Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie (N-S ARCH PHARMACOL)

Publisher: Springer Verlag

Journal description

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology was founded in 1873 as "Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie" by B. Naunyn O. Schmiedeberg E. Klebs. In cooperation with colleagues it was edited by L. Krehl W. Straub W. Heubner and others; from Vol. 208 No. 2 on edited in cooperation with the Deutsche Pharmakologische Gesellschaft. Vols. 1-158 (1930) Leipzig F.C.W. Vogel Vols. 159-196 (1940) Berlin F.C.W. Vogel; from Vol. 197 on Berlin Springer. Vols. 110 to 253 "Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie"; from Vol. 254 (1966) to 263 "Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv für Pharmakologie und experimentelle Pathologie"; from Vol. 264 (1969) to 271 "Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv für Pharmakologie"; from Vol. 272 (1972) "Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology". As of Vol. 343 (1991) edited on behalf of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie; from Vol. 349 (1994) Deutsche Gesellschaft für experimentelle und klinische Pharmakologie und Toxikologie e.V.

Current impact factor: 2.36

Impact Factor Rankings

2015 Impact Factor Available summer 2015
2013 / 2014 Impact Factor 2.36
2012 Impact Factor 2.147
2011 Impact Factor 2.647
2010 Impact Factor 2.5
2009 Impact Factor 2.631
2008 Impact Factor 2.83
2007 Impact Factor 2.161
2006 Impact Factor 2.779
2005 Impact Factor 2.098
2004 Impact Factor 1.963
2003 Impact Factor 2.101
2002 Impact Factor 2.566
2001 Impact Factor 2.472
2000 Impact Factor 2.869
1999 Impact Factor 2.414
1998 Impact Factor 2.2
1997 Impact Factor 2.492
1996 Impact Factor 2.679
1995 Impact Factor 3.04
1994 Impact Factor 2.813
1993 Impact Factor 3
1992 Impact Factor 3.227

Impact factor over time

Impact factor

Additional details

5-year impact 2.23
Cited half-life 0.00
Immediacy index 0.53
Eigenfactor 0.01
Article influence 0.62
Website Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology website
Other titles Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology (Online), Archives of pharmacology
ISSN 0028-1298
OCLC 43450808
Material type Document, Periodical, Internet resource
Document type Internet Resource, Computer File, Journal / Magazine / Newspaper

Publisher details

Springer Verlag

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  • Classification
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Publications in this journal

