a case of intracranial peripheral PNET/Ewing's sarcoma arising from the superior tentorial surface in a 13-year-old girl. Gross total excision of the tumor was done. We have discussed the distinction between central nervous system PNET (CNS PNET) and Intracranial Peripheral PNET (pPNET/ES) as their treatment and prognosis varies radically. A review of literature shows that prognosis is better in intracranial pPNET/ES.
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):669-73.
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    ABSTRACT: Flow diversion is a novel method of therapy wherein an endoluminal sleeve, the flow diverter stent is placed across the neck of complex aneurysms to curatively reconstruct abnormal vasculature. We present the first Indian single center experience with the pipeline embolization device (PED) and 6 months follow-up results of 5 patients. Five complex or recurrent intracranial aneurysms in five patients were treated with PED. The patients were followed-up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after 4 weeks and conventional angiography after 6 months. Feasibility, complications, clinical outcome, early 1-month MRA and 6 months conventional angiographic follow-up results were analyzed. Of the five aneurysms treated, four were in the anterior circulation and one in the posterior circulation. All five patients were treated with a single PED in each, and additionally coils were used in one patient. At 1-month MRA follow-up, complete occlusion was seen in 2 (40%) of the five cases. Post 6 months conventional angiography showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac in all five cases (100%). Side branch ostia were covered in three patients, all of which were patent (100%). There was no incidence of major neurological morbidity or mortality. One patient (20%) who had basilar top aneurysm experienced minor neurological disability after 5 days which partially improved. Pipeline embolization device for complex and recurrent aneurysms is technically feasible, safe, offers low complication rate, and definitive vascular reconstruction. PED can be used without fear of occlusion of covered eloquent side branches and perforators.
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):618-24.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):683-4.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):700-1.
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    ABSTRACT: Colloid cysts are common cysts are often located in the anterior third ventricle and septum pellucidum location is extremely rare. Cysts in septum pellucidum can be missed at surgery because of their unusual location. We describe three patients with colloid cysts in the septum pellucidum, with two in the cavum septum pellucidum. Various surgical implications of this unusual location are enumerated.
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):665-8.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):703-4.
  • Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):677-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Pattern of injuries among drivers, pillion riders and co-passengers of two and four-wheeler vehicles need to be separately evaluated and addressed. A prospective study was conducted on 1545 patients (1314 males and 231 females) between 01 April, 2011 to 31 December, 2011, to evaluate the profile of head injury patients due to road traffic accidents, admitted in Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh. Proper subset of cases and controls with or without helmet, seat belt and history of alcohol intake were compared. Data was analyzed to evaluate the incidence, severity, pattern of head injury and outcome of the patients. Male drivers of two-wheeler vehicular accidents (71.4%) were most commonly injured. Among helmeted patients, only 4.8% sustained severe head injuries compared to 23.7% of un-helmeted patients. Only full coverage helmets were effective in preventing head injury. Among helmeted patients with a proper chinstrap, 2.6% suffered critical injuries compared to 14% of non-strapped ones. In 142 patients, helmet was at position after the crash and only 0.7% of these sustained severe head injuries. Drunk driving was noticed among 19% and 6% of two- and four-wheeler vehicular occupants, respectively. Only 7.5% of the four-wheel vehicular occupants were wearing seat belt at the time of accident. Injury profile of two- and four-wheeler vehicular accident victims is entirely different. A ready supply of affordable helmets of appropriate quality and strict legislation for safety constraints is the need of the hour for road safety.
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):610-7.
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    ABSTRACT: Growth and development of neuroepidemiology in India during the last four decades has been documented highlighting the historical milestones. The prevalence rates of the spectrum of neurological disorders from different regions of the country ranged from 967-4,070 with a mean of 2394 per 100000 population, providing a rough estimate of over 30 million people with neurological disorders (excluding neuroinfections and traumatic injuries). Prevalence and incidence rates of common disorders including epilepsy, stroke, Parkinson's disease and tremors determined through population-based surveys show considerable variation across different regions of the country. The need for a standardized screening questionnaire, uniform methodology for case ascertainment and diagnosis is an essential requiste for generating robust national data on neurological disorders. Higher rates of prevalence of neurological disorders in rural areas, 6-8 million people with epilepsy and high case fatality rates of stroke (27-42%) call for urgent strategies to establish outreach neurology services to cater to remote and rural areas, develop National Epilepsy Control Program and establish stroke units at different levels of health care pyramid.
    Neurology India 11/2014; 62(6):588-98.