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Members of the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a host of lung diseases. The role of these multimodal cation channels in lung homeostasis is thought to stem from their ability to respond to changes in mechanical stimuli (i.e., shear and stretch), as well as to various protein and lipid mediators. The vanilloid subfamily member, TRPV4, which is highly expressed in the majority of lung cell types, is well positioned for critical involvement in several pulmonary conditions, including edema formation, control of pulmonary vascular tone, and the lung response to local or systemic inflammatory insults. In recent years, several pharmacological inhibitors of TRPV4 have been developed, and the current generation of compounds possess high affinity and specificity for TRPV4. As such, we have now entered a time where the therapeutic potential of TRPV4 inhibitors can be systematically examined in a variety of lung diseases. Due to this fact, this review seeks to describe the current state of the art with respect to the role of TRPV4 in pulmonary homeostasis and disease, and to highlight the current and future roles of TRPV4 inhibitors in disease treatment. We will first focus on genera aspects of TRPV4 structure and function, and then will discuss known roles for TRPV4 in pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary edema formation, pulmonary hypertension, and acute lung injury. Finally, both promising aspects and potential pitfalls of the clinical use of TRPV4 inhibitors will be examined.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 03/2015; 388(4):421. DOI:10.1007/s00210-014-1058-1
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    ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely linked to insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and cytokine imbalance. Boswellic acids, a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules that are produced by plants in the genus Boswellia, has been traditionally used for the treatment of a variety of diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effect of boswellic acids in a model of diet-induced NAFLD in rats in comparison to the standard insulin sensitizer, pioglitazone. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce NAFLD. Starting from week 5, rats received boswellic acids (125 or 250 mg/kg) or pioglitazone parallel to the HFD. Feeding with HFD induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in rats. In addition, liver index, insulin resistance index, activities of liver enzymes, and serum lipids deviated from normal. Further, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cyclooxygenase 2 were elevated; this was associated with an increase in hepatic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Rats treated with boswellic acids (125 or 250 mg/kg) or pioglitazone showed improved insulin sensitivity and a reduction in liver index, activities of liver enzymes, serum TNF-α and IL-6 as well as hepatic iNOS expression and HNE formation compared to HFD group. Furthermore, at the cellular level, boswellic acids (250 mg/kg) ameliorated the expression of thermogenesis-related mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 in white adipose tissues. Data from this study indicated that boswellic acids might be a promising therapy in the clinical management of NAFLD if appropriate safety and efficacy data are available.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1102-9
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    ABSTRACT: Docetaxel was the first chemotherapeutic agent to increase survival time in patients with androgen-resistant prostate cancer. However, it provides only a modest increase in survival and is associated with significant toxicity. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify potential adjunct therapies. Given the key role of autophagy in both tumour survival and chemoresistance, the impact of autophagy modulation on docetaxel toxicity was tested in vitro. PC-3 and LNCaP cells were pre-treated with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (5 mM) and then exposed to various concentrations (0-100 μM) of docetaxel. Cytoxic effects of docetaxel were measured using resazurin reduction to resorufin, whilst autophagy and apoptosis was measured using monodansylcadaverine, annexin V and caspase-3, respectively. Docetaxel produced significant toxicity in PC-3 cells but was not toxic to LNCaP cells. Pre-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (5 mM) significantly protected PC-3 cells against docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity, increased autophagosome formation and apoptosis measured using monodansylcadaverine, annexin V and caspase-3 fluorescence, respectively. In contrast, 3-methyladenine was toxic by itself in LNCaP cells and also increased autophagic vesicle formation and apoptosis but did not influence docetaxel toxicity in these cells. These paradoxical effects of 3-methyladenine were largely independent of reactive oxygen species production. We show here that modulation of autophagy may influence docetaxel-induced toxicity in prostate cancer cells and these effects may differ between cell lines.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1104-7
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to chemotherapy is the major problem in cancer treatment. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the tumor arising from the bile duct epithelium. The disease is characterized by very poor prognosis and rarely responds to current radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Transcription factor Nrf2 is activated by oxidative stress and electrophiles and contributes to cytoprotection in normal cells as well as cancer cells. Inhibition of Nrf2 can enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents, although this sensitizing effect is variable depending on the cancers. In this study, we selected three CCA cell lines with different Nrf2 expression levels, detected by immunocytofluorescent staining. Chemotherapeutic agents variably induced the expression of antioxidant and xenobiotic metabolizing genes including Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, GCLC, and GSTP1. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression by siRNA suppressed protein expression of Nrf2-regulated genes and enhanced the sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine of CCA cells in both high and low basal Nrf2 expression. Cells with more resistance to chemotherapeutic agents gained more chemosensitizing effect by Nrf2 inhibition than the sensitive cells. The IC50 of the chemotherapeutic agents was also significantly reduced and the maximal cytotoxic effect was increased. Suppression of Nrf2 signaling may be a strategy to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy to CCA.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1101-x
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    ABSTRACT: 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a major reactive aldehyde formed by lipid peroxidation, and it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases, including diabetes mellitus. In this study, we examined the effects of 4-HNE on the vasodilatory mechanisms of rat retinal arterioles. The retinal vasodilator responses were assessed by measuring the diameter of retinal arterioles in the fundus images. Intravitreal injection of 4-HNE significantly prevented the vasodilation of retinal arterioles induced by the β2-adrenoceptor agonist salbutamol but not the nitric oxide donor (±)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (NOR3). Iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of large-conductance KCa (BKCa) channels, significantly reduced the salbutamol-induced vasodilation of retinal arterioles. The vasodilator effect of BMS-191011, a BKCa channel opener, on retinal arterioles was significantly attenuated by 4-HNE. These results suggest that 4-HNE attenuates retinal vasodilator responses to β2-adrenoceptor agonists through the impairment of the BKCa pathway. The direct effect of 4-HNE on retinal blood vessels may, therefore, contribute to the retinal vascular dysfunction observed in patients with diabetes mellitus.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1099-0
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    ABSTRACT: Ischemic-reperfusion (I/R) is a major event in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease that leads to higher rate of mortality. The study has been designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of vitamin P and digoxin in I/R-induced myocardial infarction in isolated rat heart preparation by using Langendorff apparatus. The animals were treated with vitamin P (50 and 100 mg/kg; p.o.) and digoxin (500 μg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. Digoxin served as a positive control in the present study. On the sixth day, the heart was harvested and induced to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion using Langendorff apparatus. The coronary effluent was collected at different time intervals (i.e. basal, 1, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 min.) for the assessment of myocardial contractility function. In addition, creatine kinase-M and B subunits (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1) and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity along with oxidative tissue biomarkers (i.e. thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH)) changes were estimated. The I/R of myocardium produced decrease in coronary flow rate; increase in CK-MB, LDH1 and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity along with increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH levels as compared to normal group. The treatment with vitamin P (100 mg/kg) and digoxin (500 μg/kg) have produced a significant (p < 0.05) ameliorative effect against I/R induced above functional, metabolic and tissue biomarkers changes. Vitamin P has an ameliorative potential against I/R induced myocardial functional changes. It may be due to its free radical scavenging and anti-infarct property via inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. Therefore, it can be used as a potential therapeutic medicine for the management of cardiovascular disorders.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1103-8
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    ABSTRACT: In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat model of sepsis (endotoxaemia), we previously demonstrated that pravastatin reduced microvascular inflammation via increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase III (NOSIII). This study aimed to determine whether atorvastatin, the most commonly used statin for lowering cholesterol, exerted beneficial pleiotropic effects via a similar mechanism. The mesenteric microcirculation of anaesthetised male Wistar rats (308 ± 63 g, n = 54) was prepared for fluorescent intravital microscopy. Over 4 h, animals received intravenous (i.v.) administration of either saline, LPS (150 μg kg(-1) h(-1)) or LPS + atorvastatin (200 μg kg(-1) s.c., 18 and 3 h before LPS), with/without the non-specific NOS inhibitor L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) (10 μg kg(-1) h(-1)) or NOSII-specific inhibitor 1400 W (20 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). LPS decreased mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (4 h, control 113 ± 20 mmHg; LPS 70 ± 23 mmHg), being reversed by atorvastatin (105 ± 3 mmHg) (p < 0.05). LPS also increased macromolecular leak measured after 100 mg kg(-1) of i.v FITC-BSA (arbitrary grey level adjacent to venules), which again was attenuated by atorvastatin (control 1.9 ± 4.0; LPS 12.0 ± 2.4; LPS + atorvastatin 4.5 ± 2.2) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry identified that atorvastatin decreased LPS-induced upregulation of endothelial cell NOSII expression, but NOSIII was unchanged in all groups. Atorvastatin improved MAP and reduced microvascular inflammation during endotoxaemia, associated with a reduction of pro-inflammatory NOSII. This differs from previous studies, whereby pravastatin increased expression of NOSIII. Thus preoperative statins have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects during endotoxaemia, but careful consideration must be given to the specific statin being used.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1100-y
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary heart disease remains a leading cause of death in the world. The demand on targeting therapy to reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is still urgent. The pathogenesis of I/R-induced myocardial injury is complicated. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammatory response activation participate in the development of I/R injury. Cell death occurs and finally leads to myocardial infarction. A newly phenolic aporphine alkaloid derivative, TM-1-1DP, was synthesized in our team. We aimed to investigate the effect of novel compound on myocardial I/R injury. Rats were subjected to 1-h coronary artery occlusion and followed by 2-h reperfusion. Adult rat cardimoycyte was isolated for the cell study, and H2O2 was added into culture medium to induce ROS stress. As compared to the sham group, TM-1-1DP-treated rats had better cardiac performance in association with less infarct size and cardiac injury markers after myocardial I/R. The protective effect is associated with the inhibition of inflammatory response, cell death-related pathway (caspase-3 and TNF-α), and the activation of AKT-eNOS pathway. The finding was further coincided with the cell study. TM-1-1DP treatment significantly alleviated ROS production and improved cell viability in cardiomyocyte after H2O2 exposure. The action of TM-1-1DP is via a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent manner, since NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, abolished the protective effect. We provide a new insight into this therapeutic potential for phenolic aporphine alkaloid in myocardial I/R.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1098-1
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor impairments and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. FLZ (formulated as: N-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2, 5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic derivative of squamosamide from a Chinese herb and has been proven to protect dopaminergic neurons in subacute PD models. However, whether FLZ has a neuroprotective effect on chronic PD model is still unknown. The present study was designed to verify the neuroprotection of FLZ on chronic PD mouse model induced by MPTP combined with probenecid (MPTP/p). The results showed that treatment of mice with FLZ for 9 weeks significantly improved motor behavior and dopaminergic neuronal function of mice injected with MPTP/p. The beneficial effects of FLZ attributed to the elevation of dopaminergic neuron number, dopamine level, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity, as well as decrease of α-synuclein (α-Syn) expression, α-Syn phosphorylation, nitration, and aggregation. Moreover, FLZ decreased the interaction between α-Syn and TH, which eventually improved dopaminergic neuronal function. Mechanistic study demonstrated that FLZ increased Akt and mTOR phosphorylation, suggesting that FLZ activated Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and this might be involved in the neuroprotection of FLZ. The present results provided more elaborate in vivo evidences to support the neuroprotective effect of FLZ on dopaminergic neurons of chronic PD mouse model and the potential of FLZ to be developed as new drug to treat PD.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1094-5
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    ABSTRACT: TRPM8 has been implicated in pain and migraine based on dorsal root- and trigeminal ganglion-enriched expression, upregulation in preclinical models of pain, knockout mouse studies, and human genetics. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic potential in pain of AMG2850 ((R)-8-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-((S)-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-1,7-naphthyridine-7(8H)-carboxamide), a small molecule antagonist of TRPM8 by in vitro and in vivo characterization. AMG2850 is potent in vitro at rat TRPM8 (IC90 against icilin activation of 204 ± 28 nM), highly selective (>100-fold IC90 over TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels), and orally bioavailable (F po > 40 %). When tested in a skin-nerve preparation, AMG2850 blocked menthol-induced action potentials but not mechanical activation in C fibers. AMG2850 exhibited significant target coverage in vivo in a TRPM8-mediated icilin-induced wet-dog shake (WDS) model in rats (at 10 mg/kg p.o.). However, AMG2850 did not produce a significant therapeutic effect in rat models of inflammatory mechanical hypersensitivity or neuropathic tactile allodynia at doses up to 100 mg/kg. The lack of efficacy suggests that either TRPM8 does not play a role in mediating pain in these models or that a higher level of target coverage is required. The potential of TRPM8 antagonists as migraine therapeutics is yet to be determined.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(4). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1090-9
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    ABSTRACT: This theme issue of Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology contains six review articles covering recent advances in our understanding of the potential pharmacological roles of different transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel subtypes that can be targeted for the therapeutic use. Numerous review articles and several book chapters in recent years have extensively covered the advances in modulation of TRPV1, founding member of TRP family. The intended purpose of this theme issue was to summarize the knowledge about other less studied TRP subtypes. For comparison, as of early January 2015, SciFinder identifies 8814 publications for TRPV1, but only 2410 for TRPA1, 1759 for TRPV4, and 1608 publications for TRPM8.Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) can be activated by cold temperatures (8-25 °C) and cooling agents such as menthol and icilin. Several studies with TRPM8 knockout mice demonstrated significant deficiencies to cold responses including cold allodynia. ...
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(4). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1089-2
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    ABSTRACT: Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) are plant-derived compounds that are abundant in plants of the Asteraceae family and posses a broad spectrum of biological activities, ranging from anti-inflammatory, phytotoxic, antibacterial, and antifungal to cytotoxic/anticancer. In recent years, anticancer properties of these compounds and molecular mechanisms of their action have been studied extensively on numerous cell lines and also on experimental animals. SLs have been shown to disrupt cellular redox balance and induce oxidative stress in cancer cells. Oxidative stress is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn can promote many aspects of cancer development and progression. On the other hand, ROS, which initiate apoptosis via the mitochondrial-dependent pathway, can also be used to kill cancer cells, if they can be generated in cancer. One of the most important regulators of the redox equilibrium in the cells is reduced glutathione (GSH). In cancer cells, GSH levels are higher than in normal cells. Therefore, SL can induce apoptosis of cancer cells by decreasing intracellular GSH levels. The use of SL which can affect intracellular redox signaling pathways can be considered an interesting approach for cancer treatment. In this review, we give a brief description of the mechanisms and pathways involved in oxidative stress-induced anticancer activity of SL.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1096-3
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    ABSTRACT: Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, can acutely induce fasting insulin resistance, but we do not know whether it is able to modulate the meal-induced insulin sensitization (MIS). Two main experimental groups (control and olanzapine-treated) were created with two subgroups (fasted and re-fed) within each. After oral vehicle/olanzapine administration, the first meal size and duration and the total amount of consumed food was recorded in conscious rats. Then, under anaesthesia, the carotid artery and jugular vein was prepared and cannulated to obtain samples for blood glucose and hormone determination as well as for insulin/glucose infusion, respectively. Basal insulin sensitivity and MIS was determined by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) calculation and by rapid insulin sensitivity test, respectively. In fasted animals, olanzapine increased blood glucose and plasma insulin and reduced basal insulin sensitivity, but it failed to modify other hormone levels. Postprandial leptin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) levels increased, and ghrelin level decreased significantly (p < 0.05) both in vehicle- and olanzapine-treated groups, but plasma insulin increased only in vehicle-treated animals. Furthermore, decrement in ghrelin level was attenuated in olanzapine-treated animals compared to controls. There was no significant change in the first meal size and duration or in the total amount of food consumed. Olanzapine had no effect on the MIS. We demonstrated that olanzapine can induce insulin resistance without weight gain in healthy rats. Furthermore, the MIS was preserved after acute olanzapine treatment. The blunted postprandial ghrelin and insulin response could contribute to the effect of olanzapine on feeding behaviour. Pharmacological induction of MIS may improve the olanzapine-induced insulin resistance.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1091-8
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    ABSTRACT: The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is a nonselective cation channel belonging to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. It is predominantly expressed in sensory neurons and serves as an irritant sensor for a plethora of electrophilic compounds. Recent studies suggest that TRPA1 is involved in pain, itch, and respiratory diseases, and TRPA1 antagonists have been actively pursued as therapeutic agents. Here, we review the recent progress, unsettled issues, and challenges in TRPA1 research and drug discovery.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; 388(4). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1088-3
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    ABSTRACT: Intravesical mitomycin C (MMC) is commonly used to treat bladder cancer but is associated with local adverse effects. Here, we investigate the effects of MMC on release of urothelial mediators and production of inflammatory cytokines. Recovery and the effects of repeat treatment were also investigated. Urothelial cells were treated with MMC for 2 h at 37 °C. Immediately, 24 h and 7 days following MMC treatment, effects were assessed in terms of changes in ATP, acetylcholine and PGE2 release, and the presence of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in incubation medium. Endpoints were also assessed 7 days after repeat MMC treatment. Immediately following MMC treatment at the clinical concentration (2 mg/mL), stretch-induced ATP release was significantly decreased, basal acetylcholine release was enhanced, while basal PGE2 was depressed and response to stretch increased. Twenty-four hours after treatment, basal acetylcholine was significantly increased ([MMC] ≥0.0002 mg/mL) and basal PGE2 enhanced (0.02 mg/mL). A 326-fold increase in interleukin-8 secretion and significant increase in nitric oxide release were also detected at 24 h. One week after single and repeat MMC treatment, urothelial ATP, acetylcholine and PGE2 had recovered while the increase in nitric oxide and interleukin-8 was still evident. These results indicate that urothelial mediator release is affected by MMC treatment with full recovery by 1 week. However, a concurrent increase in secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 and nitric oxide was also detected 24 h following treatment, which were still evident after the recovery period. These changes may play a role in the local adverse effects associated with intravesical MMC treatment.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1092-7
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    ABSTRACT: The specific interaction between G-protein-coupled receptors and ligand is the starting point for downstream signaling. Fenoterol stereoisomers were successfully used to probe ligand-specific activation (functional selectivity) of the β2-adrenoceptor (β2AR) (Reinartz et al. 2015). In the present study, we extended the pharmacological profile of fenoterol stereoisomers using β2AR-Gsα fusion proteins in agonist and antagonist competition binding assays. Dissociations between binding affinities and effector potencies were found for (R,S')- and (S,S')-isomers of 4'-methoxy-1-naphthyl-fenoterol. Our data corroborate former studies on the importance of the aminoalkyl moiety of fenoterol derivatives for functional selectivity.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1086-5
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    ABSTRACT: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor channels are implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and a large number of pharmacological agents have been introduced that target the receptor via diverse mechanisms of action. Amongst others, subunit selectivity (in particular for the NR2B receptor subunit) and rapid unblocking kinetics have been put forward as favourable pharmacological properties of NMDA receptor-targeting drugs. Here, we describe a pharmacological characterization of human recombinant NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes in an electrophysiological set-up. Using this approach, we compare inhibitor potencies of several known NMDA receptor ligands as well as unblocking kinetic properties of selected compounds. All compounds tested had similar potencies at receptors containing NR2A or NR2B receptors with the exception of traxoprodil, which was selective for NR2B. The rank order of potency was (+)MK-801 > phencyclidine (PCP) ≈ traxoprodil > memantine ≈ ketamine > duloxetine. In line with its proposed rapid dissociation properties, the relatively well-tolerated drug memantine exhibits markedly faster unblocking than ketamine and PCP, similar to the low-affinity compound, duloxetine. Electrophysiological recording in Xenopus oocytes thus allows a relatively convenient comparison of key pharmacological parameters at recombinant human NMDA receptors.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1085-6
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the antistress effect of furosemide (sodium potassium chloride co-transporter inhibitor) in immobilization and foot-shock stress-induced behavioral alterations in the mice. Acute stress was induced in Swiss albino mice either by applying electric foot shocks of 0.6-mA intensity of 1-s duration with 30-s inter-shock interval for 1 h or immobilizing for 150 min. The acute stress-induced behavioral changes were assessed by using actophotometer, hole board, open-field, and social interaction tests. Biochemically, the corticosterone levels were estimated in the serum as a biomarker of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Acute stress resulted in the development of behavioral alterations and elevation of the corticosterone levels. Intraperitoneal administration of furosemide (25 and 50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated immobilization and foot-shock stress-induced behavioral changes along with normalization of the corticosterone levels. It may be concluded that furosemide produces beneficial effects in reestablishing the behavioral and biochemical alterations in immobilization and foot-shock-induced acute stress in mice.
    Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie 01/2015; 388(5). DOI:10.1007/s00210-015-1084-7